Conrad P. Earnest

Conrad P. Earnest
Texas A&M University | TAMU · Department of Health and Kinesiology

PhD

About

406
Publications
195,902
Reads
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17,510
Citations
Citations since 2017
73 Research Items
8309 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - present
Texas A&M University
Position
  • Reseach Scientist
January 2012 - April 2014
University of Bath
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2008 - April 2013
Louisiana State University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (406)
Article
Full-text available
Although many studies have assumed variability reflects variance caused by exercise training, few studies have examined whether interindividual differences in trainability are present following exercise training. The present individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis sought to: (1) investigate the presence of interindividual differences in tra...
Article
Full-text available
Background The physiological benefits associated with corporately sponsored weight loss programs are increasingly well documented. However, less is known about how these programs affect employees’ quality of life (QoL). The purpose of the present analysis was to examine the association between weight loss, change in physical activity, and change in...
Article
Exercise training beneficially moderates the effects of vascular aging. This study compared the efficacy of Peripheral Remodeling through Intermittent Muscular Exercise (PRIME), a novel training regimen, versus aerobic training on hemodynamic profiles in participants ≥70 years at risk for losing functional independence. Seventy-five participants (5...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study tested the hypothesis that greater mean changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), in either the absence or presence of reduced interindividual variability, explain larger CRF response rates following higher doses of exercise training.Methods We retrospectively analyzed CRF data from eight randomized controlled trials (RCT; n...
Article
Background Green coffee supplementation has demonstrated beneficial anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects. Accordingly, we examined the effects of a green coffee (GC) extract concurrent to elastic band resistance training (EBRT) on insulin resistance, adiposity indices [Visceral (VAI), Body (BAI)] TyG-related indicators (TyG-BMI and TyG-WC) in...
Article
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To evaluate the effect of combined resistance and aerobic training (RT+AT) on regional bone mineral density (BMD) and physical performance in people living with HIV (PLWH). Forty PLWH (20 men and 20 women) were randomized into RT+AT group (n=20; age = 38.3 ± 4.9) or non‐exercise control group (n=20; age = 37.9 ± 5.1). The RT+AT group was required...
Article
Background: Aerobic and resistance training have known efficacy for treating type2 diabetes (T2D). Less is known about interval training in this population. We examined the effects of sprint interval (SIT) and combined aerobic + resistance (COMB) training on HbA1C and (Primary Outcome) in participants with T2D. Secondary outcomes included HOMA-IR a...
Article
Post workout multi-ingredient admixtures are commonly used to maximize recovery after exercise. The present double-blind, cross-over study compared the acute effects of ingesting a protein-vegan multi-ingredient (VGMT) vs. maltodextrin (MALT) on indices of muscle function. Ten trained males, (26.8 ± 1.9 years) performed two identical, 3-day resista...
Article
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Abstract Background: To examine the effects of varying doses of caffeine on autonomic reactivation following anaerobic exercise. Methods: Recreationally active males (N = 20; 24 ± 2y) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, crossover study where participants ingested: [1] Control (CON; no supplement), [2] a non-caffeinated pl...
Article
Purpose This study examined whether adding Dichrostachys glomerata (DG; 300 mg/d) to thermogenic supplements with (DG + C) and without (DG) caffeine and other nutrients affects weight loss, changes in body composition, and/or markers of health. Methods Sixty-eight participants (female, 54%) were grouped in a double-blind, parallel, stratified rand...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: To examine the dose effects of caffeine ingestion on autonomic reactivation following anaerobic exercise. Methods: Recreationally active males (N=20; 24±2y) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study where participants ingested: (1) Control (CON; no supplement), (2) a non-caffeinated placebo (PLA), (...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: To examine the effects of varying doses of caffeine on autonomic reactivation following anaerobic exercise. Methods: Recreationally active males (N=20; 24±2y) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study where participants ingested: (1) Control (CON; no supplement), (2) a non-caffeinated placebo (PLA),...
Article
Purpose: Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) have previously been associated with acute exercise compensation. This study examined adaptations in RPE and RER with long-term exercise training in individuals who did (non-compensators) and did not (compensators) lose the expected amount of weight. Methods: Partic...
Article
Full-text available
Serious concerns over the increasing prevalence of coronavirus worldwide have made it increasingly important to take preventive measures. Self-quarantine is an important measure to prevent the spread of this dangerous infectious virus. However, quarantine and prolonged homestay may lead to physical inactivity, increased anxiety and depression and,...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of dementia has substantially increased worldwide. Currently, there is no cure for dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD), and care for affected patients is financially and psychologically costly. Of late, more attention has been given to preventive interventions-in particular, physical activity/exercise. In this review, examine the ri...
Preprint
Full-text available
Serious concerns over the increasing prevalence of coronavirus worldwide have made it increasingly important to take preventive measures. Self-quarantine is an important measure to prevent the spread of this dangerous infectious virus. However, quarantine and prolonged homestay may lead to physical inactivity, increased anxiety and depression and,...
