Conrad Perry

Conrad Perry
Swinburne University of Technology · Faculty of Life and Social Sciences

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76
Publications
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Publications

Publications (76)
Article
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How do children learn to read? How do deficits in various components of the reading network affect learning outcomes? How does remediating one or several components change reading performance? In this article, we summarize what is known about learning to read and how this can be formalized in a developmentally plausible computational model of readi...
Article
Full-text available
Young children help others in a range of situations, relatively indiscriminate of the characteristics of those they help. Recent results have suggested that young children’s helping behavior extends even to humanoid robots. However, it has been unclear how characteristics of robots would influence children’s helping behavior. Considering previous f...
Article
While the development of self-recognition in a mirror by toddlers is well documented, less is known about how the presence of a mirror affects young children's behaviour. Here, we explored how the presence of a mirror affected 2.5- to 3.5-year-olds' behaviour in a gift-delay task. Behaviour was assessed for a five-minute test period during which ch...
Chapter
Developmental Dyslexia across Languages and Writing Systems - edited by Ludo Verhoeven October 2019
Article
Young children help people achieve their goals in various situations, even in the absence of verbal requests or rewards. Such help is typically described as “indiscriminate” because children's help is robust across many aspects of the recipient in need. However, as previous studies have almost entirely focused on human recipients, the question aris...
Data
PerrySupplementalMaterial – Supplemental material for Understanding Dyslexia Through Personalized Large-Scale Computational Models
Article
Full-text available
Learning to read is foundational for literacy development, yet many children in primary school fail to become efficient readers despite normal intelligence and schooling. This condition, referred to as developmental dyslexia, has been hypothesized to occur because of deficits in vision, attention, auditory and temporal processes, and phonology and...
Article
Early posterior negativity (EPN) is an early occurring event related potential elicited by pictures and words that have highly arousing characteristics. Whilst it has been found with words presented in isolation several times, different types of words have shown quite different effects across different types of task. One possible reason for this is...
Presentation
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Article
Young children's willingness to spontaneously help others is the subject of a large body of research investigating the ontogeny of moral behavior and thought. A developing debate centers around the extent to which social factors influence the desire to help. Familiarity with the person needing help is one such factor that varies across many studies...
Article
The latest version of the connectionist dual process model of reading (CDP++.parser) was tested on a set of nonwords, many of which were orthographically strange (e.g., PSIZ). A grapheme-by-grapheme read-out strategy was used because the normal strategy produced many poor responses. The new strategy allowed the model to produce results similar to i...
Article
Both computational models of English reading that generate word stress predict a processing advantage for words with initial syllable stress. They differ, however, on whether they process words incrementally and learn nonlinear spelling-stress relationships. Two experiments using event-related potentials were used to investigate these predictions....
Article
Magnetoencephalography was used to examine the effect on the N400m of reading words that create emotional violations in sentences. The beginnings of the sentences were affectively negative and were completed with either a negative congruous, positive incongruous, or neutral incongruous adjective (e.g., "My mother was killed and I felt bad/great/nor...
Article
The present article investigates how phonotactic rules constrain oral reading in the Russian language. The pronunciation of letters in Russian is regular and consistent, but it is subject to substantial phonotactic influence: the position of a phoneme and its phonological context within a word can alter its pronunciation. In Part 1 of the article,...
Article
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The use of prosody during verbal communication is pervasive in everyday language and whilst there is a wealth of research examining the prosodic processing of emotional information, much less is known about the prosodic processing of attitudinal information. The current study investigated the online neural processes underlying the prosodic processi...
Article
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Most models of reading aloud have been constructed to explain data in relatively complex orthographies like English and French. Here, we created an Italian version of the Connectionist Dual Process Model of Reading Aloud (CDP++) to examine the extent to which the model could predict data in a language which has relatively simple orthography-phonolo...
Article
Full-text available
The most influential theory of learning to read is based on the idea that children rely on phonological decoding skills to learn novel words. According to the self-teaching hypothesis, each successful decoding encounter with an unfamiliar word provides an opportunity to acquire word-specific orthographic information that is the foundation of skille...
