Cory Xian

Cory Xian
University of South Australia | UniSA · School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences

BSc, MS, PhD

About

224
Publications
37,678
Reads
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7,315
Citations
Citations since 2016
95 Research Items
4038 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Introduction
The Bone Growth and Repair Research Group explores the mechanisms and regulation of children's bone growth, bone growth defects, growth plate and bone injury and repair, cancer chemotherapy and ageing-induced bone loss, with the aims of understanding the underlying pathobiology and developing biological treatments that impact on children’s bone growth, bone mass accumulation and adult bone health.
Additional affiliations
January 2008 - present
University of South Australia
Position
  • Research Professor & NHMRC Senior Research Fellow
Description
  • Our group explores mechanisms and regulation of children's bone growth, bone growth defects, growth plate and bone injury and repair, cancer chemotherapy and ageing-induced bone loss.

Publications

Publications (224)
Article
Full-text available
Growth plate injuries often result in undesirable bony repair causing bone growth defects, for which the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Whilst the importance of key pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well known in bone development and fracture repair, its role during growth plate bony repair remains unexplored. Using a...
Article
Methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy is known to cause bone loss which lacks specific preventative treatments, although clinically folinic acid is often used to reduce MTX toxicity in soft tissues. This study investigated damaging effects of MTX injections (0.75 mg/kg/day for 5 days) in rats and potential protective benefits of fish oil (0.25, 0.5, or 0...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have found that 8-prenylflavonoids have a higher osteogenic activity than do flavonoids, which suggested that the 8-prenyl group may play an active role in bone-protective properties. To address this hypothesis, activities of 8-prenylnaringenin (PNG) and naringenin (NG) in osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function were...
Article
Full-text available
Intensive cancer chemotherapy is well known to cause bone vasculature disfunction and damage, but the mechanism is poorly understood and there is a lack of treatment. Using a rat model of methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy (five once-daily dosses at 0.75 mg/kg), this study investigated the roles of the Notch2 signalling pathway in MTX chemotherapy-ind...
Article
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have long been recognized being safe and effective in treating bone fracture nonunion and osteoporosis. However, the mechanism of osteogenic action of PEMFs is still unclear. While primary cilia are reported to be a sensory organelle for PEMFs, and nitric oxide (NO) plays an indispensable role in osteogenic eff...
Article
Full-text available
Methotrexate (MTX) is a commonly used antimetabolite in cancer treatment. Its intensive use is linked with skeletal adverse effects such as reduced bone formation and bone loss, and yet little information is available on molecular mechanisms underlying MTX-induced impaired bone formation. This study investigated the effects of MTX treatment at a cl...
Article
Full-text available
Methotrexate (MTX) treatment for childhood malignancies has shown decreased osteogenesis and increased adipogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), leading to bone loss and bone marrow adiposity, for which the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Currently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as vital mediators involved in bone/bone mar...
Article
Full-text available
Osteoporosis is characterized by increased bone fragility, and the drugs used at present to treat osteoporosis can cause adverse reactions. Gentiopicroside (GEN), a class of natural compounds with numerous biological activities such as anti-resorptive properties and protective effects against bone loss. Therefore, the aim of this work was to explor...
Article
Full-text available
Intensive methotrexate (MTX) treatment for childhood malignancies decreases osteogenesis but increases adipogenesis from the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), resulting in bone loss and bone marrow adiposity. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. While microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as bone homeostasis regulators and miR-542-3p was rece...
Article
Previous studies have shown that administration of antimetabolite methotrexate (MTX) caused a reduced trabecular bone volume and increased marrow adiposity (bone/fat switch), for which the underlying molecular mechanisms and recovery potential are unclear. Altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been shown to be associated with dysregulation o...
Article
Full-text available
Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis, a painful debilitating condition affecting up to 40–100% of patients undergoing chemotherapy, can reduce the patients’ quality of life, add health care costs and even postpone cancer treatment. In recent years, the relationships between intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and mucositis have drawn much attentio...
Article
Full-text available
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent cells which can differentiate into chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and fat cells. Under pathological stress, reduced bone formation in favour of fat formation in the bone marrow has been observed through a switch in the differentiation of BMSCs. The bone/fat switch causes bone growth defects and disorder...
Article
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have emerged as a versatile means for osteoporosis treatment and prevention. However, its optimal application parameters are still elusive. Here we optimized the frequency parameter firstly by cell culture screening and then by animal experiment validation. Osteoblasts isolated from newborn rats (ROBs) were exposed 90...
