Costanzo Ranci

Costanzo Ranci
Politecnico di Milano | Polimi · Department of Architecture and Urban Studies (DASTU)

PhD in Sociology and Social Research

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87
Publications
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Publications

Publications (87)
Article
This article explores changes that took place in long-term care (LTC) policies during the last two decades in six European welfare states. In this regard, it addresses three issues: (1) why reforms took place, (2) the main actors and coalitions driving this process and the institutional mechanisms at work and (3) the main outcomes of reform process...
Article
In Europe over the last two decades, marketization has become an important policy option in elder care. Comparative studies predominantly adopt an institutional perspective and analyze the politics and policies of marketization. This analysis takes a step back and examines the fundamental ideas underpinning the policies of marketization, using the...
Article
The sizeable presence of migrant care workers in the private care market in many European countries is confirmed by several studies that have explained the phenomenon through functional arguments, stressing the economic convenience of transnational markets and the crucial role played by public regulation. This paper focuses instead on the public an...
Book
Questa ricerca, basata su dati inediti e coordinata da tre sociologi che da sempre si occupano di tematiche legate al welfare, rappresenta una riflessione originale su una questione più che mai attuale: è ancora possibile innovare il welfare italiano in modo che risponda in maniera efficace alle esigenze dei cittadini, oppure dovremo rassegnarci al...
Article
Full-text available
Il tema dell’insicurezza economica è apparso con grande frequenza nel dibattito scientifico e politico successivo alla Grande Recessione. Pur essendo riconosciuta come un aspetto importante, manca sinora un accordo intorno ad una chiara definizione di insicurezza economica. Questo contributo è, dunque, finalizzato a presentare la discussione scient...
Article
This article examines COVID-19 and residential care for older people during the first wave of the pandemic in 2020, comparing a range of countries – Denmark, England, Germany, Italy and Spain – to identify the policy approaches taken to the virus in care homes and set these in institutional and policy context. Pandemic policies towards care homes a...
Article
Full-text available
Economic instability, social changes, and new social policies place economic insecurity high on the scholarly and political agenda. We contribute to these debates by proposing a new multidimensional, intertemporal measure of economic insecurity that accounts for both its multiplicity and its dynamism. First, we develop three theory-driven, multidim...
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates the delay in implementation and inadequacy of specific policy actions in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic in nursing homes. The analysis focuses on Lombardy and Madrid, the two wealthiest regions in Italy and Spain. These were the most severely affected by the onset of the pandemic, both country-wise and at the Euro...
Article
Italy was the first western country strongly hit by the COVID-19 outbreak. This Perspective focuses on the large number of deaths that occurred in nursing homes during the first wave of the pandemic, and the weak capacity of public policy to provide them with adequate protection. The analysis focuses on the case of the Lombardy Region, where the mo...
Article
Welfare reforms introduced at national level and implying changes in service provision are often managed by local authorities, and this fact paves the way for strong local‐central tensions. One of the sources of such tensions is the spread of local discretion in the implementation of central programs. In current literature, local discretion has bee...
Article
Despite its growing care needs, Italy has inertially reproduced its consolidated LTC system, dominated by institutional fragmentation, lack of in-kind services, and resulted in public policies which consist of unconditional cash benefits. This structure has encouraged family-based care arrangements (with gender inequalities) and created a large pri...
Article
In the international literature about long term care policies, Italy is a well known case in which care needs of dependent elderly people are covered to a large extent by families and informal networks, partially supported by cash for care schemes, especially the Attendance Allowance (a universalistic, unconditional cash for care scheme). On the ot...
Article
Full-text available
Social and social-spatial inequality are on the rise in the Global North. This has resulted in increasing segmentation between population groups with different social and ethnic backgrounds, and in differentiated access to cultural and material assets. With these changes, the relation between segregation in the educational sphere and segregation in...
Article
Full-text available
This article illustrates how the implementation of ‘interstitial’ innovation in welfare policy can be hampered by resistance to change on the part of its intended beneficiaries by means of a case study of a policy innovation in long-term care in Italy: the Home Care Premium (HCP) programme. In a policy area characterised by long-standing institutio...
