Cornelis van Leeuwen

Cornelis van Leeuwen
Bordeaux Sciences Agro · Viticulture and Enology

PhD

About

265
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (265)
Article
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Measurement of carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C) in berry juice sugars provides an integrative indicator of grapevine water status during berry ripening. Characterizing vine water status during this critical period is useful because it has an important effect on the quality of grapes and the resulting wine. The δ13C of the sugar in grapes is als...
Article
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Harvesting grapes at adequate maturity is key to the production of high-quality red wines. Viticulturists, enologists, and wine makers define several types of maturity, including physiological maturity, technological maturity, phenolic maturity, and aromatic maturity. Physiological maturity is a biological concept. Technological maturity and phenol...
Article
Measurement of carbon isotope discrimination in berry juice at maturity (δ13C) provides an integrated assessment of vine water status and water use efficiency (WUE) during the period of berry ripening, and when collected over multiple seasons, can provide an indication of drought stress responses. Berry juice δ13C measurements were carried out on 4...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen (N) is an essential element for vine development and yield; it is also involved in the winemaking process and significantly affects wine composition. It is therefore essential to control and optimise plant N use to ensure an adequate N composition of the grapes at harvest. An improved understanding of the impact of cultivation practices on...
Article
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In wine growing regions around the world, climate change has the potential to affect vine transpiration and overall vineyard water use due to related changes in daily atmospheric conditions and soil water deficits. Grapevines control their transpiration in response to such changes by regulating conductance of water through the soil-plant-atmosphere...
Article
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With global warming, grapevine is expected to be increasingly exposed to water deficits occurring at various development stages. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential impacts of projected climate change on water deficits from the flowering to veraison period for two main white wine cultivars (Riesling and Müller-Thurgau) in Germany....
Article
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In response to changes in their environments, grapevines regulate transpiration using various physiological mechanisms that alter conductance of water through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Expressed as bulk stomatal conductance at the canopy scale, it varies diurnally in response to changes in vapor pressure deficit and net radiation, and ov...
Article
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Background and Aims Knowing the impact of cultural practices on nitrogen (N) dynamics in perennial crops is critical to promote N use efficiency. This study focused on the impact of crop regulation on the plant N dynamics, on the fruit N composition, and on the N fertilisation use efficiency. Methods and Results A large crop load gradient was set...
Article
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In Europe, most of vineyards are managed under rainfed conditions, where water deficit has become increasingly an issue. The flowering-veraison phenophase represents an important period for vine response to water stress, which is known to depend on variety characteristics, soil and climate conditions. In this paper, we have carried out a retrospect...
Article
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In winegrowing regions around the world increasing temperature associated with climate change is responsible for earlier harvests and is implicated in undesirably high sugar concentrations at harvest. Determining the suitability of grapevine varieties in existing or new winegrowing areas has often been based on temperature, without considering othe...
Article
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This review addresses the role of nitrogen (N) in vine balance and grape composition. It offers an integrative approach to managing grapevine N nutrition. Keeping in mind that N excess is just as detrimental to wine quality as N depletion, the control of grapevine N status, and ultimately must N composition, is critical for high-quality grape produ...
Article
Terroir is about the link between wine and its origin. It has long been understood by sensory evaluation that the taste of wine from a given variety can be related to its origins. Specific organoleptic characteristics of wine are influenced by environmental factors such as soil and climate. By deconstructing the effect of measurable soil and climat...
Article
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Grapevine phenology is advancing with increased temperatures associated with climate change. This may result in higher fruit sugar concentrations at harvest and/or earlier compressed harvests and changes in the synchrony of sugar with other fruit metabolites. One adaptation strategy that growers may use to maintain typicity of wine style is to chan...
Article
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Terroir relates the taste of wine to the place where it was produced. It involves the influence of climate, soil, cultivar and viticultural practices. Huge progression has been achieved over the past years in the understanding of how the soil can shape the quality and the style of a wine. To do so, the soil effect needs to be broken into measurable...
Technical Report
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Climate change will likely increase the risk of drought because of increased temperatures and changing rainfall patterns, and growers are already struggling to adapt. This is apparent in the increased use of irrigation in traditionally rain-fed regions, which threatens environmental sustainability (Costa et al., 2016). In a water scarce future wher...
Article
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In rainfed agriculture systems, rainfall water management (harvesting, storage, and efficient use) is a key issue. At local scale (i.e., from 100 m to 50 km), the impact of rainfall spatial and temporal variability on crop water availability is seldom addressed. In order to accurately depict the space and time variations of rainfall at local scale,...