Conference Paper
High heat generation in surgical bone drilling causes thermal necrosis, thus impairing bone healing and implant reliability. Surgeons are often unaware of such in-situ drilling characteristics. Prediction and control of temperature is thus crucial for improved patient outcome. As a first step to this regard, the current paper aims to comprehensivel...
Article
Growth plate cartilage injuries often result in bony repair at the injury site and premature mineralization at the uninjured region causing bone growth defects, for which underlying mechanisms are unclear. With the prior microarray study showing upregulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling during the injury site bony repair and with the...
Article
Intensive use of methotrexate (MTX) and/or dexamethasone (DEX) for treating childhood malignancies is known to cause chondrocyte apoptosis and growth plate dysfunction leading to bone growth impairments. However, mechanisms remain vague and it is unclear whether MTX and DEX combination treatment could have additive effects in the growth plate defec...
Article
Full-text available
pH‐magnetic dual‐responsive nanocomposites have been widely used in drug delivery and gene therapy. Recently, a polypseudorotaxane functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) was developed by synthesizing the magnetic nanoparticles with cyclodextrin (CD) molecules (CDMNP) via polyethylene glycol (PEG) (CDMNP‐PEG‐CD). The purpose of this study was to...
Article
Cancer chemotherapy can significantly impair the bone formation and cause myelosuppression; however, their recovery potentials and mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the roles of the β‐catenin signaling pathway in bone and bone marrow recovery potentials in rats treated with antimetabolite methotrexate (MTX) (five once‐daily injecti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Osteoporosis is characterized by increased bone fragility and the drugs used at present to treat osteoporosis can cause adverse reactions. Gentiopicroside (GEN) is widely used in the traditional Chinese medicine thanks to its multiple pharmacological activities including the suppression of osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this...
Article
Full-text available
The transcriptional repressor Bmi‐1 is involved in cell‐cycle regulation and cell senescence, the deficiency of which has been shown to cause oxidative stress. This study investigated whether Bmi‐1 deficiency plays a role in promoting disc degeneration and the effect of treatment with antioxidant N‐acetylcysteine (NAC) on intervertebral disc degene...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid 3D printing platform integrating thermal-extrusion and electrospinning methods to fabricate bone scaffolds. The scaffolds made by mPEG–PCL–mPEG/HA biocomposite and their surface were enhanced by adding an electrospun fibre layer which improved adhesion and viability of osteoblastic cells. The scaffolds w...
Article
Full-text available
Resveratrol, a naturally‐occurring polyphenol in red grapes and berries, can act as a phytoestrogen. It has been shown to improve both systemic and cerebral circulatory functions, possibly through activation of endothelial estrogen receptors. In vitro and in vivo studies in rodent models also indicate a bone‐protective role for resveratrol, particu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background : The prognostic value of the mucinous adenocarcinoma histotype on the early stages especially for stage I colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. This study determined the clinicopathologic characteristics and long-term outcome of stage I colorectal mucinous adenocarcinomas (MAC). Methods : Among the total of 503 patients with stage I...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The prognostic value of the mucinous adenocarcinoma histotype on the early stages especially for stage I colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. This study determined the clinicopathologic characteristics and long-term outcome of stage I colorectal mucinous adenocarcinomas (MAC). Methods: Among the total of 503 patients with stage I C...
Article
Full-text available
jats:p>The cell cycle regulator p16 is known as a biomarker and an effector of aging. However, its function in intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is unclear. In this study, p16 expression levels were found to be positively correlated with the severity of human IVDD. In a mouse tail suspension (TS)-induced IVDD model, lumbar intervertebral disc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bone drilling is an important step in orthopedic surgeries for the reconstruction and repair of fractured bones. The main concern in bone drilling is to create holes without causing minimum damage to the bone tissues. It is well reported that high temperature and high force in drilling cause bone thermal necrosis leading to the delayed bone healing...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Inflammation is implicated in both hepatic cirrhosis development and hepatocellular carcinogenesis, and treatment with long-acting glucocorticoid dexamethasone prevented liver carcinogenesis in mice. However, it is unclear whether glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and if short-acting glucoc...
Article
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Key points: There is a close relationship between skeletal muscle physiology and Ca2+ /CaM signalling. Despite the effects of Ca2+ /CaM signalling on immune and inflammatory responses have been extensively explored, few studies have investigated the role of CaM pathway activation on the post-injury muscle inflammatory response. In this study, we i...
