Craig Kinsley

Craig Kinsley
University of Richmond | UR · Department of Psychology-Neuroscience

PhD

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78
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Publications

Publications (78)
Article
It is becoming clear that the female brain has an inherent plasticity that is expressed during reproduction. The changes that occur benefit the offspring, which in turn secures the survival of the mother's genetic legacy. Thus, the onset of maternal motivation involves basic mechanisms from genetic expression profiles, to hormone release, to hormon...
Article
Adaptation virtually defines survival. For mammals, arguably, no other developmental milestone is exemplified by - nor more reliant on - the sudden and dramatic behavioral alterations observed in the maternal female, which rapidly must undergo change in order to express a large suite of proper and effective maternal behaviors. As pregnancy progress...
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In previous laboratory investigations, we have identified enhanced cognition and reduced stress in parous rats, which are likely adaptations in mothers needing to efficiently exploit resources to maintain, protect and provision their immature offspring. Here, in a series of seven behavioral tests on rats, we examined a natural interface between cog...
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Introduction: Numerous studies employing various animal models have found that perinatal stress, encountered in utero during sensitive developmental stages or shortly after birth, disrupts both sexual differentiation and sexual behavior in offspring. The biochemical, cellular, genetic and epigenetic events which are involved in the organismal resp...
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Herein we discuss the effects of hormones on reproduction, but with a focus on the ripples that emanate from the main effects. That is, the role of hormones in reproductive events is both well-known and well accepted; less studied and understood are effects that appear to be ancillary to the primary objectives of the hormonal effects, which support...
Article
Today’s burgeoning science of the mind, neuroscience stands on the shoulders of giants, great minds that have madehistory and still influence present day neurobiology because the strength of their contributions was so widespread andenduring. Our contribution will discuss some of the major forebears of neuroscience, and their continued contribution...
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The hormones of pregnancy and lactation (e.g., estrogen, progesterone, and oxytocin) have been shown to modulate learning, memory, and the restructuring of brain areas not traditionally associated with maternal behavior. Given the impact of reproductive experience on plasticity of brain areas such as the hippocampus, kainic acid (KA) was used in th...
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Objective. To discuss the brain and behavioral modifications that accompany the onset of motherhood. Design. Following a consideration of the evolutionary significance of the emergence of nurturing and caring responses in mammals, a thorough analysis of neurobiological modifications thought to maintain maternal responses in both rodent models and h...
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Prenatal stress disrupts normal sexual differentiation and behavior with concomitant alterations in brain development; however, its effects on the cytoarchitecture of neurons in the sexually dimorphic medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the hypothalamus is not known. Morphometric analysis of the mPOA of adult rats showed sex differences as neurons from...
Article
The hormones and experiences of pregnancy, parturition and lactation have been shown to dramatically remodel the female rat's hippocampus, potentially enhancing behaviours critical for meeting the increased demands of motherhood. Previous work in our laboratory has also suggested that pup exposure, apart from pregnancy and lactation, constitutes an...
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Full-text available
Reproductive experience in female rats modifies acquired behaviors, induces long-lasting functional neuroadaptations and can also modify spatial learning and memory. The present study supports and expands this knowledge base by employing the Morris water maze, which measures spatial memory. Age-matched young adult (YNG) nulliparous (NULL; nonmated)...
Article
In the rat, the change from a virgin/nulliparous female to the maternal animal takes place at many levels. A subtle developmental wave washes over the female nervous system and transforms her from largely self-centred to offspring-directed, from personal care and protection to care of genetically-related offspring, from indifference to ardour. Such...
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Full-text available
Rodent paternal models provide unique opportunities to investigate the emergence of affiliative social behavior in mammals. Using biparental and uniparental Peromyscus species (californicus and maniculatus, respectively) we assessed paternal responsiveness by exposing males to biological offspring, unrelated conspecific pups, or familiar brothers f...
Article
Although aging is inexorable, aging well is not. From the perspective of research in rats and complementary models, reproductive experience has significant effects; indeed, benefits, which include better-than-average cognitive skills, a slowing of the slope of decline, and a healthier brain and/or nervous system well later into life. Work from our...
