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Constantine Sandis

Constantine Sandis
Lex Academic

PhD
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78
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Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Elizabeth Anscombe was one of the most important and original philosophers of the twentieth century, as well as being a friend, a student, and the main translator of Ludwig Wittgenstein. She wrote on a wide range of philosophical topics, publishing a handful of books and a large corpus of articles in her lifetime. This collection of twenty-two essa...
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Book
L'ouvrage se compose d'articles de philosophie de l'action écrits par Constantine Sandis et regroupés par lui en un volume destiné à la publication française. Les articles sont les suivants :1.‘Basic Actions and Individuation’, from (eds. O’ Connor & Sandis) A Companion to (Wiley-Blackwell), 2010.2.‘Dretske on the Causation of Behavior’, from Behav...
Article
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Aquest article argumenta que hi havia considerablement més filosofia d’acció en teoria moral abans de 1958 (quan Anscombe es va queixar que en faltava sota el lema «filosofia de la psicologia») que la que hi ha hagut des de llavors. Això es deu en part al fet que Anscombe va influir en la formació de la «teoria de la virtut» com una posició més din...
Chapter
Constantine Sandis takes on a very first evaluation of Waismann’s essay and shows that Waismann’s discussion of the scientific constrains on ethics is very much not anti-scientistic. Unlike Wittgenstein, Waismann does not dismiss morality as nonsense. Sandis associates Waismann’s view with expressivism, similar to the emotivism defended by his cont...
Article
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In this paper we propose a new interpretation of Hegel's views on action and responsibility, defending it against its most plausible exegetical competitors. ¹ Any exposition of Hegel will face both terminological and substantive challenges, and so we place, from the outset, some interpretative constraints. The paper divides into two parts. In part...
Article
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Abstract Psychological eudaimonism (PE) is the view that we are constituted by a desire to avoid the harmful. This entails that coming to see a prospective or actual object of pursuit as harmful to us will unseat our positive evaluative belief about (and co-instantiated desire for) that object (§I). There is more than one way that such an 'unseatin...
Article
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This essay discusses Kant and Hegel’s philosophies of action and the place of action within the general structure of their practical philosophy. We begin by briefly noting a few things that both unite and distinguish the two philosophers. In the sections that follow, we consider these and their corollaries in more detail. In so doing, we map their...
Article
This essay is motivated by the thought that the things we do are to be distinguished from our acts of doing them. I defend a particular way of drawing this distinction before proceeding to demonstrate its relevance for normative ethics. Central to my argument is the conviction that certain ongoing debates in ethical theory begin to dissolve once we...
Chapter
This chapter allies Bob Dylan with Wittgenstein to argue that Lockean approaches to understanding systematically neglect crucial aspects of our experience of art. Pace Rush Rhees, I maintain that understanding art is not a matter of knowing ideas. If this were so all art would be unhappily rendered into conceptual art.
Chapter
Wittgenstein's earlier treatment of causation and induction remains thought-provoking and relevant to contemporary debates in the philosophy of science. Wittgenstein's approach to causation and induction in the Tractatus emerges in the context of two separate, but related discussions. A negative discussion that aims to expose a particular understan...
Article
This essay brings together questions from aesthetic theory and museum management. In particular, I relate a contextualist account of the value of copies to a pluralistic understanding of the purpose of museums. I begin by offering a new defence of the no longer fashionable view that the aesthetic (as opposed to the ethical, personal, monetary, hist...
Article
In this essay I revisit some anti-causalist arguments relating to reason-giving explanations of action put forth by numerous philosophers writing in the late ‘50s and early ‘60s in what Donald Davidson dismissively described as a ‘neo-Wittgensteinian current of small red books’. While chiefly remembered for subscribing to what has come to be called...
Chapter
Standard economic theory makes an allowance for the agency problem, but not the compounding of moral hazard in the presence of informational opacity, particularly in what concerns high-impact events in fat tailed domains (under slow convergence for the law of large numbers). Nor did it look at exposure as a filter that removes nefarious risk takers...
