Craig E Franklin

Craig E Franklin
The University of Queensland | UQ · School of Biological Sciences

About

378
Publications
95,223
Reads
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9,775
Citations
Citations since 2016
117 Research Items
5139 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (378)
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic ozone depletion has led to a 2-5% increase in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) levels reaching the earth's surface. Exposure to UVBR causes harmful DNA damage in amphibians, but this is minimized by DNA repair enzymes such as thermally sensitive cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD)-photolyase, with cool temperatures slowing repair rates....
Preprint
Full-text available
Anthropogenic ozone depletion has led to a 2-5% increase in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) levels reaching the earth's surface. Exposure to UVBR causes harmful DNA damage in amphibians, but this is minimized by DNA repair enzymes such as thermally sensitive CPD-photolyase, with cool temperatures slowing repair rates. It is unknown whether amphibian...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the contribution of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR; 280 – 315 nm) to amphibian population declines is being hindered by a lack of knowledge about how different acute UVBR exposure regimes during early life history stages might affect post-metamorphic stages via long-term carryover effects. We acutely exposed tadpoles of the Aust...
Article
Full-text available
Levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation have increased in many parts of the world due to the anthropogenic destruction of the ozone layer. UV radiation is a potent immunosuppressant and can increase the susceptibility of animal hosts to pathogens. UV radiation can directly alter immune function via immunosuppression and photoimmunotolerance; however,...
Article
Full-text available
Many aquatically respiring animals acutely exposed to low pH waters suffer inhibition of ion uptake, and loss of branchial (gill) epithelial integrity, culminating in a fatal loss of body Na+. Environmental calcium levels ([Ca2+]e) are pivotal in maintaining branchial junction integrity, with supplemental Ca2+ reversing the negative effects of low...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many aquatically respiring animals inhabiting low pH waters can suffer acute inhibition of ion uptake and loss of branchial (gill) epithelial integrity, culminating in a fatal, rapid loss of body Na ⁺ . Environmental calcium levels ([Ca ²⁺ ] e ) are pivotal in maintaining branchial junction integrity, with supplemental Ca ²⁺ reversing the negative...
Article
Full-text available
Cold water pollution (CWP) is caused by releases of unseasonably cold water from large, thermally stratified dams. Rapid and prolonged decreases in water temperature can have depressive effects on metabolism, growth and swimming performance of fish. However, it is unknown if reducing the rate of temperature decrease could mitigate these negative ef...
Article
Climate and land-use changes are expected to increase the future occurrence of wildfires, with potentially devastating consequences for freshwater species and ecosystems. Wildfires that burn in close proximity to freshwater systems can significantly alter the physicochemical properties of water. Following wildfires and heavy rain, freshwater specie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Determining the contribution of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR; 280 – 315 nm) to amphibian population declines is being hindered by a lack of knowledge about how different acute UVBR exposure regimes during early life history stages might affect post-metamorphic stages via long-term carryover effects. We acutely exposed tadpoles of the Aust...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation and management of mobile marine species requires an understanding of how movement behaviour and space-use varies among individuals and populations, and how intraspecific differences influence exposure to anthropogenic threats. Because of their long-distance movements, broad distribution and long lifespan, whale sharks (Rhincodon typus)...
Article
Examining the social behaviors of solitary species can be challenging due to the rarity in which interactions occur and the large and often inaccessible areas which these animals inhabit. As shared space-use is a prerequisite for the expression of social behaviors, we can gain insights into the social environments of solitary species by examining t...
Article
Full-text available
Ecoimmunology is a rapidly developing field that explores how the environment shapes immune function, which in turn influences host–parasite relationships and disease outcomes. Host immune defence is a key fitness determinant because it underlies the capacity of animals to resist or tolerate potential infections. Importantly, immune function can be...
Article
The optimisation of feed composition is fundamental to maximising fish growth efficiency and performance in sustainable aquaculture. Traditionally this has been achieved through altering the quantity, ratio or type of macronutrients in fish feeds (i.e., proteins, lipids, carbohydrates). Here, we present an alternative approach that centres on reduc...
