Constantine Tsigos

Constantine Tsigos
Harokopio University | HUA

MD. PhD

About

122
Publications
35,095
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12,267
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1996 - present
Hygeia Hospital
Position
  • Consultant

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
Full-text available
Background/objectives: Low/moderate alcohol consumption seems to be protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to investigate the association of wine/beer consumption with the 10-year CVD incidence. Subjects/methods: During 2001-2002, 3042 CVD-free adults consented to participate in the ATTICA study; of them 2583 completed...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeOlive oil, being rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids and anti-inflammatory compounds, may have protective effects against cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the present work was to examine the association of olive oil consumption with the 10-year CVD incidence in adults without pre-existing CVD. Methods The ATTICA Study is a prospecti...
Article
Background and aims: The lipid accumulation product (LAP) is an index describing lipid over-accumulation based on waist circumference (WC) and fasting triglycerides, and can outperform the body mass index (BMI) in recognizing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We aimed to explore the association of LAP with long-term CVD risk and compare its CVD-p...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in the ATTICA study, and whether this is modified by the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) at baseline. Methods: During 2001-2002, 3042 healthy adults (1514 men and 1528 women) living in t...
Chapter
Stress can be defined as a state of threatened body homeostasis which mobilizes a spectrum of adaptive physiologic and behavioral responses via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), i.e., the two main effector pathways of the stress system. These adaptive responses aim to reestablish the challenged...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular-protective properties. Existing epidemiological evidence is conflicting on the exact relationship between adiponectin and long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Our aim was to prospectively assess whether circulating adiponectin is associated with long-term incide...
Article
Background /Aims: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has been proposed as a marker of visceral adipose tissue accumulation/dysfunction. Our aim was to evaluate potential associations between the VAI and the 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. Methods and Results During 2001-2002, 3042 Greek adults (1514 men; age: ≥ 18 years) without previo...
Article
Aims: Body fat accumulation is implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our objective was to explore potential associations between anthropometric indices and the 10-year CVD incidence in Greek adults without previous CVD. Methods: During 2001-2, we enrolled 3042 adults without CVD from the general population of Attica, Gre...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. Design: Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-2...
Chapter
The adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Glucocorticoids control body homeostasis, stress, and immune responses, while mineralocorticoids regulate the water and electrolyte balance. A spectrum of genetic defects can disrupt the normal adrenal development, causing adrenal hypoplasia and various...
Article
Background Chronic stress frequently manifests with anxiety and/or depressive symptomatology and may have detrimental cardiometabolic effects over time. As such, recognising the potential links between stress-related psychological disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming increasingly important in cardiovascular epidemiology research....
Article
Background/objectives: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in the ATTICA Study, and whether this is modified by the baseline presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: During 2001-2002, 3042 healthy adults...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease characterised by an increase of body fat stores. It is a gateway to ill health, and it has become one of the leading causes of disability and death, affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents worldwide. In clinical practice, the body fatness is estimated by BMI, and the accumulation of intra-a...
Article
This large cross-sectional, multi-center study evaluated the association of body composition measurements by a novel dual frequency bio-impedance device (BIA-ACC) with chronic stress/inflammation biomarkers and presence of Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS). Participants were adult Caucasians of both sexes and included 10416 lean subjects with no...
Article
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Improving cardiovascular (CV) risk profile, by lowering elevated body weight, blood pressure (BP), plasma cholesterol, and blood glucose (BG) levels, is of relevance for decreasing fatal and nonfatal CV events in young and middle-aged patients (1–4). Evidence also exists that the above-mentioned interventions are also highly effective in older pati...
Article
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The prevalence of obesity is rising progressively, even among older age groups. By the year 2030–2035 over 20% of the adult US population and over 25% of the Europeans will be aged 65 years and older. The predicted prevalence of obesity in Americans, 60 years and older was 37% in 2010. The predicted prevalence of obesity in Europe in 2015 varies be...
Article
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Obesity is recognised as a global epidemic and the most prevalent metabolic disease world-wide. Specialised obesity services, however, are not widely available in Europe, and obesity care can vary enormously across European regions. The European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO, www.easo.org) has developed these criteria to form a pan-Eur...