Article
This essay introduces a tension between the public Wittgenstein’s optimism about knowledge of other minds and the private Wittgenstein’s pessimism about understanding others. There are three related reasons which render the tension unproblematic. First, the barriers he sought to destroy were metaphysical ones, whereas those he struggled to overcome...
Article
This paper examines the relation between the various forces which underlie human action and verbal reports about our reasons for acting as we did. I maintain that much of the psychological literature on confabulations rests on a dangerous conflation of the reasons for which people act with a variety of distinct motivational factors. In particular,...
Article
Full-text available
Standard economic theory makes an allowance for the agency problem, but not the compounding of moral hazard in the presence of informational opacity, particularly in what concerns high-impact events in fat tailed domains. Nor did it look at exposure as a filter that removes bad risk takers from the system so they stop harming others. But the ancien...
Article
Standard economic theory makes an allowance for the agency problem, but not the compounding of moral hazard in the presence of informational opacity, particularly in what concerns high-impact events in fat tailed domains. Nor did it look at exposure as an evolutionary filter that removes bad risk takers from the system so they stop harming others....
Chapter
In this paper we focus on the reasons why great apes should be considered as part of our moral community and thus be protected from harm
Article
This paper distinguishes between various different conceptions of behaviour and action before exploring an accompanying variety of distinct things that ‘action explanation’ may plausibly amount to viz. different objectives of action explanation. I argue that a large majority of philosophers are guilty of conflating many of these, consequently offer...
Article
This paper critically explores the expressivist understanding of punishment which lies at the heart of Christopher Bennett's book The Apology Ritual. There seems to be a tension in Bennett's simultaneous treatment of offenders as people who are, on the one hand, being offered the opportunity to exercise their right to make amends and, on the other,...
Chapter
Suppose that you are welcomed into a friend’s home only to find, as you enter her living-room, a mutual acquaintance frantically stamping on your friend’s coat. Unless you are a mind reader or have had a particularly strange upbringing, you will probably ask yourself the question ‘why on earth is this person doing this to my friend’s coat?’ Differe...
Chapter
Being the book’s opening chapter, in which we are introduced to a multitude of different explanatory aims and various related conceptions of behaviour. It is suggested that there is no such thing as a distinct enquiry of explaining action.
Chapter
Pope’s chauvinistic exclamation that ‘the proper study of Mankind is Man’ is as much a dismissal of ethology as it is of theology. But his quip about what to study plausibly also reflects a view about how to best study it. We find ourselves torn between two inadequate views of human nature, the beastly and the divine, when in truth we are neither g...
Chapter
We have seen how philosophers disagree about both the ontology of agential reasons and whether or not explanations in terms of them are causal. They almost unanimously assume, however, that agential reasons are alone capable of explaining why we act. After all, we are reminded, we can be said to act because of them. Thus, for example, Kieran Setiya...
Chapter
So far, I have argued that most theorists typically conflate three distinct conceptions of behaviour (a–c). That is to say, they write as if the term ‘behaviour’ simultaneously refers to at least two (if not all three) of these. Occasionally one might give explicit expression to such a conflating view. Typically, however, it – and all the other con...
Chapter
Much of this book has focused on the theoretical perils of various conflations relating to actions, reasons, and explanation. I have tried to demonstrate that once we separate different notions of each of these things, previously intractable debates dissolve and the truths emphasised by competing views converge to form a coherent picture of how dif...
Chapter
In the preceding chapters I sought to demonstrate that the debates over the nature of ‘reasons for action’ is largely the result of the mistaken assumption that all parties to the debates use the term ‘action’ to pick out the same the object of explanation. Indeed, many philosophers, I argued, are guilty of conflating two different senses of the te...
Book
The Things We Do and Why We Do Them argues against the common assumption that there is one thing called 'action' which all reason-giving explanations of action are geared towards. Sandis shows why all theories concerned with identifying the nature of our 'real' reasons for action fail from the outset.
Article
This paper explores the role of empathy and detachment in historical explanation by comparing Collingwood and Hume’s philosophies of history to Brecht and Stanislavki’s theories of theatre. I argue that Collingwood’s notion of re-enactment shares much more with Hume and Brecht than it does with Stanislavski. This enables a just medium between ratio...