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Full-text available
Recently, there has been a spate of articles detailing the many and multifaceted alterations that define the Maternal Brain. The article by Kim et al. (2010) has provided a new "window" into the brain of the mother by the use of MRI showing structural changes in major regions over the period of the first few months, during which the intimate relati...
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Full-text available
Effective coping strategies build resilience against stress-induced pathology. In the current study, young male rats were categorized as active, passive, or variable copers by observing their responses to being gently restrained on their backs (i.e., the back-test). The rats were subsequently exposed to chronic unpredictable stress, which included...
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Full-text available
The present work examines the relationship between reproductive experience (comprising breeding, parturition, and lactation) and the behavioral and hormonal processes of fear and stress in the female laboratory rat. Previous research has indicated that reproductive experience functions to decrease the female's stress response in potentially harmful...
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Full-text available
As a female transitions into motherhood, many neurobiological adaptations are required to meet the demands presented by her offspring. In addition to the traditional maternal responses (e.g. crouching, nursing, retrieving, grooming), our laboratories have observed several behavioural modifications accompanying parity, especially in the areas of for...
Article
Maternal behavior is multidimensional, encompassing many facets beyond the direct care of the young. Formerly unfamiliar activities are required of the mother. These include behaviors such as retrieving, grouping, crouching-over, and licking young, and protecting them against predators, together with enhancements in other behaviors, such as nest bu...
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As maternal mammals entered the evolutionary scene, the unique responses of nursing conjoined with maternal care, audiovocal communication for maintaining mother-offspring contact, and play behavior became staples of the mammalian behavioral repertoire. The consideration of neuroeconomics and neural areas devoted to adaptive choices suggests that a...
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Full-text available
In the current investigation, predispositions for coping styles (i.e., passive, flexible, and active) were determined in juvenile male rats. In subsequent behavioral tests, flexible copers exhibited more active responses. In another study, animals were exposed to chronic stress and flexible coping rats had lower levels of corticosteroids. Focusing...
Article
Short-term fluctuations in steroid hormones such as estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) can affect the concentration of hippocampal dendritic spines in adult, cycling nulliparous female rats. Pregnancy is characterized by a significantly longer duration of substantially elevated E2 and P compared to the estrous cycle. Thus, even greater changes tha...
Article
New research by the scientists have suggested that hormone-induced alterations of the female brain may make mothers more vigilant, nurturing, and attuned to the needs of their young, as well as improve their spatial memory and learning. The hormones of pregnancy rev up the medial preoptic area (mPOA) neurons in anticipation of birth and the demands...
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Full-text available
From 5 to 22 months of age, cognitive and emotional responses of nulliparous, primiparous, and multiparous rats were assessed using a dry land maze (DLM) and an elevated plus-maze (EPM) at 4-month intervals. Parous rats exhibited improved spatial memory in the probe and competitive versions of the DLM, and more exploration in the EPM and a novel st...
Article
The current work examined spatial learning and memory (i.e., latencies to find a baited food well) in age-matched nulliparous, primiparous and multiparous (NULL, PRIM and MULT, zero, one or two pregnancies and lactations, respectively). We tested at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age in a dry land version of the Morris water maze (Main task), and at 12...
Article
The role of maternal experience (i.e., pregnancy and pup exposure) on rats' performance in a foraging task was assessed. Primiparous (P) and nulliparous (N) animals were either exposed to pups for 21 days (+) or received no pup exposure (-). Following habituation trials, all animals were tested in spatial and cued versions of the dry land maze (DLM...
Article
The female brain is a dynamic structure, which expresses its plasticity most readily following reproductive experience (RE). In Experiment 1, we generated nulliparous (NP), primiparous (PP), and multiparous (MP) females (none, one, and two litters, respectively). Two weeks following the weaning of the first/second six-pup litters, the age-matched M...
Article
There is a marked increase in the maternal behavior displayed by a female rat following pregnancy—due primarily to exposure to the gonadal hormones progesterone and estradiol (P and E2, respectively). We examined Golgi-Cox silver-stained, Vibratome-sectioned neurons visualized and traced using computerized microscopy and image analysis. In Part One...
