Craig Hedge

Craig Hedge
Aston University · Department of Psychology

BA, MRes, PhD

About

40
Publications
15,817
Reads
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1,101
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2009 - present
University of Bristol
October 2008 - July 2009
University of Plymouth
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
October 2009 - August 2013
University of Bristol
Field of study
  • Experimental Psychology
October 2007 - August 2008
University of Sussex
Field of study
  • Psychological Methods
October 2004 - September 2007
The University of Winchester
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (40)
Preprint
Research in perception and attention has typically sought to evaluate cognitive mechanisms according to the average response to a manipulation. Recently, there has been a shift toward appreciating the value of individual differences and the insight gained by exploring the impacts of between-participant variation on human cognition. However, a recen...
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Full-text available
Response control or inhibition is one of the cornerstones of modern cognitive psychology, featuring prominently in theories of executive functioning and impulsive behavior. However, repeated failures to observe correlations between commonly applied tasks have led some theorists to question whether common response conflict processes even exist. A ch...
Article
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Rouder and Haaf (2021) propose that studying qualitative individual differences would be a useful tool for researchers. I agree with their central message. I use this commentary to highlight examples from the literature where similar questions have been asked, and how researchers have addressed them with existing tools. I also observe that while th...
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Background Successful communication is vital to quality of life. One group commonly facing speech and communication difficulties is individuals with intellectual disability (ID). A novel route to encourage clear speech is offered by mainstream smart speakers (e.g., Amazon Alexa and Google Home). Smart speakers offer four factors important for learn...
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Purpose Mainstream intelligent personal assistants (IPAs, e.g., Amazon Echo and Google Home) offer an unprecedented opportunity to enhance agency and wellbeing among vulnerable groups across health and social care. However, unintended consequences and barriers to use are possible. Materials and methods We conducted a mixed-methods semi-randomized...
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The broad construct of impulsivity is one that spans both personality and cognitive ability. Despite a common overarching construct, previous research has found no relationship between self-report measures of impulsivity and people's ability to inhibit pre-potent responses. Here, we use evidence accumulation models of choice reaction time tasks to...
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Background Persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a common chronic condition presenting in neurology and neuro-otology clinics. Symptoms lie on a spectrum in the general population. The cause is unknown and thought to involve interactions between visual and vestibular systems, but symptoms also correlate with anxiety and migraine.Object...
Preprint
Attentional control as an ability to regulate information processing during goal-directed behavior is critical to many theories of human cognition and thought to predict a large range of everyday behaviors. However, in recent years, failures to reliably assess individual differences in attentional control have sparked a debate concerning whether at...
Article
Abstract Aims Across three eye‐tracking studies, we examined how cigarette pack features affected visual attention and self‐reported avoidance of and reactance to warnings. Design Study 1: smoking status × warning immediacy (short‐term vs. long‐term health consequences) × warning location (top vs. bottom of pack). Study 2: smoking status × warning...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Across three eye‐tracking studies, we examined how cigarette pack features affected visual attention and self‐reported avoidance of and reactance to warnings. Design Study 1: smoking status × warning immediacy (short‐term vs. long‐term health consequences) × warning location (top vs. bottom of pack). Study 2: smoking status × warning framing...
Preprint
The construct of response control or response inhibition is one of the cornerstones of modern cognitive psychology, featuring prominently in theories of executive functioning and impulsive behaviour. However, repeated failures to observe correlations between commonly applied tasks have led some theorists to question whether common or overlapping re...
Preprint
Aims: Across three eye-tracking studies, we examined how the location, framing, immediacy, and severity of health warnings on branded cigarette packs affected visual attention and self-reported avoidance of and reactance to warnings. Design: Study 1: smoking status × warning immediacy (short-term vs. long-term) × warning location (top of back vs. b...
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Full-text available
Speed-accuracy trade-offs are often considered a confound in speeded choice tasks, but individual differences in strategy have been linked to personality and brain structure. We ask whether strategic adjustments in response caution are reliable, and whether they correlate across tasks and with impulsivity traits. In Study 1, participants performed...
Article
Any repeatedly performed action is characterized by endogenous variability, affecting both speed and accuracy-for a large part presumably caused by fluctuations in underlying brain and body states. The current research questions concerned (a) whether such states are accessible to us and (b) whether we can act upon this information to reduce variabi...
Article
Executive function (EF) decline is a consistent early sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among adults with Down syndrome (DS), which means that baseline measures of EF for individuals with DS are vital to allow detection of meaningful decline. We developed a framework to extract measures of three core components of EF (memory updating, inhibitory, an...