Article
Invasive species are generally characterised by broad environmental tolerances that allow them to successfully inhabit multiple ecosystems. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are physiologically tolerant to a broad range of environmental conditions; however, it has been observed that they do not frequently reproduce in the Great Artesian Basin springs of...
Article
Despite decades of research, the role of elevated solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR; 280–315 nm) in shaping amphibian populations remains ambiguous. These difficulties stem partly from a poor understanding of which parameters of UVBR exposure - dose, irradiance, and time interval - determine UVBR exposure health risk, and the potentially erroneou...
Presentation
Full-text available
Despite decades of research, the role of elevated solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR; 280 – 315 nm) in shaping amphibian populations remains ambiguous. These difficulties stem partly from a poor understanding of which parameters of UVBR exposure - dose, intensity and time interval - determine UVBR exposure health risk, and the potentially erroneou...
Article
Full-text available
The global lockdown to mitigate COVID-19 pandemic health risks has altered human interactions with nature. Here, we report immediate impacts of changes in human activities on wildlife and environmental threats during the early lockdown months of 2020, based on 877 qualitative reports and 332 quantitative assessments from 89 different studies. Hundr...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental change and biodiversity loss are but two of the complex challenges facing conservation practitioners and policy makers. Relevant and robust scientific knowledge is critical for providing decision-makers with the actionable evidence needed to inform conservation decisions. In the Anthropocene, science that leads to meaningful improveme...
Article
Full-text available
1. Climate affects all aspects of biology. Physiological traits play a key role in mediating these effects, because they define the fundamental niche of each organism. 2. Climate change is likely to shift environmental conditions away from physiological optima. The consequences for species are significant: they must alter their physiology through p...
Article
Full-text available
Diving ectothermic vertebrates are an important component of many aquatic ecosystems, but the threat of climate warming is particularly salient to this group. Dive durations typically decrease as water temperatures rise; yet, we lack an understanding of whether this trend is apparent in all diving ectotherms and how this group will fare under clima...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures have had unanticipated effects on ecosystems and biodiversity. Conservation physiology and its mechanistic underpinnings are well positioned to generate robust data to inform the extent to which the Anthropause has benefited biodiversity through alterations in disturbance-, pollution-and c...
Article
Full-text available
The Cooloola sedgefrog (Litoria cooloolensis) is one of a number of frog species endemic to the coastal sandy lowlands of east Australia exhibiting remarkable tolerance to dilute waters of low pH (< pH 3.5). To investigate the physiological and morphological underpinnings of acid tolerance in L. cooloolensis larvae, we compared Na+ balance, uptake...
Article
Full-text available
In 1992, the Union of Concerned Scientists shared their ‘World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity’ with governmental leaders worldwide, calling for immediate action to halt the environmental degradation that threatens the systems that support life on Earth. A follow-up ‘Second Warning’ was released in 2017, with over 15 000 scientists as signatories,...
Article
Aquatic hypoxic events are increasing in frequency and intensity as concentrations of nutrients, such as nitrate, continue to rise from human activities. Many fish species can alter their behavior and physiology to cope with drops in oxygen, but these compensatory strategies may be compromised under high levels of nitrate pollution. Hence, we inves...
Chapter
Conservation physiology is a rapidly expanding, multi-disciplinary field that utilizes physiological tools, knowledge, and concepts to understand and solve conservation problems. Here we provide a consolidated overview of the scope and goals of conservation physiology, with a focus on animals. We outline the major avenues by which conservation phys...
Chapter
We discuss 12 themes that emerged from the set of case studies comprising the text, namely: (1) mechanisms matter for conservation; (2) physiology is just one source of knowledge; (3) physiology and behaviour are intertwined; (4) new tools and technologies should be embraced; (5) physiology can be valuable in captive settings; (6) conservation phys...
Chapter
Globally, freshwater fish numbers have declined substantially in part due to anthropogenic structures (e.g. dams) that impede fish movements. The environmental and societal benefits of balancing environmental health with human resource requirements have meant that there is increasingly a concerted effort to remove or remediate barriers to fish pass...