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Although past research has indicated that stress and the accompanying increase in glucocorticoids compromises hippocampal neurons, little is known about the effect of stress on hippocampal glial cells. In the current study, male rats were exposed to activity-stress (A-S) for six days; this comprised housing with an activity wheel and restricted acc...
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Neural activity in rats is enhanced by pregnancy and the demands of rearing offspring.
Article
The hormones of pregnancy may prepare sites that regulate learning and memory, in much the same way that they stimulate the medial preoptic area to respond with maternal behavior when pups are born. This study investigated this idea by testing multiparous (animals that had given birth and lactated twice) and age-matched nulliparous (virgin) female...
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LAMBERT, K. G., S. K. BUCKELEW, G. STAFFISO-SANDOZ, S. GAFFGA, W. CARPENTER, J. FISHER AND C. H. KINSLEY. Activity-stress induces atrophy of apical dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in male rats. PHYSIOL BEHAV 65(1) 43–49, 1998.—Recently, researchers have demonstrated the damaging effect of restraint-stress on hippocampal neurons. The purp...
Article
Morphine significantly impairs maternal behavior; naloxone, an opiate antagonist, restores it. Maternal behavior is associated with c-fos expression, an immediate early gene product, in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of females. In two experiments, the effects of morphine-alone and morphine plus naloxone on the expression of c-fos were examined. O...
Article
As in the adult lactating female, opioids disrupt (and naloxone restores), parental behavior in juvenile rats (∼25 days of age). Because the preoptic area regulates the display of parental behavior in lactating females, we examined its parental behavior role in the juvenile rat. At 21 days of age, juvenile rats were implanted with bilateral cannula...
Article
In rodents and other mammals, prenatal stress disrupts both sexual differentiation and sexual behavior. The present study examined the area of the anterior division of the anterior commissure (the Aca) in coronal, thionin-stained sections of prenatally stressed (P-S), and control male and female rats. Pregnant rats were exposed to thrice-daily heat...
Article
In the present study, 28 pregnant rats were subjected to either light-restraint stress or no manipulation for days 14–21 of the gestational period. At approx. 50 days of age, both male (n = 16) and female (n = 16) prenatally stressed (PS) and control offspring were subjected to the activity stress (AS) paradigm. During this subsequent stress experi...
Article
Normal male rats display high levels of sexual activity when paired with sexually receptive females, a behavior regulated, in large part, by the medial preoptic area (MPOA). It has been documented that onset of c-fos proteins in the MPOA accompanies sexual behavior. Because prenatal stress (PS) demasculinizes sexual behavior in male rats, the prese...
Article
Systemic morphine exposure disrupts both maternal behavior (MB) and postpartum aggression, possibly through alterations of olfactory preferences [29]. In the current studies, adult female rats were timed mated and implanted with a unilateral cannula in the lateral ventricle. On day 5 or 6 of lactation, the females were infused with either morphine...
Article
Though much attention has been devoted to the behavioral and physiological consequences of cocaine abuse in offspring, little is known regarding the effects on the maternal behavior of the cocaine-exposed dam. We examined whether cocaine affects the initiation (late pregnancy) and/or maintenance (postpartum [PP]) phases of full maternal behavior (F...
Article
The present paper focuses on the development, broadly defined, of parental responsiveness. Both sexes can respond to young with parental behavior, in the absence of elaborate experimental manipulations; yet, through the combined natural forces of ontogeny and maturation, organizational influences of hormones, and adult modifications of neurochemica...
Article
The present study investigated the effect of gonadal hormones on activity, food consumption, severity of ulceration, weight loss, and survival duration in male and female rats exposed to the activity-stress (A-S) paradigm. Animals received either sham surgery or gonadectomy and were housed in activity wheels or standard suspended cages. Results ind...
Article
When exposed to young rats for a period of days, juvenile rats will respond with full parental behavior (FPB: retrieval and grouping of, and crouching over, pups). Because the parental behavior of juveniles is so robust, and because opiates have been shown to be involved in the regulation of parental behavior in adult animals, we examined morphine'...
