Courtney Timpson Byrd

Courtney Timpson Byrd
University of Texas at Austin | UT · College of Communication

PhD

About

96
Publications
33,219
Reads
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904
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2006 - August 2020
University of Texas at Austin
Position
  • Managing Director
August 2000 - October 2003
Vanderbilt University
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits of a treatment approach for adults who stutter that focuses on core communication competencies rather than attempt to modify speech fluency. Eleven adults who stutter completed a 12-week treatment program at The Arthur M. Blank Center for Stuttering Education and Research. Pre-and posttreatment...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptual ratings and performance evaluations of students who do and do not stutter by professors who require oral presentations. Additionally, this study sought to investigate the influence of behaviors related to communication competence on perceptual and evaluative ratings. Method One hundre...
Article
Background: Microaggressions are subtle insults, invalidations, or slights that target people due to their association with a marginalized group. Microaggressive experiences have been shown to degrade quality of life and corroborate negative stereotypes towards persons with disabilities. To date, minimal research has been dedicated to exploring mic...
Article
Purpose: Although preschool-age children who stutter report more negative attitudes toward communication than their typically fluent peers, few investigations have explored factors that may contribute to the differences observed in communication attitude. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether behavioral characteristics of stutteri...
Article
Purpose Adults who stutter report a significant impact of stuttering on their quality of life, including negative thoughts and attitudes toward communication. In addition to this impact, adolescents who stutter also report lower levels of self-perceived communication competence (SPCC) compared to fluent peers. The purpose of this study was to exten...
Article
Purpose Previous literature has documented that college professors view hypothetical students who stutter more negatively than their fluent peers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether individuals who stutter report they experience more negative perceptions in the college classroom, and the impact of those perceptions on their...
Article
School-based guidelines often require that treatment focuses on minimizing or eliminating stuttered speech. The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits of explicit training in communication competencies to children who stutter without targeting stuttered speech. Thirty-seven children (ages 4–16) completed Camp Dream. Speak. Live., an inte...
Article
Purpose During the 2019 Fourth Croatia Clinical Symposium, speech-language pathologists (SLPs), scholars, and researchers from 29 countries discussed speech-language pathology and psychological practices for the management of early and persistent stuttering. This paper documents what those at the Symposium considered to be the key contemporary clin...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate working memory in adults who do (AWS) and do not (AWNS) stutter using a visual N-back task. Processes involved in an N-back task include encoding, storing, rehearsing, inhibition, temporal ordering, and matching. Methods Fifteen AWS (11 males, 4 females;M = 23.27 years, SD = 5.68 years) and 15 A...
Article
Purpose: Research suggests that self-disclosure can improve listeners' perceptions of stuttering; however, it is unknown whether the effectiveness of self-disclosure transcends culture and language. This study examined the clinical utility of self-disclosure in a culturally and linguistically diverse population: Hebrew-speaking people who stutter i...
Article
Full-text available
Speech-language pathologists can identify stuttering in multiple languages, even if they do not speak the language. However, due to differences in language development, multilingual speakers have been documented with higher levels of typical disfluencies in their speech than monolingual speakers. These higher levels of disfluency put multilingual s...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify levels of self-compassion in adults who do and do not stutter and to determine whether self-compassion predicts the impact of stuttering on quality of life in adults who stutter. Method Participants included 140 adults who do and do not stutter matched for age and gender. All participants completed...
Article
Purpose Given the marked increase in evidence-based information regarding the nature/treatment of stuttering, coupled with the fact that pediatricians tend to be one of the initial points of contact for parents who suspect their preschool-age child may stutter, this study explored pediatricians' (a) accuracy in identifying children who may stutter...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate executive control in adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (AWNS) via a nonspeech paradigm, wherein eye movements were monitored (i.e., antisaccade task). Processes involved in an antisaccade task include working memory, attention, and voluntary motor control, but the task primar...
Article
Purpose Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) anecdotally report concern that their interactions with a child who stutters, including even the use of the term “stuttering,” might contribute to negative affective, behavioral, and cognitive consequences. This study investigated SLPs' comfort in providing a diagnosis of “stuttering” to children's parent...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the frequency and type of speech disfluencies (stuttering-like and nonstuttering-like) in bilingual Spanish–English (SE) children who stutter (CWS) to SE children who do not stutter (CWNS) during narrative samples elicited in Spanish and English to provide further diagnostic information for this popul...