Article
Stress has long been suspected of having major effects on glucose homeostasis. These effects are mediated by glucocorticoids and catecholamines, the principal effectors of the stress response. Epidemiological data provide evidence for a significant positive association between cortisol levels, and hence the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ad...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity and type 2 diabetes constitute major public health issues in modern societies worldwide. Their prevalence on a global scale is alarming, and efforts to control their spread represent a priority of the public health agenda (1). Obesity is clearly driving a parallel epidemic of associated chronic diseases in all age-groups, including type 2 d...
Article
Stress, defined as a state of threatened homeostasis, mobilizes a complex spectrum of adaptive physiologic and behavioral responses that aim to re-establish the challenged body homeostasis. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) constitute the main effector pathways of the stress system, mediating its...
Article
Full-text available
Resistin has been shown to cause insulin resistance and to impair glucose tolerance in rodents, but in humans its physiological role still remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine whether resistin mRNA expression in human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and its corresponding plasma levels are altered in type 2 diabetes. Resistin m...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic stress represents a prolonged state of dyshomeostasis caused by intense and frequently imposed stressors. Obesity constitutes a chronic dysmetabolic state, leading progressively to a spectrum of metabolic complications, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Alpha growing body of evidence supports the exist...
Article
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The development of consensus guidelines for obesity is complex. It involves recommending both treatment interventions and interventions related to screening and prevention. With so many publications and claims, and with the awareness that success for the individual is short-lived, many find it difficult to know what action is appropriate in the man...
Article
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In 2005, for the first time in European history, an extraordinary expert panel named BSCG (Bariatric Scientific Collaborative Group), was appointed through joint effort of the major European scientific societies which are active in the field of obesity management. Societies that constituted this panel were: IFSO - International Federation for the S...
Article
Visfatin, is a new adipokine, highly expressed in the visceral fat of both mice and humans. To examine whether visfatin is expressed in human peripheral monocyte-enriched mononuclear cells and whether its expression is altered in type 2 diabetes (DM2), we compared 24 DM2 women [17 overweight (BMI >25) and 7 lean (BMI<25)] to 26 healthy women (14 ov...
Article
Stress can be defined as a state of threatened homeostasis or disharmony. An intricate repertoire of physiologic and behavioral responses is mobilized under stressful situations forming the adaptive stress response that aims to reestablish the challenged body equilibrium. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the central and peripheral compon...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background and Aims: Adipocytokines, like TNF-α, visfatin and resistin, have been suggested to be important regulators of insulin resistance, and may provide the molecular links between visceral obesity, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. We examined whether TNF-α, visfatin and resistin mRNA expression from human peripheral mononuclear cells is a...
Article
Full-text available
In 2005, for the first time in European history, an extraordinary Expert panel named 'The BSCG' (Bariatric Scientific Collaborative Group), was appointed through joint effort of the major European Scientific Societies which are active in the field of obesity management. Societies that constituted this panel were: IFSO - International Federation for...
Article
Full-text available
In 2005, for the first time, an expert panel named “The Bariatric Scientific Collaborative Group” (BSCG), was appointed through a joint effort of the major European Scientific Societies which are active in the field of obesity management. Societies that constituted this panel were: International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity – European Chap...
Article
Full-text available
In 2005, for the first time in European history, an extraordinary Expert panel named 'The BSCG' (Bariatric Scientific Collaborative Group), was appointed through joint effort of the major European Scientific Societies which are active in the field of obesity management. Societies that constituted this panel were: IFSO - International Federation for...
Article
Stress, such as nutrient deprivation, viral infections, inflammation, heat shock, or lipid accumulation, imposes a serious threat to the body. These stimuli, acting both on the central control stations of the stress system and its final effectors, catecholamines and glucocorticoids, and on the peripheral target tissues, can modulate insulin action...
Article
Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis or disharmony caused by intrinsic or extrinsic adverse forces and is counteracted by an intricate repertoire of physiologic and behavioral responses that aim to reestablish the challenged body equilibrium. The adaptive stress response depends upon an elaborate neuroendocrine, cellular, and molecular infra...