Article
The paper aims to show how and to what extent the system of compulsory education in Milan is affected by social and ethnic segregation. We argue that, despite being guided by the general criteria of universal access and equality of treatment, not only do Milan’s schools fail to counter socio-economic inequalities and differentiation along ethnic li...
Article
This paper investigates the potential trade‐offs between extension of coverage and adequate generosity in cash‐for‐care (CfC) programmes in six European countries (Austria, Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, and Spain), which are characterised by different configurations of CfC programmes. Building on an empirical analysis of the eligibility ru...
Article
Care marketization has generally supported ethnicization of care work in many countries. While economic and institutional theories have explained how migrants have been included as functional workers, the social inclusion of them in the hosting societies has been largely neglected. Focusing on the role of ideas and public discourse, this article co...
Article
Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) has become a strategic component of the Social Investment (SI) paradigm. Growth in this field of social policy – quantified as an increase in public spending and coverage rates – is often taken as indicative of a wider attempt to reformulate welfare state intervention through an SI approach. However, SI age...
Article
Over the last few decades, population ageing, coupled with other significant changes (such as increasing female labour market participation and declining fertility rates), has led to the emergence of a structural care deficit in contemporary societies. A specific compromise between universalism and marketisation has increasingly enabled this defici...
Article
Despite the growing needs related to population ageing and changes in the family structure, Italy witnessed over the last years inertia in its LTC system, which is dominated by public policies mainly consisting in cash benefits, e.g. the «Attendance Allowance» (IdA), and a lack of in-kind care services. Based on this, the article focuses on a recen...
Article
Il contributo analizza lo stato delle politiche di tutela della non autosufficienza (Ltc) in Italia, focalizzando l’attenzione sulla principale misura di sostegno ai bisogni di cura delle persone non autosufficienti: l’indennità di accompagnamento (IdA). Pur configurandosi come misura universalistica, l’IdA presenta diversi elementi di criticità, c...
Working Paper
Full-text available
p>Economic instability, an array of social changes, and welfare state retrenchment place the question of economic insecurity high on the scholarly and political agenda. We contribute to these debates by drawing conceptual distinctions between inequality and insecurity. Fundamentally, inequality concerns the distribution of resources across individu...
Article
ABSTRACT Women with care responsibilities tend to reduce their labour market activity and to work part time, even if there are cross-national differences. Empirical research often analyses this separately for childcare and elderly care, and studies are usually limited to Western societies. This article aims to explore to what extent women’s care re...
Book
This seminal edited collection examines the impact of austerity and economic crisis on European cities. Whilst on the one hand the struggle for competitiveness has induced many European cities to invest in economic performance and attractiveness, on the other, national expenditure cuts and dominant neo-liberal paradigms have led many to retrench pu...
Article
Full-text available
While increasing female employment has contributed to reducing gender inequality, it has also exposed women to higher economic insecurity. The contribution of this paper is to understand the social conditions that might expose women to economic insecurity in different European cities. Specific aspects have been considered: (a) reduced (part time) w...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses upon the phenomenon of over-education in Italy, proposing an original measure which is based on cross-dataset comparison between the actual occupation and the educational level of workers for each ISCO 4 digit class. The level of analytical detail and the crossed use of a self-declared and a statistical method for defining over...
Article
The scientific debate on social investment (SI) is moving from an ideological and normative approach towards a more realistic one. Scholars are paying closer attention to the actual developments in social policy and to the contextual conditions and impacts of SI policies. Considering this, two main issues arise. First, that SI policies are politica...
Article
In Italy, the development of the human social service field has been grounded in a peculiar type of government–third sector partnership. This article identifies the main features of such partnership and reconstructs its evolution in a long-term perspective. The main argument is that in Italy this partnership, historically based on particularism and...