Article
Conservation physiology is a rapidly expanding, multi-disciplinary field that uses physiological tools to characterize and solve conservation problems. This text provides a consolidated overview of the scope, purpose, and goals of conservation physiology, with a focus on animals. It outlines the major avenues by which conservation physiology is con...
Article
Inadequately designed culverts can be physical barriers to fish passage if they increase the velocity of water flow in the environment, alter natural turbulence patterns or fail to provide adequate water depth. They may also act as behavioural barriers to fish passage if they affect the willingness of fish species to enter or pass through the struc...
Article
Exposure to nitrate is toxic to aquatic animals due to the formation of methaemoglobin and a subsequent loss of blood-oxygen carrying capacity. Yet, nitrate toxicity can be modulated by other stressors in the environment, such as elevated temperatures. Acclimation to elevated temperatures has been shown to offset the negative effects of nitrate on...
Article
Ectotherms are predicted to show a reduction in absolute aerobic scope (AAS = maximum − standard metabolic rates) if habitat temperatures surpass optima. However, thermal phenotypic plasticity may play a protective role in the maintenance of AAS. In fishes, resting physiological rates (“physiological floors,” e.g., standard metabolic rates [SMR]) a...
Data
Using depth sensor transmitters and an array of acoustic receivers to monitor the facultative air-breathing Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri), we investigated habitat preferences and behavioral responses to seasonal hypoxic zones in a riverine impoundment. Threedimensional (3-D) kernel utilisation distribution (KUD) models revealed that d...
Article
Understanding how fish traverse man-made barriers (e.g. road-crossings and culverts) ensures that engineering and design guidelines achieve positive outcomes for fish communities. Water velocity, depth and fish body size are interrelated factors that influence fish passage through culverts. Velocity barriers have been a major focus of culvert remed...
Article
Rising temperatures are set to imperil freshwater fishes as climate change ensues unless compensatory strategies are employed. However, the presence of additional stressors, such as elevated nitrate concentrations, may affect the efficacy of compensatory responses. Here, juvenile silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) were exposed to current-day summer t...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical rivers and estuaries are highly dynamic environments, where environmental conditions change dramatically over spatial and temporal scales. This creates both physiological and ecological challenges for euryhaline elasmobranchs, where fluctuations in salinity can impact not only osmoregulatory function, but also the ability to find and acqui...
Article
Glycogen is a critical store for locomotion. Depleted glycogen stores are associated with increased fatigue during exercise. The reduced effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss over longer time periods may arise because such diets reduce glycogen stores and thereby physical activity energy expenditure. To explore the effect of a low...
Article
Full-text available
Applying physiological tools, knowledge and concepts to understand conservation problems (i.e. conservation physiology) has become commonplace and confers an ability to understand mechanistic processes, develop predictive models and identify cause-and-effect relationships. Conservation physiology is making contributions to conservation solutions; t...
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly, cold-water pollution (CWP) is being recognised as a significant threat to aquatic communities downstream of large, bottom-release dams. Cold water releases typically occur during summer when storage dams release unseasonably cold and anoxic hypolimnetic waters, which can decrease the temperature of downstream waters by up to 16°C. Dep...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple environmental changes are thought to be contributing to the widespread decline of amphibians in montane regions, but interactions between drivers of decline are not well understood. It has been proposed previously that elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UBVR) and low temperatures may interact in their negative effects on health, immune func...
Article
Nutrient effluents from urban and agricultural inputs have resulted in high concentrations of nitrate in freshwater ecosystems. Exposure to nitrate can be particularly threatening to aquatic organisms, but a quantitative synthesis of the overall effects on amphibians, amphipods and fish is currently unavailable. Moreover, in disturbed ecosystems, o...
Article
Full-text available
Human activities present aquatic species with numerous of environmental challenges, including excessive nutrient pollution (nitrate) and altered pH regimes (freshwater acidification). In isolation, elevated nitrate and acidic pH can lower the blood oxygen-carrying capacity of aquatic species and cause corresponding declines in key functional perfor...