Article
Prenatally stressed (P-S) males show reductions in male sexual behavior, medial preoptic area volume, and levels of circulating testosterone. We examined the luteinizing hormone (LH) response to the presence of a sexually receptive female, a known index of sexual arousal. Adult male offspring from mothers stressed on days 15–22 of pregnancy (thrice...
Article
Central or systemic administration of morphine disrupts maternal behavior in steroid-primed, pup-induced virgin and lactating rats. Morphine, the prototypical mu agonist, also interacts with different opioid receptor subtypes. The present study examined the effectiveness of five receptor-selective agonists, in addition to morphine, to disrupt mater...
Article
Administration of morphine sulfate (MS) to pregnancy-terminated and postpartum lactating female rats disrupts both maternal behavior and postpartum aggression. Since the display of these behaviors may be heavily dependent on olfactory cues provided by the stimulus animals (rat pups and adult male rats, respectively), we examined whether MS was affe...
Article
Prenatal stress has been associated with a number of behavioral consequences including altered sensitivity to exogenous opiates. In the present study, mu opiate receptors were compared in the 42-day-old offspring from females stressed on days 15–22 of gestation and from females who were unstressed controls. Membrane homogenates from the prenatal st...
Article
Parity (number of parturitions) affects the endogenous opioid system. Multiparous lactating rats are less sensitive to the effects of morphine (MOR) on maternal behavior (MB) and analgesia than primiparous lactating rats. In order to determine whether these changes in opiate sensitivity persist beyond the lactational state, the present study compar...
Article
Prenatal stress alters the endocrine as well as the behavioral responses of rodents. Because of the reductions in both estradiol-induced and ether-induced prolactin (Prl) release reported in prenatally-stressed (P-S) rats, we were interested in whether prenatal stress might also modify the prolactin response of male and female rats to a moderate st...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral and physiological responses differ between primiparous and multiparous female rodents. Specifically, multiparous females respond with the full repertoire of maternal behaviors much more rapidly and with greater intensity than their primiparous counterparts. Since opiates inhibit the expression of maternal behavior in postpartum rats and...
Article
Prenatal stress affects the expression of many opioid-regulated behaviors in adulthood, e.g., aggressive, maternal, regulatory, and sexual. In the present report we examined two forms of analgesia, morphine-induced (opioid receptor-mediated), and stress-induced [cold-water swim (CWS), nonopioid] analgesia in adult prenatally-stressed (P-S) male and...
Article
The repeated findings that levels of various male-typical behaviors (e.g., copulatory behavior and intermale aggression) are reduced in prenatally stressed (P-S) males, coupled with reports of effects on female physiology and behavior, prompted us to examine the maternal behaviors of P-S animals toward young. Sprague-Dawley female rats were timed-m...
Article
Reports of elevated prolactin (Prl) levels in juvenile rats of the same strain and approximate age, together with the established role of Prl in maternal behavior in adult female rats, prompted us to examine the possible involvement of Prl in the expression of maternal-like behavior in juvenile Sprague-Dawley males and females. Experiment 1 showed...
Article
Prenatal stress (heat and restraint) reduced pregnancy-induced and elevated postpartum aggression in Rockland-Swiss (R-S) albino female mice. Though prenatally-stressed females were indistinguishable from control animals with respect to parental behavior during the virgin state, the former displayed slightly lower levels of nestbuilding during earl...
Article
Prenatal stress (heat and restraint) significantly increased postpartum aggression (proportion of animals fighting and/or the intensity of the behavior) in C57BL/6J female mice and reduced the behavior in DBA/2J females. For intermale aggression, prenatal stress increased the behavior (intensity of aggression) in C57BL/6J males but did not affect a...
Article
Prenatal stress is a potent disruptor of the normal course of sexual differentiation, affecting both males and females. In the present study, we wished to examine a sexually dimorphic endocrine response, estradiol (E2)-induced prolactin (Prl) release, in prenatally-stressed (P-S) males and females. Sprague-Dawley female rats were timed-mated (+ spe...