Book
Questo manuale analizza le caratteristiche, le dinamiche e i problemi dei sistemi contemporanei di welfare. L’obiettivo è quello di ricostruire come il welfare si confronta con le grandi trasformazioni sociali ed economiche che investono i paesi europei. Interrogando la storia passata e la situazione presente, gli autori illustrano l’evoluzione rec...
Chapter
Social and economic changes occurred in the last two decades have had significant repercussions on the configuration of social risks and inequality in Italy. This chapter shows how these transformations in the Italian social structure have not been matched by analogous transformations in the welfare system. The amount of expenditure on social prote...
Chapter
This is the first English-language book to take a comparative look at the Italian welfare state as a whole since the 2008 economic crisis, and it will be a valuable resource for academics and researchers as well as students.
Book
European cities have been historically characterized by a strong link between economic competitiveness and social cohesion. This association marks one of the most relevant peculiarities of European cities in respect of cities in other continents. According to many urban scholars, this distinctiveness depends on a number of factors, among which are...
Chapter
In 2005 a seminal article by H. Häussermann was published in European Review with the following title: ‘The End of the European City?’. Though Häussermann recognized that many aspects of European cities (middle-sized; high level of state intervention; strong role played by identity and local cultures) distinguished them from American cities, he poi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Historically, European cities have been characterized by a strong link between economic competitiveness and social cohesion. This association is one of the most relevant peculiarities of European cities as compared to cities in other continents. According to many urban scholars (Bagnasco and Le Galès 2000; Häussermann and Haila 2005), this distinct...
Chapter
The research presented in this book has been focused on social vulnerability in European cities, with manifold objectives: disentangling the factors and mechanisms explaining it, analyzing its characteristics and the implications for people who are exposed to it, and identifying the role played by urban policies in preventing and counteracting it.1...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the main features of the 2014 budget law concerning social policies. Three aspects have been considered: interventions aimed at slightly reforming the old age pension system (more radically reformed in 2011); the State financing of specific social assistance programmes (for the part of responsibility of the central government)...
Chapter
Italy is unanimously considered a familistic country, where informal caregiving provided by household members is higher than in most other European countries (Chiatti et al., 2013). Welfare policy has long implicitly supported family networks in providing the most vulnerable people with care and services, with comparatively low public provision (Sa...
Article
Long-term care (LTC) is one of the most rapidly developing policy areas in Europe, where significant institutional change and innovation have taken place over the last two decades throughout the continent. In contrast to mainstream policy fields (e.g., pensions, labor market policies, and health care), where attempts to reduce public intervention h...
Chapter
Within Europe, care policies for children and older people have been, over the last two decades, one of the most dynamic policy areas of welfare state development. Both long-term care (LTC) and early childhood education and care (ECEC) respond to changing needs and demands for care. Ageing populations, labour market participation of women, decline...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides an overview of long term care (LTC) policies in Europe and other OECD countries in order to contextualize the findings presented in the other chapters of the book. While the individual country case studies outlined in subsequent chapters offer detailed accounts of LTC policies in various countries throughout Europe, this chapt...
Chapter
This final chapter summarizes the main results of the national case studies and gives a general interpretation of the changes taking place in the long term care sector over the last 20 years in Europe. The discussion addresses all the theoretical and empirical questions which were introduced in the introductory chapter. More specifically, the chapt...
Book
Over the last two decades, many changes have happened to the social welfare policies of various industrial countries. Citizens have seen their pensions, unemployment benefits, and general healthcare policies shrink as “belt tightening” measures are enforced. But in contrast, long-term care has seen a general growth in public financing, an expansion...
Chapter
Long-term care (LTC) is one of the most rapidly developing policy areas in Europe, where significant institutional change and innovation have taken place over the last two decades throughout the continent. In contrast to mainstream policy fields (e.g., pensions, labor market policies, and health care), where attempts to reduce public intervention h...
Book
I lavoratori autonomi: una nebulosa a lungo inesplorata, protetta da una cortina di «tolleranza fiscale» e da sostegni particolaristici. Oggi a commercianti, artigiani e liberi professionisti tradizionali si sono affiancati i nuovi protagonisti del terziario avanzato, gli intermediari commerciali e finanziari, la seconda generazione dei piccoli imp...