Article
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This study looked for a possible link between the water and nitrogen regimes measured in the vineyard and the aromatic compounds responsible for the aging bouquet of red wines. The wines studied for this purpose were produced in the Bordeaux region and aged for between 10 and 20 years. The levels of aromatic compounds such as tabanones and dimethyl...
Article
Nitrogen deficit affects both crop production and composition, particularly in crops requiring an optimal fruit N content for aroma development. The adaptation of cultural practices to improve N use efficiency (NUE) (i.e. N uptake, assimilation and partitioning) is a priority for the sustainable production of high-quality crops. A trial was set on...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen deficit affects both crop production and composition, particularly in crops requiring an optimal fruit N content for aroma development. The adaptation of cultural practices to improve N use efficiency (NUE) (i.e. N uptake, assimilation and partitioning) is a priority for the sustainable production of high-quality crops. A trial was set on...
Article
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Budbreak date in grapevine is strictly dependent on temperature, and the correct simulation of its occurrence is of great interest since it may have major consequences on the final yield and quality. In this study, we evaluated the reliability for budbreak simulation of two modeling approaches, the chilling-forcing (CF), which describes the entire...
Article
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Climate is a major factor of the physical environment influencing terroir expression in viticulture. Thermal conditions strongly impact vine development and grape composition. Spatializing this parameter at local scale allows for more refined vineyard management. In this study, temperature variability was investigated over an area of 19,233 ha with...
Article
Currently, for monitoring the ripening of grape berries, different devices are used to produce the juices to be analysed. Crushing the berries is a key step that determines the quantity of juice extracted and may impact it composition. The effect of different devices on analytical parameters of the musts produced were compared in this study. Sample...
Article
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Agrobiodiversity—the variation within agricultural plants, animals, and practices—is often suggested as a way to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on crops [S. A. Wood et al. , Trends Ecol. Evol. 30, 531–539 (2015)]. Recently, increasing research and attention has focused on exploiting the intraspecific genetic variation within a crop...
Article
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Measuring seasonal plant water status is critical in choosing appropriate management strategies to ensure yields and quality of agricultural products, particularly in a context of climate change. Water status of grapevines is known to be a key factor for yield, grape composition, and wine quality. Predawn leaf water potential (PLWP) and stem water...
Article
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Le développement de la vigne au cours de l’année est rythmé par l’apparition de stades clés comme le débourrement, la floraison et la véraison. Leur suivi précis à l’échelle d’un vignoble est indispensable pour une gestion technique performante. Il permet de connaître la précocité relative des parcelles d’une exploitation, de caractériser le millés...
Article
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Grape growers have always cultivated vineyards in challenging environments, adapting their practices to sometimes very difficult local conditions. Climate change, as a new player, is modifying the terroirs’ characteristics rapidly and irremediably, giving viticulturalists major new challenges to face.
Article
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Phenology is concerned with the periodic phenomenon of the vine growing cycle (bud burst, flowering, veraison (color change), in relation to the climate. It is a veritable biological clock of the vines. The timing of the numerous operations in the vineyard (phytosanitary protection, defoliation, crop thinning….) is undertaken in accordance with the...
Article
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Climate change will impose increasingly warm and dry conditions on vineyards. Wine quality and yield are strongly influenced by climatic conditions and depend on complex interactions between temperatures, water availability, plant material, and viticultural techniques. In established winegrowing regions, growers have optimized yield and quality by...
Article
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As the climate changes, genetic adaptation of crops to abiotic stresses is an increasingly important issue, especially for a perennial crops of high economic value such as grapevine. Given the numerous environments where this plant can be found, and the huge intra- and interspecific diversity, we can assume that grapevine genomes contain many aile...
Article
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A comprehensive analysis of all the possible impacts of future climate change is crucial for strategic plans of adaptation for viticulture. Assessments of future climate are generally based on the ensemble mean of state-of-the-art climate model projections, which prefigures a gradual warming over Europe for the 21st century. However, a few models p...
Article
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Wine aging bouquet is defined as a positive, complex evolution of aromas during bottle aging. The aim of this study was to look for the link between some of the vine status parameters and the development, during wine ageing, of volatile compounds, such as DMS, tabanones and some wine aromatic heterocycles. The potential influence of air temperature...