Article
In this study, we investigated the frequency and types of stuttering-like (SLD) and other (OD) disfluencies in 59 typically developing bilingual Yiddish-Dutch (YD) speaking children. Participants were divided in two age categories: 6.01–7.07 and 9.00–10.04-year-olds. All children (1) were successive, bilingual YD speaking, (2) had Yiddish as their...
Article
Full-text available
Coalson, Peña, and Byrd published a systematic review that demonstrated significant limitations in the language profile descriptions for multilingual participants who stutter for studies that were completed through September 2011. Given the average number of investigations of multilingual speakers who stutter has shifted from one study every 5 year...
Article
Research has demonstrated children who stutter score significantly lower than children who do not stutter on the Purdue Pegboard Test. Past data also suggest performance on this task may be associated with stuttering frequency (Choo et al., 2016; Mohammadi et al., 2016). The purpose of this study was to explore whether these performance differences...
Article
Purpose: We investigated whether outcomes of therapy for persistent developmental stuttering differ in individuals who carry a mutation in one of the known genes associated with stuttering compared to individuals without such mutations. Method: We studied outcomes of an intensive fluency shaping-based therapy program in individuals with persiste...
Article
Clinicians commonly report difficulty determining whether the disfluencies produced by their clients are indicative of stuttering or suggestive of something else, such as cluttering, autism, language impairment, or second language learning. In our clinical decision-making process, we identify features unique to specific speech and/or language disor...
Article
The purpose of this follow-up study was to explore the effectiveness of an intensive treatment program - Camp Dream. Speak. Live. - within older, school-age children who stutter. Twenty-three school-age children who stutter (age range 7–14 years) attended this weeklong intensive therapy program for the first time. Outcome measures included OASES an...
Article
Full-text available
Non-word repetition is weaker for adults who stutter (AWS) compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS) as phonological demands increase. However, non-word stimuli used in previous studies varied by length, but did not vary with regard to segmental or metrical complexity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique influence of these...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research employed silent phoneme monitoring tasks to examine differences in phonological encoding in adults who stutter (AWS) compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS). The primary purpose of this study was to apply a modified version of the task – the delayed silent phoneme monitoring task – to examine the integrity of the phonological...
Article
Purpose: Best practice for developmental stuttering remains a topic of debate. In the clinical forum following this introduction, four fluency experts balance the evidence and expertise to describe their approach to assessment and treatment.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Adults who stutter (AWS) are less accurate in their immediate repetition of novel phonological sequences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS). The present study examined whether manipulation of the following two aspects of traditional nonword repetition tasks unmask distinct weaknesses in phonological working memory in AWS: (1) pres...
Data
Structure of a training task within a single block. Three-phase training procedures detailed in Coalson and Byrd [41] and based on training paradigms described by Levelt and colleagues ([60], [64], [65]). (DOCX)
Data
Number of recruited participants per Talker-Stress Group who did not meet inclusionary and exclusionary criteria. AWNS: adults who do not stutter; AWS: adults who stutter. Speech diagnoses included diagnosed or observed articulatory and phonological disturbances other than stuttering. 1English proficiency based on 7-point self-rating scale in Langu...
Data
Theoretical and statistical rationale for attempt within Task as random effect. (DOCX)
Data
Phonemic accuracy data. (XLSX)
Data
Number of responses excluded per Talker-Stress Group during immediate repetition and recall tasks. AWNS: adults who do not stutter; AWS: adults who stutter. Percentage based on initial data corpus for each task (immediate repetition, short-term recall). (DOCX)
Article
Purpose The purpose of the present study was to explore the clinical utility of self-disclosure, particularly, whether disclosing in an informative manner would result in more positive observer ratings of the speaker who stutters than either disclosing in an apologetic manner or choosing not to self-disclose at all. Method Observers (N = 338) were...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests young monolingual children who stutter (CWS) are more disfluent on function than content words, particularly when produced in the initial utterance position. The purpose of the present preliminary study was to investigate whether young bilingual CWS present with this same pattern. The narrative and conversational samples of four b...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self-disclosure on observers' perceptions of persons who stutter. Method: Participants (N = 173) were randomly assigned to view 2 of 4 possible videos (i.e., male self-disclosure, male no self-disclosure, female self-disclosure, and female no self-disclosure). After viewing both...