Article
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Background: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human peripheral nerves, as a useful tool to understand the nerve internal information and functional basis, has become an important area of research in the peripheral nerve field. Methods: In this study, we proposed a two-dimensional (2D) Karnovsky-Roots toluidine blue ponceau 2R (K-B-2R) sta...
Article
It has been well-established that malondialdehyde (MDA), which is generated during the process of lipid peroxidation, is a commonly known biomarker for oxidative stress. Therefore, the serum levels of MDA are detected by using the lipid peroxidation assay with commercially available kit to determine the induction of oxidative stress in rat models.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To assess the association between the fracture line distribution and the location of comminution in intra-articular distal radius fractures by building fracture mapping. Patients/methods Forty cases with intra-articular fractures of distal radius were enrolled in the current prospective clinical study. Fracture lines and comminution zones...
Article
Despite more attention to cell migration from circulation into the bone marrow (BM), particularly homing of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, the process and mechanisms of cell mobilisation from the BM into the circulation remain largely underexplored. The process of cell mobilisation or transcellular cell migration from BM into the circulation...
Article
Extremely‐low frequency electromagnetic fields have been considered as a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis; however, their action mechanism and optimal magnetic flux density (intensity) parameter are still elusive. The present study found that 50 Hz sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs) at 1.8 mT increased the...
Article
Methotrexate (MTX), a widely used antimetabolite in paediatric cancer to treatment, has been widely reported to cause bone loss and bone marrow (BM) microvascular (particularly sinusoids) damage. Investigations must now investigate how MTX‐induced bone loss and microvasculature damage can be attenuated/prevented. In the present study, we examined t...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid 3D printing platform integrating thermal-extrusion and electrospinning methods to fabricate bone scaffolds. The scaffolds made by mPEG–PCL–mPEG/HA biocomposite and their surface were enhanced by adding an electrospun fibre layer which improved adhesion and viability of osteoblastic cells. The scaffolds w...
Article
Full-text available
Opioids are widely administered to alleviate pain, including chronic pain in advanced cancer patients. Among opioids, morphine is one of the most clinically effective drugs for the palliative management of severe pain. In the last few decades, there has been a debate around the possible influence of opioids such as morphine on tumour growth and met...
Article
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the advanced stage of peripheral artery disease spectrum and is defined by limb pain or impending limb loss because of compromised blood flow to the affected extremity. Current conventional therapies for CLI include amputation, bypass surgery, endovascular therapy, and pharmacological approaches. Although these conve...
Article
Bone cells, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, have the ability to develop and maintain bone architecture. Although improved experimental testing approaches are increasing our understanding of the complex structures and functions of bone cells and bone, computational models, particularly finite element analyses, are being used to e...
Article
Wound healing is a complex but a fine‐tuned biological process in which human skin has the ability to regenerate itself following damage. However, in particular conditions such as deep burn or diabetes the process of wound healing is compromised. Despite investigations on the potency of a wide variety of stem cells for wound healing, adipose‐derive...
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop a novel approach to treat bone osteosarcoma using a multipurpose scaffold aiming for local drug delivery. The slowly releasing microspheres was designed to deliver the chemotherapy drug adriamycin (ADM) and a decellularized (D) periosteum scaffold (which is known to be able to promote bone regeneration) was...
Article
Dexamethasone (Dex) is known to cause significant bone growth impairment in childhood. Although previous studies have suggested roles of osteocyte apoptosis in the enhanced osteoclastic recruitment and local bone loss, whether it is so in the growing bone following Dex treatment requires to be established. The current study addressed the potential...
Article
Cancer chemotherapy can cause significant damage to the bone marrow (BM) microvascular (sinusoidal) system. Investigations must now address whether and how BM sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) can be protected during chemotherapy. Herein we examined the potential protective effects of genistein, a soy‐derived flavonoid, against BM sinusoidal dama...
Article
Microgravity is one of the main threats to the health of astronauts. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been considered as one of the potential countermeasures for bone loss induced by space flight. However, the optimal therapeutic parameters of PEMFs have not been obtained and the action mechanism is still largely unknown. In this study, a...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial abnormal microenvironment caused by microperfusion of l-glutamate (Glu) and Ca²⁺ in the hippocampus results in neuron damage, which is closely related to cerebral ischemia. Ginsenoside Rb1, a compound from Panax notoginseng, was previously used to counter the artificial abnormal hippocampal environment in a microperfusion model. In addit...