Article
Full-text available
Many animals occupy microhabitats during dormancy where they may encounter hypoxic conditions (e.g. subterranean burrows). We used the green-striped burrowing frog (Cyclorana alboguttata) to test the hypothesis that animals seek hypoxic microhabitats that accentuate metabolic depression during dormancy. We first measured the partial pressure of oxy...
Article
Estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus inhabit freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Despite being known to undertake extensive movements throughout and between hypo- and hyperosmotic environments, little is known on the role of the cloaca in coping with changes in salinity. In addition to the well-documented functional plasticity of the...
Preprint
Inadequately designed culverts are known to pose hydraulic barriers to fish passage, but they may also be behavioural barriers if they adversely affect light levels within them. To test this, we performed a choice experiment and quantified the amount of time individuals of four Australian fish species spent in darkened and illuminated areas of an e...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the coastal sandy lowlands, or wallum, of east Australia, a number of anuran species show remarkable tolerance to dilute waters of low pH, including the Cooloola Sedgefrog Litoria cooloolensis , larvae of which inhabit water bodies as acidic as pH 3.5. To investigate the physiological and morphological underpinnings of larval acid tolerance in L...
Preprint
Full-text available
Freshwater ecosystems have been severely fragmented by artificial in-stream structures designed to manage water for human use. Significant efforts have been made to reconnect freshwater systems for fish movement, through the design and installation of dedicated fish passage structures (fishways) and by incorporating fish-sensitive design features i...
Article
Monitoring the movements of fish enables management decisions to be based on the ecological requirements of the species in question. PIT tags are a cost effective, long-term method of tracking large numbers of fish. As this technology has improved, the size of PIT tags has decreased, enabling smaller species, and younger fish to be tagged and track...
Article
Ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) damages the DNA of exposed cells, causing dimers to form between adjacent pyrimidine nucleotides. These dimers block DNA replication, causing mutations and apoptosis. Most organisms utilise biochemical or biophysical DNA repair strategies to restore DNA structure; however, as with most biological reactions, these proc...
Article
Full-text available
Chytridiomycosis is a skin infection caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), that has been responsible for amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Chytridiomycosis increases the permeability of amphibian skin leading to low plasma ion levels and loss of physiological homeostasis. Because temporary increases in cutan...
Article
Full-text available
The optimal design of reserve networks and fisheries closures depends upon species occurrence information and knowledge of how anthropogenic impacts interact with the species concerned. However, challenges in surveying mobile and cryptic species over adequate spatial and temporal scales can mask the importance of particular habitats, leading to unc...
Article
Full-text available
Body size and age are crucial factors influencing reproductive capacity and success. As females grow, their reproductive investment and success often increase due to improved overall physiological condition and experience gained through successive reproductive events. While much of this work has been conducted on birds and mammals, surprisingly lit...
Article
Full-text available
Organisms vary widely in size, from microbes weighing 0.1 pg to trees weighing thousands of megagrams — a 1021-fold range similar to the difference in mass between an elephant and the Earth. Mass has a pervasive influence on biological processes, but the effect is usually non-proportional; for example, a tenfold increase in mass is typically accomp...
Experiment Findings
Freshwater ecosystems are one of the habitats most threatened by human activity. The fish that inhabit these diverse freshwater ecosystems are a direct resource for humans, but their role in maintaining the health, functionality and ecosystem robustness is often ignored. In the Murray-Darling Basin, native fish are estimated to have declined to jus...
Article
Full-text available
Amphibian skin is highly variable in structure and function across anurans,and plays an important role in physiological homeostasis and immune defence. For example, skin sloughing has been shown to reduce pathogen loads on the skin, such as the lethal fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but interspecific variation in sloughing frequency is...
Article
Diving optimality models predict air breathers to routinely dive within aerobic limits, but predator avoidance dives may be an exception. Lengthening submergence times during a predation threat may enhance survival probability, and we therefore hypothesized that predator avoidance dives in juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) would be...