Data
There is little consensus among different early childhood education stakeholders in Hong Kong on whether it is beneficial or detrimental for children to receive an English bilingual education before the age of 6. This longitudinal study investigated the issue of potential 'detrimental effects of learning English' on Hong Kong kindergarten children'...
Article
It is often assumed that graphemes are a crucial level of orthographic representation above letters. Current connectionist models of reading, however, do not address how the mapping from letters to graphemes is learned. One major challenge for computational modeling is therefore developing a model that learns this mapping and can assign the graphem...
Article
In two experiments, whether people use an orthographic syllable structure based on phonology when reading multi-syllabic words or a structure based on an orthographic scheme first proposed by Taft (1979, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 21–39) was investigated. This was done by presenting words disrupted by a space based on the p...
Article
Most words in English have more than one syllable, yet the most influential computational models of reading aloud are restricted to processing monosyllabic words. Here, we present CDP++, a new version of the Connectionist Dual Process model (Perry, Ziegler, & Zorzi, 2007). CDP++ is able to simulate the reading aloud of mono- and disyllabic words an...
Article
Full-text available
Nonword reading performance, that is, the ability to generate plausible pronunciations to novel items, has probably been the hardest test case for computational models of reading aloud. This is an area where rule-based models, such as the Dual-Route Cascaded (DRC) model, typically outperformed connectionist learning models. However, what is the evi...
Article
Reports an error in "Additive and interactive effects of stimulus degradation: No challenge for CDP+" by Johannes C. Ziegler, Conrad Perry and Marco Zorzi (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2009[Jan], Vol 35[1], 306-311). The URL for the supplemental material was incomplete. The complete URL is http:dx.doi.org/10....
Article
Full-text available
S. O'Malley and D. Besner (2008) showed that additive effects of stimulus degradation and word frequency in reading aloud occur in the presence of nonwords but not in pure word lists. They argued that this dissociation presents a major challenge to interactive computational models of reading aloud and claimed that no currently implemented model is...
Article
We examined the relationship between the acoustic duration of syllables and the silent pauses that follow them in Cantonese. The results showed that at major syntactic junctures, acoustic plus silent pause durations were quite similar for a number of different syllable types whose acoustic durations differed substantially. In addition, it appeared...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia was investigated within a well-understood and fully specified computational model of reading aloud: the dual route cascaded model (DRC [Coltheart, M., Rastle, K., Perry, C., Langdon, R., & Ziegler, J.C. (2001). DRC: A dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review, 108, 204-256.])...
Article
Full-text available
Hematological changes induced by various stress stimuli are accompanied by replacement of the primary acetylcholinesterase (AChE) 3' splice variant acetylcholinesterase-S (AChE-S) with the myelopoietic acetylcholinesterase-R (AChE-R) variant. To search for putative acetylcholinesterase-S interactions with hematopoietic pathways, we employed a yeast...
Article
Full-text available
At least 3 different types of computational model have been shown to account for various facets of both normal and impaired single word reading: (a) the connectionist triangle model, (b) the dual-route cascaded model, and (c) the connectionist dual process model. Major strengths and weaknesses of these models are identified. In the spirit of nested...
Article
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In this study we examined syntactic ambiguity resolution in two different Chinese languages, Cantonese and Mandarin, which are relatively similar grammatically but very different phonologically. We did this using four-character sentences that could be read using two, two-syllable sequences (2-2) or a structure where the first syllable could be read...
Article
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In three picture-naming experiments, we examined the effect of prosodic context on the synonyms people use to name pictures in Mandarin Chinese. This was done without time pressure. The results showed that when monosyllabic and bisyllabic synonyms (e.g., hen/chicken) were embedded in a context of pictures with either bisyllabic or trisyllabic names...
Article
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate whether people generate the phonology of briefly presented words that they do not attend. This was done in Chinese by examining the effect of orthography-phonology regularity (i.e., how predictable the phonology of a word is from its components rather than whole-word form) with high- and...