Article
Chronic inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in metabolic diseases, such as atherothrombosis and type 2 diabetes. A lot of research has focused on the immunomodulatory effects of several nutrients, such as fatty acids, antioxidants, carbohydrates, specific amino acids, micronutrients, and alcohol, which play a crucial role in t...
Article
The endogenous cannabinoid system is a novel, remarkably elaborate physiological signaling system, comprising the recently identified endogenous cannabinoid ligands, their corresponding selective receptors, and the machinery of proteins and enzymes that is involved in their biosynthesis, release, transport, and degradation. This system extends wide...
Article
Isolated glucocorticoid deficiency (IGD) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by glucocorticoid insufficiency without mineralocorticoid deficiency. Mutations in the coding region of the ACTH receptor (MC2R) have been reported in several families with IGD. We amplified and sequenced the entire MC2R coding region in a new family with IGD....
Article
Leptin, the adipocyte hormone, and its receptor have been implicated in the differentiation/proliferation of hematopoietic cells. Given that the deregulated expression of a variety of growth factors and/or their receptors has been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain leukemias, we aimed to characterize the potential differences in the expressi...
Article
Full-text available
The stress response is subserved by the stress system, which is located both in the central nervous system and the periphery. The principal effectors of the stress system include corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH); arginine vasopressin; the proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and beta-endorphin, the glucocor...
Article
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis outlines the tight hormonal coupling of the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary and the adrenal cortex (Fig. 1). A linear progression characterizes the downstream activation of the axis while reciprocal feedback loops exist at each level to fine-tune the potency of the response and ensure optimal hormo...
Article
To study the effect of two different isoenergetic meals, one rich in carbohydrates and one rich in fat, on plasma active ghrelin levels in lean or obese subjects. Eight obese and eight lean women, strictly matched for age, were fed two isoenergetic meals of different composition, one rich in fat and one rich in carbohydrates (CHO), on separate days...
Article
Food ingestion can influence autonomic nervous system activity. This study compares the effects of 2 different isoenergetic meals on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels, in lean and obese women. Fifteen lean and 15 obese healthy women were examined on 2 occasions:...
Article
The stress system coordinates the adaptive responses of the organism to stressors of any kind.(1). The main components of the stress system are the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and locus ceruleus-norepinephrine (LC/NE)-autonomic systems and their peripheral effectors, the pituitary-adrenal axis, and the limbs of the autonomic system. Activ...
Article
Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a glucocorticoid adrenal insufficiency without mineralocorticoid deficiency. Mutations of the ACTH receptor (MC2-R) gene have been reported in some FGD cases, but only a few of them have been functionally studied. We reported clinical features and MC2-R gen...
Article
Full-text available
The role of desmopressin, alone or in combination with CRH, in the differential diagnosis between Cushing's disease (CD) and ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS) still remains uncertain. Based on existing data, the desmopressin test is regarded as an alternative to the CRH stimulation test and, when given in combination with CRH, it has been suggested to c...
Article
Great progress has been made in identifying several genes and in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of inherited syndromes of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM). In humans, mutations in leptin, leptin receptor, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) have been described in patients with sev...
Article
Full-text available
The role of desmopressin, alone or in combination with CRH, in the differential diagnosis between Cushing’s disease (CD) and ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS) still remains uncertain. Based on existing data, the desmopressin test is regarded as an alternative to the CRH stimulation test and, when given in combination with CRH, it has been suggested to c...
Article
Full-text available
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), a cytokine produced at inflammatory sites and in adipose tissue, is known primarily for its detrimental effects on insulin action. There is evidence to suggest that TNFalpha may also influence beta-cell function. Leptin is another adipose tissue-derived hormone that might also act on beta-cells. We explored t...
Article
Full-text available
Aberrant gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor expression in bilaterally hyperplastic adrenals or unilateral adrenal adenomas is a rare form of adrenal hyperfunction. So far, only few cases have been described. In all these cases, cortisol was the predominant steroid released in a food-dependent manner, leading to the development of non-ACT...