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Full-text available
Objective: Research using cognitive or perceptual tasks in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often relies on mean reaction time (RT) and accuracy derived from alternative-forced choice paradigms. However, these measures can confound differences in task-related processing efficiency with caution (i.e., preference for speed or accuracy). We examined wh...
Preprint
Full-text available
Any repeatedly performed action is characterised by endogenous variability, affecting both speed and accuracy - for a large part presumably caused by fluctuations in underlying brain and body states. The current research questions were: 1) whether such states are accessible to us, and 2) whether we can act upon this information to reduce variabilit...
Article
Full-text available
Older adults tend to have slower response times (RTs) than younger adults on cognitive tasks. This makes the examination of domain-specific deficits in aging difficult, as differences between conditions in raw RTs (RT costs) typically increase with slower average RTs. Here, we examine the mapping between 2 established approaches to dealing with thi...
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Full-text available
The underpinning assumption of much research on cognitive individual differences (or group differences) is that task performance indexes cognitive ability in that domain. In many tasks performance is measured by differences (costs) between conditions, which are widely assumed to index a psychological process of interest rather than extraneous facto...
Article
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Background: Alcohol impairs response inhibition; however, it remains contested whether such impairments affect a general inhibition system, or whether affected inhibition systems are embedded in, and specific to, each response modality. Further, alcohol-induced impairments have not been disambiguated between proactive and reactive inhibition mecha...
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Full-text available
Individual differences in cognitive paradigms are increasingly employed to relate cognition to brain structure, chemistry, and function. However, such efforts are often unfruitful, even with the most well established tasks. Here we offer an explanation for failures in the application of robust cognitive paradigms to the study of individual differen...
Article
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Action decisions are considered an emergent property of competitive response activations. As such, decision mechanisms are embedded in, and therefore may differ between, different response modalities. Despite this, the saccadic eye movement system is often promoted as a model for all decisions, especially in the fields of electrophysiology and mode...
Article
Previous work has examined whether immersive technologies can benefit learning in virtual environments, but the potential benefits of technology in this context are confounded by individual differences such as spatial ability. We assessed spatial knowledge acquisition in male and female participants using a technology not previously examined empiri...
Article
Context: Developed by Jacobson and Truax, the reliable change index (RCI) provides a measure of whether the change in an individual's score over time is within or beyond that which might be accounted for by measurement variability. In combination with measures of whether an individual's final score is closer to those of one population or another,...
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We examined the relationship between the attentional selection of perceptual information and of information in working memory (WM) through four experiments, using a spatial WM-updating task. Participants remembered the locations of two objects in a matrix and worked through a sequence of updating operations, each mentally shifting one dot to a new...
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Automatic detection of environmental change is a core component of attention. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an electrophysiological marker of this mechanism, has been studied prominently in the auditory domain, with cortical generators identified in temporal and frontal regions. Here, we combined electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magneti...
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Full-text available
Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health...
Article
To robustly examine the prevalence of the double peaked P1 visual evoked potential in healthy younger and older adult populations. The evoked potentials and spectral power changes to simple visual stimuli of 26 healthy younger (M=20.0y) and 26 healthy older adults (M=76.0y) were examined. Group and individual analyses showed a clear effect of age o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The neural generators of visual mismatch: A shared frontal generator across modalities Craig Hedge1, George Stothart1, Jenna Todd Jones1, Priscila Rojas Frias1, Kristopher Magee1, Ute Leonards1, Nina Kazanina1, Elanor Hinton1,2, Jamila Andoh1,2, Jade Thai1,2, Jonathan Brooks1,2;1University of Bristol, 2Bristol Clinical Research and Imaging Centre...
Article
Full-text available
Updating object locations in working memory (WM) is faster when the same object is updated twice in a row compared to updating another object. In analogy to repetition priming effects in perceptual attention, this object-switch cost in WM is thought of as being due to the necessity to shift attention internally from one object to another. However,...
Article
One of the most recent additions to the range of Immersive Virtual Environments has been the digital fulldome. However, not much empirical research has been conducted to explore its potential and benefits over other types of presentation formats. In this review we provide a framework within which to examine the properties of fulldome environments a...

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