Article
gy, which relies on exploiting regularities /consistencies in the mapping between sounds and letters (e.g., phoneme--grapheme rules). This two-strategy assumption has been incorporated into a number of spelling models (e.g., Barry & Seymour, 1988; Ellis, 1984; Kreiner, 1992) and is supported by both behavioural and neuropsychological evidence (e.g....
Article
Learning to read a relatively irregular orthography, such as English, is harder and takes longer than learning to read a relatively regular orthography, such as German. At the end of grade 1, the difference in reading performance on a simple set of words and nonwords is quite dramatic. Whereas children using regular orthographies are already close...
Article
Full-text available
Most models of spelling assume that people rely on two procedures when engaging in spelling: a lexical look-up procedure that retrieves spellings in their entirety, and a nonlexical procedure that constructs spellings with a set of phoneme-grapheme rules. In the present research, we investigated whether larger sized subsyllabic relationships also p...
Article
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Words with irregular spelling-sound correspondences are read aloud more slowly than words with regular spelling-sound correspondences. This so-called regularity effect is modulated by word frequency, with low-frequency words showing larger costs than do high-frequency words. Because French has more regular spelling-to-sound correspondences than Eng...
Article
Full-text available
Most of the research on developmental dyslexia comes from English-speaking countries. However, there is accumulating evidence that learning to read English is harder than learning to read other European orthographies (Seymour, Aro, & Erskine, 2003). These findings therefore suggest the need to determine whether the main English findings concerning...
Article
This study investigated the anatomical substrate of analogical reasoning using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the study, subjects performed a verbal analogy task (e.g., soldier is to army as drummer is to band) and, to control for activation caused by purely semantic access, a semantic judgment task. Significant activation differences be...
Article
Full-text available
Brain activation underlying language processing in Chinese-English bilinguals was examined using fMRI in an orthographic search and a semantic classification task. In both tasks, brain areas activated by Chinese characters and English words were very similar to tasks examining Chinese reading using Chinese pinyin (an alphabetic Chinese script) and...
Article
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Recent studies examining the feedback consistency effect have been criticized for poor item selection (Peereman, Content, & Bonin, 1998). In the present study, an experiment was run with a new set of items, in which feedback consistency was manipulated at a phoneme-grapheme level. The results suggested that participants responded faster to feedback...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports three spelling experiments that examined the effect of lexical priming through intervening items. In the first and second experiments, a strong effect of word priming on nonword spelling was found, even when two intervening filler items separated primetarget pairs. In addition, the absolute size of the effect was similar when one...
Article
The neural basis of the automatic activation of words was investigated in an fMRI study. In the study, words were presented briefly (51 or 151 msec) followed by a mask. To prevent attentional processing, subjects attended to the masks and not the words, and were required to make perceptual judgment about the masks. We found that a distributed neura...
Article
In this study, two nonword spelling and two orthographic awareness experiments were used to examine people's production and awareness of sound--spelling relationships. The results of the nonword spelling experiments suggest that, in general, people use phoneme--grapheme sized relationships when spelling nonwords. Alternatively, the results of the o...
Article
this paper, we refer to sound--spelling contingency as the number of times a grapheme occurs with a phoneme divided by the total number of times the phoneme occurs; we refer to sound--spelling consistency as the number of times an orthographic body occurs with a rime divided by the total number of times the rime occurs. Note that this contingencysc...
Article
The neural basis of the automatic activation of words was investigated in an fMRI study. In the study, words were presented briefly (51 or 151 msec) followed by a mask. To prevent attentional processing, subjects attended to the masks and not the words, and were required to make perceptual judgment about the masks. We found that a distributed neura...
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined whether 2 computational models of reading, the dual-route cascaded model (M. Coltheart, K. Rastle, C. Perry, R. Langdon, & J. C. Ziegler, 2001) and the connectionist 2-layer model (M. Zorzi, G. Houghton, & B. Butterworth, 1998), were able to predict the pattern that the length effect found in reading aloud is larger in German t...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research has purported to show that words with infrequent phoneme-grapheme correspondences are more difficult to spell than words with frequent phoneme-grapheme correspondences. Defining exactly what a phoneme-grapheme relationship is, however, is not necessarily straightforward. There are a number of different assumptions that can be made. I...