Article
Full-text available
European cities are historically characterised by a strong association between social cohesion and competitiveness. However, in recent years, this stability has been affected by strains induced by rising new inequalities and increasing competition among cities. These facts have raised the need for a new understanding of the relationship between coh...
Article
Politecnico di Milano and Politecnico di Torino, the top technical universities in Italy, united their efforts in 2004 by launching a unique excellence programme called Alta Scuola Politecnica (ASP). The ASP programme is devoted to 150 students, selected each year from among the top 5–10% of those enrolled in the Engineering, Architecture and Desig...
Book
Full-text available
This book explores the dimensions and characteristics of social vulnerability in Western Europe. As the literature on 'new social risks' grows, there is an increasing need for analysis which shows the actual diffusion and intensity of such risks. This volume examines income level, housing conditions, employment, the provision of care for children a...
Book
Le grandi città della nostra epoca stanno cambiando pelle. Dietro lo scorrere apparentemente tranquillo delle faccende quotidiane dei loro abitanti, il formicolante andirivieni dei visitatori motivati dal lavoro o dallo svago, le eleganti architetture degli antichi centri storici e dei nuovi centri direzionali, di nascosto da tutto ciò, le città st...
Chapter
The material collected in this book highlights the emergence of a new social question arising from the crisis of the European social model that began in the late 1980s. In Western Europe this model has long prevented poverty and social exclusion from reaching so high an intensity as has happened in other countries of the Western world, such as the...
Chapter
This book analyses the configuration of social vulnerability in the area of Western Europe that is conventionally known as the ‘Europe of the 15’ (EU-15). Most of the comparative studies on inequality and poverty have taken individual countries as the unit of analysis, on the basis of a number of often implicit assumptions. Comparative analysis bet...
Chapter
The aim of this final chapter is to identify the main social, economic and institutional factors responsible for social vulnerability. Social vulnerability is considered as a multi-dimensional phenomenon affecting contemporary post-industrial societies of Western Europe as a consequence of the emergence of new social risks in the past two decades....
Chapter
In the EU-15 there are around 25 million people who need assistance with the basic activities of daily living: 40 per cent of them are aged between 20 and 60, and 60 per cent are aged over 60 (Grammenos, 2003). These figures include persons with various levels of functional difficulties because of mental or physical disability. According to estimat...
Chapter
The second half of the twentieth century will be remembered as an era characterized, in advanced capitalist European countries, by the creation of huge systems of welfare protection. Supported by substantial economic growth and by a relatively peaceful international situation, Western European countries developed economic and institutional mechanis...
Chapter
Full-text available
Social vulnerability can be defined as a life-situation characterized by a multi-dimensional combination of factors of disadvantage and advantage, of inclusion and exclusion. Its distinctive feature is that weak and unstable integration in the main mechanisms of resource distribution in contemporary society places people in a situation of uncertain...
Article
Full-text available
Faced with the problems associated with an ageing society, many European countries have adopted innovative policies to achieve a better balance between the need to expand social care and the imperative to curb public spending. Although embedded within peculiar national traditions, these new policies share some characteristics: (a) a tendency to com...
Book
Se in molti paesi, soprattutto in quelli di tradizione anglosassone, si riconosce alla politica sociale uno statuto disciplinare specifico, in Italia questo campo di studi stenta ad acquisire un'adeguata strutturazione e una chiara legittimità scientifica. Il fatto è paradossale, se si pensa che nella sociologia italiana, sin dalla seconda metà deg...
Article
Le politiche sociali nel nostro paese sono oggetto di una profonda ridefinizione, che sta progressivamente spostando l'attenzione dalle dimensioni 'assicurative'del sistema di welfare a quelle inerenti la dotazione territoriale dei servizi, la configurazione locale dei sistemi di protezione, l'inclusione sociale. Se da un lato è ancora fortemente a...