Article
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical role in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known about the function of lncRNAs in the colorectal liver metastasis (CLM). This study was designed to identify specific lncRNAs correlating to liver metastasis of CRC, and to further assess their clinical value. Seventee...
Article
Chemotherapeutic agents are very well evident extrinsic stimuli for causing damage to endothelial cells. Methotrexate is an antimetabolite commonly used to treat solid tumours and paediatric cancers. However, studies on the effect(s) of methotrexate on bone marrow microvascular system are inadequate. In the current study, we observed a significant...
Article
While previous studies have shown that the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) alone is not sufficient to reflect tumor progression and that cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2) expression is correlated with colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis, COX‐2 expression status and its potential functions in CTCs of CRC patients are unknown. Here, epithelial‐mesench...
Article
Cancer treatments with cytotoxic drugs have been shown to cause bone loss. However, effects on bone are less clear for ErbB‐targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors or their combination use with cytotoxic drugs. This study examined the effects of individual or combination treatments with breast cancer drugs lapatinib (a dual ErbB1/ErbB2 inhibitor) and...
Article
The application of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis has long been an area of interest. However, the clinical application of PEMFs remains limited because of the poor understanding of the PEMF action mechanism. Here, we report that PEMFs promote bone formation by activating soluble adenylyl cyclas...
Article
Faulty bony repair causes dysrepair of injured growth plate cartilage and bone growth defects in children; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Recently, we observed the prominent induction of neurotrophin‑3 (NT-3) and its important roles as an osteogenic and angiogenic factor promoting the bony repair. The current study investigated its...
Article
Full-text available
Background/aims: Narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal is a condition called lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and is a high-morbidity problem in the elderly. LSS is commonly caused by hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum (HLF). Previous studies showed that fibrosis of the ligamentum flavum (LF) largely contributed to HLF. However, the underlying pathom...
Article
Full-text available
We proposed a three-step strategy to obtain the optimal therapeutic parameters, which is composed of large-scale screening at cellular level, verification in animal experiments, and confirmation by a clinical trial. The objective of the current study was to test the feasibility of our strategy. Newborn rat calvarial osteoblasts were treated by 50 H...
Article
Full-text available
Cover: The cover image, by Yin et al., is based on the Original Research Article, Mechanical unloading reduces microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 expression to inhibit β‐Catenin Signaling and osteoblast proliferation, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.26374.
Article
Full-text available
Lymphatic metastasis is facilitated by lymphangiogenic growth factor VEGFC that is secreted by some primary tumors. We previously identified tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15), a blood vascular endothelium‐derived cytokine, in lymphatic endothelial cells, as a key molecular modulator during lymphangiogenesis. However, the effect of TNFS...
Article
Short stature is a characteristic feature of most of the mucopolysaccharidoses, a group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders caused by a single enzyme deficiency. MPS patients present with progressive skeletal defects from an early age, including short stature due to impaired cartilage-to-bone conversion (endochondral ossification). The aim of...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Epimedium sagittatum brevicornum Maxim. is an important traditional Chinese herb that has long been used to promote bone fracture healing and treat osteoporosis. Aim of the study: Achieving peak bone mass by adolescence has now been accepted to be fundamental for preventing osteoporosis in adulthood life. This stu...
Article
Prenylation of bioactive natural compounds has been postulated to be able to enhance the utilization rate and affinity of the compounds with cell membranes, thus promote their bioactivities. Coumestrol, isolated from Medicago sativa, has been known as a phytoestrogen which has bone health benefits. In our previous work, psoralidin, a prenylated cou...
Article
Purpose of review: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) critically impact on cancer patients' quality of life, causing various complications, and increasing the risk of chemotherapeutic failure. Current treatments addressing CINV are reasonably costly and have many side effects. Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) have been widely used in t...
Article
Full-text available
Osteoporosis is a systemic bone metabolic disease that is highly prevalent in the elderly population, particularly in postmenopausal women, which results in enhanced bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures. However, the underlying molecular pathogenesis mechanisms still remain to be further elucidated. In this study, in a rat ov...
Article
Disc degeneration alters the structure and function of intervertebral discs and is the basis of spinal degenerative diseases. To establish the molecular mechanism of intervertebral disc degeneration caused by mechanical strain, this study examined the effects of different amplitude (3%, 9%, 19%) cyclic mechanical strain (CMS) at a low frequency (0....