Article
Haematopoiesis, the differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells and progenitors into various lineages, involves complex interactions of transcription factors that modulate the expression of downstream genes and mediate proliferation and differentiation signals. Commitment of pluripotent haematopoietic stem cells to the erythroid lineage induces er...
Article
Two experiments are reported that examine whether consonant/vowel structure can be primed in nonword spelling. The results show that when two possible consonant/vowel structures can be used to spell a nonword, participants are more likely to use the consonant/vowel structure of a previous prime word than an alternative structure. Such a result sugg...
Article
In this study, two nonword spelling and two orthographic awareness experiments were used to examine people's production and awareness of sound - spelling relationships. The results of the nonword spelling experiments suggest that, in general, people use phoneme - grapheme sized relationships when spelling nonwords. Alternatively, the results of the...
Article
Full-text available
The present study used the backward masking paradigm to investigate the nature and time course of phonological assembly. Two experiments were performed that tried to specify the extent to which phonological assembly is a serial process, or a process that gives special weight to consonants over vowels. Experiment 1 showed that recognition rates in a...
Article
It is hypothesized that written languages differ in the preferred grain size of units that emerge during reading acquisition. Smaller units (graphemes, phonemes) are thought to play a dominant role in relatively consistent orthographies (e.g., German), whereas larger units (bodies, rhymes) are thought to be more important in relatively inconsistent...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes the Dual Route Cascaded (DRC) model, a computational model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. The DRC is a computational realization of the dual-route theory of reading, and is the only computational model of reading that can perform the 2 tasks most commonly used to study reading: lexical decision and reading alou...
Article
Full-text available
The dual-route cascaded (DRC) model of word recognition and reading aloud was implemented in German. In this paper, we describe crosslin-guistic diOE erences and similarities between the German and the English DRC. The German DRC was evaluated with respect to its ability to correctly pronounce all German monosyllabic words and to simulate the loan...
Article
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This study investigated whether the quality and specification of phonological representations in early language development would predict later skilled reading. Two perceptual identification experiments were performed with skilled readers. In Experiment 1, spelling difficulties in Grade 1 were used as a proxy measure for poorly specified representa...
Article
Does phonology play a role in silent reading? This issue was addressed in Chinese. Phonology effects are less expected in Chinese than in alphabetical languages like English because the basic units of written Chinese (the characters) map directly into units of meaning (morphemes). This linguistic property gave rise to the view that phonology could...
Article
Full-text available
Patients displaying mild symptoms of Alzheimer's disease sometimes have more difficulty naming items from an artifact than from a natural kind category; others displaying more severe symptoms almost always have more difficulty naming items from a natural kind than from an artifact category. This paper examined a computational model of this double d...
Article
Full-text available
In the classical Stroop effect, response times for naming the colour in which a word is printed are affected by the presence of semantic, phonological or orthographic relationships between the stimulus word and the response word. We show that colour naming responses are faster when the printed word shares a phoneme with the colour name to be produc...
Chapter
Conceptual categories such as animate objects and artifacts can be selectively impaired after brain damage. The dominant view, partly derived from recent connectionist modeling of semantic memory disorders, is that category-specific deficits result from selective damage to noncategorically organized visual or functional semantic subsystems. We prop...
Article
In the area of visual word recognition, there is considerable disagreement as to whether neighborhood effects for words in the lexical decision task are facilitatory or inhibitory: While they seem to be mostly facilitatory in English, they tend to be absent or inhibitory in French or Spanish. The present study investigated the possibility that the...
Article
Macroenzymes are complexes of serum enzymes with proteins which have a higher molecular weight and longer plasma half-life than the normal enzyme. The presence of macroenzymes is suggested by finding increased serum enzyme activity, not associated with symptoms. Thus, macroenzymes can cause diagnostic errors and the performance of unnecessary tests...
Article
Macroenzymes are complexes of serum enzymes with a plasmatic protein. They have a higher molecular weight and a more prolonged serum half-life than those of unbound enzymes. Although macroenzymes may be found in the serum of post-myocardial infarction patients, they are not usually associated with any specific disease. Their presence, however, can...

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