Preprint
Purpose The response of orexin-A and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to exercise and diet are not fully understood. We examined the effect of acute aerobic exercise 2h after the consumption of four meals on serum levels of orexin-A and BDNF in overweight men. Methods We used a quasi-experimental and single-blinded crossover study in 16 ov...
Article
Lipid profile screening is crucial for the prevention, evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Small dense low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) is an emerging biomarker associated with CVD and several comorbidities. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the potential importance of sdLDL-C as a surrogate bio...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We previously reported that consuming a food bar (FB) containing whey protein and the plant fiber isomalto-oligosaccharides [IMO] had a lower glycemic (GI) but similar insulinemic response as a high GI carbohydrate. Therefore, we hypothesized that ingestion of this FB before, during, and following intense exercise would better maintain...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the effect of class participation in participants enrolled in a corporate sponsored commercial weight loss program. Methods: We examined 111,262 participants for percent weight loss (Primary Outcome) using general linear models and weight loss relative to class participation (Secondary Outcome). Results: We observed a sig...
Article
In recent years, health professionals and laypersons have disseminated misinformation regarding the consumption of coconut oil. Those encouraging the supplementation of coconut oil argue that it provides health benefits and protective cardiovascular effects. Our article examines the effects of coconut oil intake on the cardiometabolic profile by ex...
Article
Objective: To examine the clinical benefit of re-engaging in a corporate weight loss program. Methods: Participants (N = 9885, 72% women) from two large employers. The primary outcome was percent weight change (mean, 95% confidence interval [CI]) across two identical courses using a general linear model analysis. Secondary and tertiary outcomes...
Article
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To examine the cognitive and physical changes associated with consuming an energy drink concurrent to video gaming, we examined a convenience sample of nine elite League of Legends (LoL) e-sport players (21 ± 2 y, BMI 25.6 ± 3.4 kg/m 2) consuming an energy drink (Reload TM) or placebo (Placebo) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cros...
Article
Purpose: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases account for most worldwide mortality, and a higher level of lipoprotein (Lp)-(a) is recognized as a prevalent contributing risk factor. However, there is no consensus regarding nutritional strategies for lowering Lp(a) concentration. Thus, the purposes of this literature review were to: (1) critically examine...
Article
Background: Exercise is recommended for weight management, yet exercise produces less weight loss than expected, which is called weight compensation. The mechanisms for weight compensation are unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms responsible for compensation. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial conduct...
Article
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Abstract Introduction: Heart disease risk rises with age. However, women’s symptoms become more pronounced following the onset of menopause. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of six weeks of combined resistance-endurance (RE) training on microRNA-29 expression in the heart of ovariectomised rats. Material and methods: Thirty...
Article
Context: Increasing physical activity and promoting healthy behaviors may play a key role in reducing the adverse effects of anti-retroviral therapy and HIV. Objective: This study investigated the effects of an 8-week lifestyle modification program (LMP) on quality of life, anthropometric characteristics and CD4+T cell count of people living with...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Heart disease risk rises with age. However, women's symptoms become more pronounced following the onset of menopause. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of six weeks of combined resistance-endurance (RE) training on microRNA-29 expression in the heart of ovariectomised rats. Material and methods: Thirty female...
Article
Full-text available
Endurance performance is the result of optimal training targeting cardiovascular, metabolic, and peripheral muscular adaptations and is coupled to effective nutrition strategies via the use of macronutrient manipulations surrounding training and potential supplementation with ergogenic aids. It is important to note that training and nutrition may d...
Article
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Purpose: To examine data reporting characteristics in sports nutrition. Methods: We examined 236 papers from ten journals published in 2016. The primary outcome was statistical variance associated with treatment (SD (correct) vs. SEM or CI). Secondary outcomes included the reporting of: (a) effect sizes (Y/N); (b) outcome prioritization (Y/N; prima...
Article
Objective: This study examines the long-term effects of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein versus carbohydrate on indirect markers of immunity during 10-week of endurance training in master-aged triathletes (n=16, age 35–60 years old). Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either hydrolyzed beef protein (PRO, n=8) or non-protein isoenerge...
Article
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The role of an athlete’s dietary intake (both timing and food type) goes beyond simply providing fuel to support the body’s vital processes. Nutritional choices also have an impact on the metabolic adaptations to training. Over the past 20 years, research has suggested that strategically reducing carbohydrate (CHO) availability during an athlete’s...
Article
Background and aims: GlycA is a relatively new biomarker for inflammation as well as cardiometabolic disease risk. However, the effect of exercise on GlycA is largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of regular exercise on the inflammatory marker GlycA across seven studies and 14 exercise interventions. Met...
Article
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Chronic dehydration (DEH) and heat stress combined with poor cardiovascular (CV) health may influence physiological responses to exercise. We examined the effects of free‐living induced hypo‐hydration on physiological responses to exercise in a heated environment and whether resting CV health is related to these changes. Participants (N = 16, 20.6...
Article
Background: Poor sleep quality has previously been shown to be related to insulin resistance in apparently healthy adults. However, it is unclear whether an association between sleep quality and insulin resistance exists among adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: Participants included 347 overweight/obese postmenopausal women without...