Book
Lultimo decennio sarà ricordato come il periodo in cui la privatizzazione ha cominciato a penetrare il campo delle politiche di welfare in tutti i paesi europei. Nonostante le aspettative di alcuni, ciò non ha comportato un semplice "ritiro" dello stato, quanto l´affermazione di un nuovo sistema di welfare mix, attraverso cui molte responsabilità p...
Article
The recent discussion about "risk society" is mostly focused on risks coming from the technological and scientific development, while new kinds of risk are emerging in everyday life as a consequence of economic, social and demographic current changes. These risks have not found yet an adequate consideration in sociological thinking. To fill this ga...
Book
Full-text available
The 1990's will be remembered in Europe as the period in which `privatization' assumed significant proportions in the field of welfare policies. In an age of crisis for the welfare state and increased demand of care services, there is now a widespread opinion that future welfare systems will see more and more space occupied by private and nonprofit...
Article
The second half of the 1980s and the 1990s will be remembered in Italy as the period in which privatization assumed increasingly significant proportions as the dominant political strategy in the field of welfare policies (Pasquinelli, 1993). The move towards privatization has been drastic and generalized. It has radically reversed the tendency to e...
Chapter
Most of the problems that Continental Western European welfare systems are currently facing derive from the lack of public programmes of social care. Responsibility for care is mostly unloaded onto families, that fulfil this responsibility either by ‘self-servicing’ or purchasing services on the private market. However, the new risk profiles that e...
Chapter
Between the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s a clear change occurred in the orientation of social care policies in almost all the countries of Western Europe. The change arose from the perception of a structural crisis in the previously established mixed model. The main cause of the crisis was identified, in the political rhetoric of...
Book
The 1990's will be remembered in Europe as the period in which `privatization' assumed significant proportions in the field of welfare policies. In an age of crisis for the welfare state and increased demand of care services, there is now a widespread opinion that future welfare systems will see more and more space occupied by private and nonprofit...
Article
Without Abstract
Book
Full-text available
Publicado en 1995, el libro incluye un conjunto de aportaciones con la intención explícita de someter a debate una tesis que estaba cobrando fuerza entre académicos y expertos de la política social. Se trataba de dilucidar si los sistemas de prestaciones y de servicios de bienestar de los países de la Europa meridional tiene una lógica propia que l...
Article
The paper describes how the involvement of non-profit organisations (NPOs) in welfare politics in Italy has historically developed in a mutual accommodation with the state, which has prevented the growth and the public recognition of an independent third sector. Using data from official statistics and recent research on non-profits, three analytica...
Article
Full-text available
En este texto se analizan los profundos cambios producidos en los últimos años en las políticas de cuidados de larga duración en diversos países europeos (Francia, Alemania, Italia, Gran Bretaña y Países Bajos) y especialmente, si las reformas introducidas están suponiendo un cambio de dirección en la provisión de servicios de asistencia a las pers...
Article
Full-text available
The European Union’s influence on its member states is currently the topic of frequent discussion, under the label of Europeanisation. With the establishment of the single market, further steps were necessary to ensure the future economic development of the member states. This included the fight against social exclusion, which refers to a situation...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
RISIng contributes to a better understanding of the crisis of the middle class in Italy and Europe by focusing on the spread of several forms of social insecurity. By social insecurity we mean the risk of experiencing economic uncertainty, income loss or financial strain, which may be more or less transitory and of limited duration. Such adverse conditions represent a threat to the material independence of individuals and households. RISIng will last 36 months, starting in August 2019. RISIng is divided into the following tasks: WP1 – Measurement of Social Insecurity WP2 – Explaining the drivers of the Social Insecurity WP3 – Insecurity and inequality: at the crossroad of events and attributes WP4 – Social insecurity, employment and welfare The project is funded by Italian Ministry of Education, PRIN2017
Project
-Understanding the relationship between policy instruments and local experiences of territorial cohesion. -Analysing how “social investment strategies” relate to territorial cohesion and local conditions. -Assessing spatial development policies at different governance scales to map the impact of different policy instruments in the fight against spatial inequality and spatial injustice.