Article
Full-text available
Aberrant gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor expression in bilaterally hyperplastic adrenals or unilateral adrenal adenomas is a rare form of adrenal hyperfunction. So far, only few cases have been described. In all these cases, cortisol was the predominant steroid released in a food-dependent manner, leading to the development of non-ACT...
Article
Leptin, the adipocyte-derived hormone, is secreted into the blood and regulates body weight via its receptors in the hypothalamus. Leptin receptors are also present in many peripheral tissues implicating leptin in the regulation of other body functions, including reproduction, liver and enteric metabolism, hematopoiesis, and immunity. Four splice v...
Article
Isolated glucocorticoid deficiency (IGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by primary adrenocortical insufficiency, without mineralocorticoid deficiency. Mutations of the ACTH receptor gene have been reported in several families with IGD. We have amplified and directly sequenced the entire intronless ACTH receptor gene in a new famil...
Chapter
The recent cloning of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor gene has greatly increased our understanding of the molecular basis of ACTH action and, hence, of the normal and pathologic functioning of its principal target organ, the adrenal cortex. This chapter will focus on the clinical forms of hereditary ACTH-resistance syndromes and the...
Conference Paper
Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 3 healthy adults 1.5x106 cells were cultured and incubated separately with glucose (33 mM), insulin (20 IU/l) and leptin (100 ng/ml) for 6 hours.Secretion of TNFα and IL-6 was measured in cell-free culture supernatant using an ELISA method ( R & D Systems) . Total RNA was extracted and use...
Article
Inflammatory cytokines are soluble mediators of immune function that also regulate intermediate metabolism and several endocrine axes. To examine the effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6), the main circulating cytokine, on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in men, we performed dose-response studies of recombinant human IL-6 (rHuIL-6) in normal v...
Article
Familial isolated glucocorticoid deficiency is a form of potentially lethal hereditary unresponsiveness to ACTH that manifests as primary adrenal insufficiency, usually without mineralocorticoid deficiency. Affected children commonly present with hyperpigmentation, recurrent hypoglycemia, chronic asthenia and failure to thrive within the first 2 ye...
Article
Fat tissue is a significant source of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the pluripotent cytokine that plays an important role as a mediator of the peripheral insulin resistance found in obesity. The majority of evidence for this role of TNFalpha is from studies in animal models of obesity. To explore further the role of TNFalpha in...
Article
Full-text available
Nontraumatic avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip is commonly caused by exogenous glucocorticoid administration, whereas it has rarely been associated with endogenous hypercortisolism. We report a 30-yr-old woman with Cushing's disease whose presenting manifestation was early AVN of the hip. Although plain x-ray was negative, magnetic resonance imag...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aims: TNF-α, a cytokine with important effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, is released in the circulation in response to infectious / inflammatory stimuli and in conditions of cancer cachexia. TNF-α is also overproduced, together with leptin, in the adipose tissue of obese individuals. We examined the acute and chronic effects of TNF-α and lep...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aims: TNF-α, a cytokine produced at inflammatory sites and in adipose tissue, is known primarily for its detrimental effects on insulin action. There is evidence to suggest that TNF-α may also influence β-cell function. Leptin is another adipose tissue derived hormone that might also act on β-cells. We explored the independent and combined effects...
Article
Nontraumatic avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip is commonly caused by exogenous glucocorticoid administration, whereas it has rarely been associated with endogenous hypercortisolism. We report a 30-yr-old woman with Cushing’s disease whose presenting manifestation was early AVN of the hip. Although plain x-ray was negative, magnetic resonance imag...
Article
Full-text available
Multidrug antiretroviral regimens that include human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors are associated with distinct lipodystrophy, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, and deposition of visceral abdominal adipose tissue. To determine whether these findings are related to abnormalities of adrenal function, we compared the hypot...
Article
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced in response to inflammatory and noninflammatory stress and acts as the principal regulator of the acute-phase protein response. IL-6 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and may be involved in the thyroid function abnormalities observed in nonthyroidal illness (NTI). This study examined the effects of...