Article
C57BL/6J male mice ordinarily kill neonatal mouse pups even if they are rendered androgen deficient by neonatal castration. Experiment 1 showed that adrenalectomy during adult life significantly decreased the tendency of neonatally gonadectomized males to kill newborns. Experiment 2 demonstrated that testosterone exposure (via silastic implants) du...
Article
Opiates and the endogenous opioids mediate maternal behavior and various forms of aggression. The present study sought to investigate the role of opiates in postpartum aggression (PPA), an intense form of agonistic behavior displayed by lactating females. Primiparous rats were screened for their PPA against adult males on day seven postpartum. They...
Article
In two longitudinal studies, intrauterine location of male and female Rockland-Swiss mice relative to fetuses of the same and opposite sex dramatically influenced body weight. In one study, body weight of males and females that were located in utero between two female fetuses (OM animals) or between two male fetuses (2M animals) was assessed from b...
Article
Pregnant Rockland-Swiss (R-S) mice were injected with sesame oil or 250 or 500 micrograms of progesterone (P) on Days 12 through 16 of gestation and the postpartum aggressive behavior of their female offspring was examined in adulthood. Both doses of P significantly increased the intensity of aggression (number of attacks) exhibited by the female o...
Article
Three experiments were conducted in order to assess the role of progesterone (P) in the aggressive behavior displayed by late pregnant Rockland-Swiss mice toward adult male intruders. In Experiment 1, hysterectomy on the 15th day of gestation reduced the aggressive behavior normally displayed by pregnant mice toward male intruders. In Experiment 2,...
Article
Female mice located in utero between two female fetuses exhibited higher levels of locomotor activity in adulthood than did females located between two male fetuses. Male mice, which were less active than females, also were influenced by intrauterine contiguity. Males located in utero between two female fetuses were more active than males which res...
Article
Heat and restraint stress reduced maternal food and water intake as well as body weight gain in pregnant Rockland-Swiss (R-S) Albino mice. Because maternal undernutrition during pregnancy has been reported to disrupt sociosexual behavior in male and female rodent offspring, prenatal stress effects may be modulated, in part, by alterations in essent...
Article
Prenatal stress (heat and restraint) significantly reduced intermale aggression (percentage of animals fighting and the number of attacks and lunges) in Rockland-Swiss Albino mice. These data, in combination with previous reports showing deficits in male copulatory responses, suggest that a wide array of androgen-dependent social behaviors may be i...
Article
Intrauterine position (IUP), the proximity of a fetus relative to same and opposite sex fetuses, is a reliable predictor of the direction and intensity of social and regulatory behaviors in adult male and female mice. In the present experiment, female Rockland-Swiss (R-S) mice who had resided in utero between two females (OM) and females who had re...
Article
Infanticide, the killing of young, is one of a number of sexually-dimorphic traits in mice that is dependent upon androgen stimulation during perinatal life and during adulthood, Genotype also influences infanticide in that males of some strains of mice (C57BL/6J) exhibit high levels of this behavior while males of other strains (DBA/2J) seldom kil...
Article
Rockland-Swiss (R-S) Albino female mice that receive suckling stimulation from young consume significantly more water and food and gain significantly more weight than dams without young. Excision of nipples (thelectomy) prevents postpartum increases in these consummatory behaviors and in body weight gain even in dams with extensive prior suckling e...
Article
Approximately 25–40% of 25–45 day old C57BL/6J females killed young (1–3 day old Rockland-Swiss (R-S) albino mouse pups) while similarly aged DBA/2J females were parental or ignored neonates. Beyond 45 days of age C57BL and DBA females seldom killed young. When ovariectomized at weaning and tested for infanticide at 65 days of age, DBA females rare...
Article
Healthy aged adul (24–26 months of age) and young adult (2–4 months of age) C57BL/6J male mice were assessed for intermale aggression, pup-killing behavior (infanticide), and circulating levels of testosterone (T). When compared to young adult male mice, aged adult males were highly variable in the exhibition of both androgen-dependent behaviors. S...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--State University of New York at Albany, Dept. of Psychology, 1985. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 67-90). Microfilm. s

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