Article
Full-text available
Background/aims: Previous studies employing a variety of tasks have demonstrated that adults who stutter (AWS) pre-sent with phonological encoding differences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS). The present study examined whether atypical preverbal monitoring also influenced AWS performance during one such paradigm - the silent phoneme m...
Article
Full-text available
Stuttering therapy for children, both preschool and school-age, has been offered in a variety of settings and formats, for example in schools, university clinics, outpatient clinics, and private practices. Therapy itself is offered either in a group setting or a one-to-one basis in many of these settings. In recent years, there has been an increase...
Article
Purpose: Voluntary stuttering is a strategy that has been suggested for use in the clinical literature but has minimal empirical data regarding treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore client perspectives regarding the impact of the use of this strategy on the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of stuttering....
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of participation in Camp Dream. Speak. Live., an intensive therapy program, on the communication attitudes, peer relationships and quality of life of children who stutter. Method: Participants were 23 children who stutter (n=5 females; n=18 males; age range 4–14 years) who attended a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether school-age observer perceptions of children who stutter varied based upon the presence or absence of a self-disclosure statement. The secondary purpose was to determine if school-age observer perceptions were susceptible to the same gender bias observed in adult males versus females who...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to examine whether the academic, clinical, and fluency-related student experiences of professionals who self-identify as having specialized knowledge of fluency disorders differ from those who do not. Method: An online survey was developed to identify the academic, clinical, and specific fluency-related...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to extend previous research by analyzing the ability of adults who stutter to use phonological working memory in conjunction with lexical access to perform a word jumble task. Method: Forty English words consisting of 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-letters (n = 10 per letter length category) were randomly jumbled...
Data
Accuracy and speech reaction time data for adults who do and do not stutter. (XLSX)
Chapter
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of phonetic complexity as measured by the Word Complexity Measure (WCM) on the fluency, speed, and accuracy of speech production in adults who do (AWS, n = 14) and do not stutter (AWNS, n = 14). Method: Participants were required to name pictures of target words with high versus lo...
Article
Researchers have suggested that being bilingual may increase the likelihood of development of stuttering. This suggestion was recently discounted by the data that indicate bilingual children who do not stutter produce an atypically high number of speech disfluencies. Thus, bilingual children are not at increased risk for development of stuttering,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent data indicate individuals who stutter may exhibit unique differences in the ability to store and maintain phonological information in phonological working memory. These proceedings will review a series of studies that examine the nature of these differences and their theoretical contribution to stuttered speech.
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to analyze phonetic complexity in the speech of children who stutter in a manner distinct from previous research with specific emphasis on three methodological considerations: (1) analysis of the word immediately following the initial word in the utterance; (2) accounting for other additional linguisti...
Poster
Full-text available
There are unconfirmed claims that exposure to more than one language may impose greater demands on weaker language processing system in people who stutter. Monolingual adults who stutter (AWS) exhibit subtle differences in language processing, particularly during tasks that require phonological working memory (e.g., immediate nonword repetition, d...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore metrical aspects of phonological encoding (i.e., stress and syllable boundary assignment) in adults who do and do not stutter (AWS, AWNS). Participants monitored nonwords for target sounds during silent phoneme monitoring tasks across two distinct experiments. For Experiment 1, 22 participants (11 AWNS, 11 A...
Article
Full-text available
To characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a DRM (Deese-Roediger-McDermott, Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to extend Byrd, Conture, and Ohde's (in press) empirical assessment of behavioral effects of holistic/ incremental phonological priming on picture naming in children who stutter (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) by also employing electrophysiological (event-related potential, ERP) measures. Participants were preschool-ag...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to enhance our understanding of phonological working memory in adults who stutter through the comparison of nonvocal versus vocal nonword repetition and phoneme elision task performance differences. For the vocal nonword repetition condition, participants repeated sets of 4- and 7-syllable nonwords (n=12 per set...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter utilizing a false memory paradigm. Method: Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that were comprised of either semantic, phonological or an equal number of...