Chapter
Basic ActionsAction IndividuationReferencesFurther reading
Book
A Companion to the Philosophy of Action offers a comprehensive overview of the issues and problems central to the philosophy of action. The first volume to survey the entire field of philosophy of action (the central issues and processes relating to human actions). Brings together specially commissioned chapters from international experts. Discusse...
Article
Throughout his work Hegel distinguishes between the notion of an act ( Tun ) from the standpoint of the agent (behaviour in so far as it relates to one's own foreknowledge, purpose, intention, and knowledge) and that of all other standpoints (e.g. legal, scientific, cultural, etc.). He terms the former Handlung (action) and the latter Tat (deed). T...
Article
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This paper explores Alfred Hitchcock's use of Freudian psychoanalysis in a number of his films, with particular emphasis on Spellbound (1945), Psycho (1960), and Marnie (1964). I argue that the films (and related primary source material) demonstrate that Hitchcock was largely unconvinced of the validity of psychoanalytic theory and practice which h...
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I here respond to James Warren and John Shand's replies to my paper ‘In Defence of Four Socratic Doctrines’ (all published in THINK 17) by questioning the supremacy of contextualist history of philosophy over the so-called ‘analytic’ approach.
Article
This academic dissertation presents an extensive overview of the current state of affairs of historical scholarship on the extent and scope of Hume's skepticism. Hakkarainen does a commendable job of juxtaposing all the major exegetical positions on Hume's skepticism, the volume thus functioning as an excellent work of reference on this issue. Hakk...
Chapter
This essay offers a new interpretation of Hume’s account of motivation before relating it to certain disputes in modern moral psychology. The essay is divided into three parts. First, I lay down some general distinctions in the so-called theory of motivation (TOM), introducing two related but distinct ongoing debates. Next, in the middle and larges...
Chapter
R.P. Winnington-Ingram opens his famous study of causation in Hippolytus with the following words: Why did the events happen as they did? This is no problem to Aphrodite or to Artemis. Bitter enemies though they may be, on one point they agreed — that what takes place is the work of a god; and the responsibility which Aphrodite claims in the Prolog...
Article
It is well understood and appreciated that Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems apply to sufficiently strong, formal deductive systems. In particular, the theorems apply to systems which are adequate for conventional number theory. Less well known is ...
Article
In this article, Sandis defends four of the most notorious doctrines which Plato attributes to Socrates. The first is the ‘theory’ of forms, the second is the doctrine of recollection, the third Socrates'contention that philosophers ought to be the guardian-kings of the ideal state, and the fourth his rejection of rhetoric. Sandis does not claim th...
Article
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In two recent articles and an earlier book Fred Dretske appeals to a distinction between triggering and structuring causes with the aim of establishing that psychological explanations of behavior differ from non-psychological ones. He concludes that intentional human behavior is triggered by electro-chemical events but structured by representationa...
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Those who object to Donald Davidson’s understanding of how so-called weakness of the will is possible tend to argue that he is in some way committed to claiming that the weak-willed agent holds contradictory judgements in deliberation. In this paper I try to refine the more ambiguous aspects of Davidson’s account in the light of some such objection...
Article
This paper aims to explore the space of possible particularistic approaches to Philosophy of Science by examining the differences and similarities between Jonathan Dancy’s moral particularism—as expressed in both his earlier writings (e.g., Moral Reasons, 1993), and, more explicitly defended in his book Ethics without Principles (2004)—and Nancy Ca...
Article
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This paper focuses on two conflations which frequently appear within the philosophy of history and other fields concerned with action explanation. The first of these, which I call the Conflating View of Reasons, states that the reasons for which we perform actions are reasons why (those events which are) our actions occur. The second, more general...
Article
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Según el método de individuación de acciones de Donald Davidson, los asesinatos tienen lugar antes de la muerte de la víctima. En este artículo critico esta tesis tan antiintuitiva pero también su rival más popular, la de que los asesesinatos no tienen lugar hasta el momento de la muerte de la víctima (en el cual el asesino puede estar haciendo alg...

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