Article
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Background Berry size is considered an important quality factor in red wine production. The objective of this work was to study the effect of vine water status on berry mass in field conditions, with a specific focus on berry tissue masses. Results The study was carried out over two years in a parcel located in Sicily (Italy). Two irrigation treat...
Article
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Aims: Climate change imposes increasingly warm and dry conditions in most winegrowing regions. Mediterranean vineyards are particularly vulnerable and have registered, in most situations, declining yields over the past years. Although a majority of Mediterranean vineyards are still dry-farmed, yields can be increased by the implementation of irriga...
Article
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On April 13, 2019, Professor Gérard Seguin passed away at the age of 82. Professor Seguin was a creative and enlightened researcher and a much respected professor in soil and terroir sciences at Bordeaux University. Encouraged by his mentor, the late Emile Peynaud, he developed a whole new field of research on the influence of soil and climate on v...
Preprint
Grapevine Fanleaf Virus (GFLV) is the main virus disease on grapevine. Yield and vigour decrease quickly due to viral diseases which considerably reduces the lifespan of a vineyard plot. Such situations can be avoided by applying some precautions in the period between uprooting and replanting, based on the latest research findings. As fanleaf disea...
Article
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Aim: Fifteen nepoviruses are able to induce fanleaf degeneration in grapes, which is the viral disease with the highest economic impact. Grapevine FanLeaf Virus (GFLV) is the main causal agent of this disease worldwide and in Europe, followed by Arabis Mosaic Virus (ArMV). A third nepovirus has been described in France: Tomato Black Ring Virus (TBR...
Article
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strong>Aim : Fifteen nepoviruses are able to induce fanleaf degeneration in grapes, which is the viral disease with the highest economic impact. Grapevine FanLeaf Virus (GFLV) is the main causal agent of this disease worldwide and in Europe, followed by Arabis Mosaic Virus (ArMV). A third nepovirus has been described in France: Tomato Black Ring Vi...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature is a driving climate variable for grapevine development and grape ripening kinetics. The current study first reports interpolation of daily minimum and maximum temperature data by a weather station network from 2001 to 2005 in the Bordeaux (France) region by means of regression kriging using terrain, satellite and land-cover derived cov...
Book
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Adaptation to abiotic stresses is a complex and challenging biological issue for a genetician, especially for perennial plants such as grapevine. According to Copper and Hammer (1996), adaptation is both a “status” and a “process”. The “status” characterizes a genotype with a specific combination of alleles which allows the plant to survive and per...
Article
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A “terroir” is a cultivated ecosystem in which the vine interacts with the soil and the climate. The soil influences vine development and grape ripening through soil temperature, water supply and mineral supply. Soil temperature has a significant effect on vine phenology. Limited water supply to the vines restricts shoot and berry growth, which is...
Article
Full-text available
A "terroir" is a cultivated ecosystem in which the vine interacts with the soil and the climate. The soil influences vine phenology and grape ripening through soil temperature, water supply and mineral supply. Limited water supply to the vines is critical for reaching a suitable grape composition in order to produce high quality red wines. Soil nit...
Article
Tardive frosts, i.e. frost events occurring after grapevine budburst, are a significant risk for viticultural practices, which have recently caused substantial yield losses over different winegrowing regions of France, e.g. in 2016 and 2017. So far, it is unclear whether the frequency of late frosts events is destined to increase or decrease under...
Article
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Grapevines are crops of global economic importance that will face increasing drought stress because many varieties are described as highly sensitive to hydraulic failure as frequency and intensity of summer drought increase. We developed and used novel approaches to define water stress thresholds for preventing hydraulic failure, which were compare...
Article
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Climate is a major terroir factor in viticulture. In winegrowing regions, climate is studied at an increasingly refined scale. Results from the Life ADVICLIM project show substantial spatial variability of temperatures inside the region of Saint-Emilion, Pomerol and surrounding appellations (Bordeaux, France). In this study we investigated climatic...
Article
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Taking into account the major economical role and specificities of the French wine industry, adaptation to climate change is a very challenging issue. In 2011, 23 research teams launched a systemic and multidisciplinary program to analyze the impacts from the vine to the region, to define adaptation strategies combining technical, spatial and organ...
Article
Full-text available
In wine producing regions around the world, climate change has the potential to decrease the frequency and amount of precipitation and increase average and extreme temperatures. This will both lower soil water availability and increase evaporative demand in vineyards, thereby increasing soil water deficits and associated vine stress. Grapevines con...