Article
ABSTRACT Background: Nutritional practices targeting improved exercise performance and training adaptations are considered to be ergogenic aids. Currently, the majority of attention is given to the macronutrients carbohydrate and protein, while micronutrients are considered to a lesser scale. Though literature does exist, very little attention is g...
Article
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[Purpose] Studies of L-carnitine in healthy athletic populations have yielded equivocal results. Further scientific-based knowledge is needed to clarify the ability of L-carnitine to improve exercise capacity and expedite the recovery process by reducing oxidative stress. This study aimed to examine the 9-week effects of L-carnitine supplementati...
Article
We examined the effects of an 8 w circuit resistance training (RES) using elastic band and body weight on TCD4+ cell counts and anthropometry in HIV patients. Patients (N=21) receiving antiretroviral therapy were randomly assigned to resistance training (RES; n=14) or control group (CON; n=7) groups. RES (3/w) consisted of training with an elastic...
Article
Full-text available
In a double-blind, crossover, randomized and placebo-controlled trial; 28 men and women ingested a placebo (PLA), 3 g of creatine nitrate (CNL), and 6 g of creatine nitrate (CNH) for 6 days. Participants repeated the experiment with the alternate supplements after a 7-day washout. Hemodynamic responses to a postural challenge, fasting blood samples...
Article
Full-text available
Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute ingestion of a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without p-synephrine (S) on perceptions of readiness to perform, cognitive function, exercise performance, and markers of safety. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, and counterbalanced manner; 25 healthy and rec...
Article
Full-text available
Background The purpose of this study was to examine whether ingesting a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without synephrine (S) during training affects training responses in resistance-trained males. Methods Resistance-trained males (N = 80) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet in a double-blind manner with either a flavore...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The ability to maintain functional independence in a rapidly aging population results in an increased life expectancy without corresponding increases in health care costs. The accelerated decline in V˙O2peak after the age of 65 yr is primarily due to peripheral tissue changes rather than centrally mediated factors. The purpose of thi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of ingesting L-Carnitine supplement on exercise performance and blood lactate levels. Method In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 35 male participants (age = 25 ± 2 y; stature = 171 ± 6 cm; body mass = 79.8 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 16.1 ± 5.53%; Contr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background To study the impact of L-carnitine supplementation on selected exercise-induced oxidative stress markers. Method Thirty-five male subjects (age = 25 ± 2 y; stature = 171 ± 6 cm; body mass = 79.8 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 16.1 ± 5.53%; Control [CON] n = 12, Placebo [PLA] n = 11, L-carnitine [LCR] n = 12) took part in a randomized, plac...
Article
Full-text available
In a double-blind, randomized and crossover manner, 25 resistance-trained participants ingested a placebo (PLA) beverage containing 12 g of dextrose and a beverage (RTD) containing caffeine (200 mg), β-alanine (2.1 g), arginine nitrate (1.3 g), niacin (65 mg), folic acid (325 mcg), and Vitamin B12 (45 mcg) for 7-days, separated by a 7–10-day. On da...
Article
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Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and e...
Article
African Americans (AAs) have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to their Caucasian American ( CA) counterparts, which represents a major health disparity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a well-established independent risk factor for all-cause and CVD mortality, which has been shown across many epidemiological and clinic...
Article
Beef powder is a new high-quality protein source scarcely researched relative to exercise performance. The present study examined the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on strength performance (1RM), body composition (via plethysmography), limb circumferences and muscular thickness (via ultrasonography), fol...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We examined the effects of ingesting two preworkout supplements (PWSs) on selective attention and response inhibition, perceived exercise readiness (herein, readiness), and exercise performance-related parameters. Methods: Resistance-trained participants (N = 19) were randomized to a double-blind, crossover (7-day washout) placebo (PLA)...
Article
Objectives: To examine worksite preventive care checkups on the prevalence of hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: Participants (N = 9269) participated in four annual checkups, counseled, and referred for physician follow-up. Hypertension and MetS prevalence were examined using general linear models or chi-squared analyses. Resu...
Article
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[Purpose] We aimed to examine the effect of running speed on metabolic responses associated with maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in rats during forced running wheel (FRW) exercise. [Methods] Forty male adult Wistar rats were divided into seven groups. The blood lactate threshold and peak running speed were determined for an incremental power...
Article
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PurposeTo examine the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on resistance training outcomes, body composition, muscle thickness, blood indices of health and salivary human neutrophil peptides (HNP1-3), as reference of humoral immunity followed an 8-week resistance training program in college athletes. Methods T...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to compare the metabolic responses and mechanical impact forces during a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) on a Laddermill (LM) versus a standard treadmill (TM). Twenty college-aged men (n=10) and women completed a GXT on the TM and LM in random order. During the GXT, expired gases (VO2 and VCO2), HR, accelerometer da...
Article
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While commercial dietary weight-loss programs typically advise exercise, few provide actual programing. The goal of this study was to compare the Curves Complete 90-day Challenge (CC, n = 29), which incorporates exercising and diet, to programs advocating exercise (Weight Watchers Points Plus (WW, n = 29), Jenny Craig At Home (JC, n = 27), and Nutr...