Article
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and types of speech disfluencies that are produced by bilingual Spanish-English (SE) speaking children who do not stutter. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluent speech is mediated by language dominance and/or language produced. Method: Spanish and E...
Article
Nonword repetition and phoneme elision represent the combined influence of several speech and language processes. In the present study we investigated nonword repetition and phoneme elision performance in school-age children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CNS). Participants were 14 CWS (mean = 11.7 years, SD = 2.1 years) and age...
Article
Abstract This study provides a detailed description of the disfluent speech behaviours produced by a 6;1-year-old bilingual Spanish-English speaking female with confirmed stuttering. Eight language samples across different contexts (narratives and conversations) with the clinician in English and Spanish and the parent in Spanish were analysed. Lang...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this review was to examine the descriptions of multilingual participants provided in stuttering literature to determine how frequently and consistently relevant factors of language profile are reported. We conducted a systematic search of published studies that included multilingual participants who stutter and reviewed the level of...
Article
Unlabelled: The present study investigated segmentation and rhyme abilities, skills critical for phonological encoding, of children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (8 males and 1 female, mean age=11.1, SD=2.31) in the age range of 7 and 13 years and 9 age and sex matched CNS (mean age=11.2, SD=2.19). Participa...
Article
Unlabelled: The purpose of the present study was to explore the phonological working memory of adults who stutter through the use of a non-word repetition and a phoneme elision task. Participants were 14 adults who stutter (M=28 years) and 14 age/gender matched adults who do not stutter (M=28 years). For the non-word repetition task, the participa...
Article
The primary purpose of this study was to re-examine the influence of phonetic complexity on stuttering in young children through the use of the Word Complexity Measure (WCM). Parent-child conversations were transcribed for 14 children who stutter (mean age = 3 years, 7 months; SD = 11.20 months). Lexical and linguistic factors were accounted for du...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to (a) compare the speech fluency of school-age children who do and do not stutter (CWS and CWNS, respectively) within 2 standard diagnostic speaking contexts (conversation and narration) while also controlling for speaking topic, and (b) examine the extent to which children's performance on such discourse tasks is affected...
Chapter
The paucity of empirical study of stuttering in Spanish is alarming given the number of Spanish-speakers in the world, including in the United States. Spanish, which has been reported to be the second most frequently used language in theworld (e.g. Lewis, 2009), was spoken at home by 23.4 million US residents in 2007, representing a 211% increase s...
Article
When the challenges of providing speech-language pathology services in school settings intersect with the complexities of meeting the unique needs of students who stutter, clinicians may encounter a variety of ethical issues. This article explores some of the ethical challenges of treating stuttering in school settings by discussing three clinical...
Article
To explore the effects of utterance length, syntactic complexity, and grammatical correctness on stuttering in the spontaneous speech of young, monolingual Spanish-speaking children. Spontaneous speech samples of 11 monolingual Spanish-speaking children who stuttered, ages 35 to 70 months, were examined. Mean number of syllables, total number of cl...
Article
This article analysed the acoustic structure of voiced stop + vowel sequences in a group of persons who stutter (PWS). This phonetic unit was chosen because successful production is highly dependent on the differential tweaking of right-to-left anticipatory coarticulation as a function of stop place. Thus, essential elements of both speech motor pl...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to determine if reported differences in speech fluency between assertive versus responsive speech acts persist when the length and complexity of those acts are controlled for and (2) to explore disfluent speech production across the subtypes of speech acts that comprise the two broad speech act cate...
Article
The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to determine if reported differences in speech fluency between assertive versus responsive speech acts persist when the length and complexity of those acts are controlled for and (2) to explore disfluent speech production across the subtypes of speech acts that comprise the two broad speech act cate...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability, which is the frequency of different sound segments and segment sequences, on the overall fluency with which words are produced by preschool children who stutter (CWS) as well as to determine whether it has an effect on the type of stuttered disfluency produced. A 500...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the holistic versus incremental phonological encoding processes of young children who stutter (CWS; N = 26) and age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter (CWNS; N = 26) via a picture-naming auditory priming paradigm. Children named pictures during 3 auditory priming conditions: neutral, holistic, and incremental. Speech rea...