Connie M Weaver

Connie M Weaver
Purdue University | Purdue

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460
Publications
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Publications

Publications (460)
Article
Inadequate dietary calcium intake is a global public health problem that disproportionately affects low‐ and middle‐income countries. However, the calcium status of a population is challenging to measure, and there are no standard methods to identify high‐risk communities even in settings with an elevated prevalence of a disease caused or exacerbat...
Article
Background Dietary consumption of prunes has favorable impacts on bone health, however, more research is necessary to improve upon study designs and refine our understandings. Objectives We evaluated the effects of prunes (50 g or 100 g/day) on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal females during a 12-month dietary intervention. Secondary o...
Article
Objectives Dietary consumption of prunes has favorable impacts on bone health, however, more research is necessary to improve upon study designs and refine our understandings and determine whether unfavorable fat gain occurs with long-term treatment. Objectives: Evaluate the effects of prunes (50g and 100g/day) on bone mineral density (BMD) in post...
Article
Full-text available
The use of non-pharmacological alternatives to pharmacological interventions, e.g., nutritional therapy, to improve or maintain bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women has gained traction over the past decade, but limited data exist regarding its efficacy. This paper describes the design of the Prune Study, a randomized controlled trial...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary calcium deficiency is considered to be widespread globally, with published estimates suggesting that approximately half of the world's population has inadequate access to dietary calcium. Calcium is essential for bone health, but inadequate intakes have also been linked to other health outcomes, including pregnancy complications, cancers, a...
Article
Full-text available
Calcium intake remains inadequate in many low‐ and middle‐income countries, especially in Africa and South Asia, where average intakes can be below 400 mg/day. Given the vital role of calcium in bone health, metabolism, and cell signaling, countries with low calcium intake may want to consider food‐based approaches to improve calcium consumption an...
Article
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Most low- and middle-income countries present suboptimal intakes of calcium during pregnancy and high rates of mortality due to maternal hypertensive disorders. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of these disorders and associated complications, including preeclampsia, maternal morbidity, and preterm birth, and is,...
Article
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Dairy foods are a heterogeneous group of products that vary in physical state and structure; profile and amounts of essential nutrients, bioactive ingredients, and other constituents; the extent of alteration of these constituents by processing, whether they are fermented or aged; and addition of constituents during manufacture. The complexity of t...
Article
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Best practices for designing, conducting, documenting, and reporting human nutrition randomized controlled trials were developed and published in Advances in Nutrition. Through an example of the randomized clinical trial on blueberries and bone health funded by the National Institutes of Health, this paper will illustrate the elements of those best...
Article
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Background Modifiable lifestyle factors and body composition can affect the attainment of peak bone mass during childhood. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis of the determinants of bone health among pre-adolescent ( N = 243) Malaysian children with habitually low calcium intakes and vitamin D status in Kuala Lumpur (PREBONE-Kids Study)...
Article
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Studies on vitamin D status and its determinants in growing children in countries with ample sunshine such as Malaysia have been limited. The aim of our study was to determine factors associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations such as lifestyle, dietary intake, anthropometry, and body composition in 243 pre-adolescent Malaysian children from low-...
Article
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Background Recruitment and retention in longitudinal nutrition intervention studies among children is challenging and scarcely reported. This paper describes the strategies and lessons learned from a 1-year randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among pre-adolescent children on the effects of soluble corn fiber (SCF) on bone indices (PREB...
Article
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Dietary bioactives are food substances that promote health but are not essential to prevent typical deficiency conditions. Examples include lutein and zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acids, and flavonoids. When quality evidence is available, quantified intake recommendations linking dietary bioactives with specific health benefits will enable health prof...
Article
Full-text available
The use of non-pharmacological alternatives to pharmacological interventions, e.g., nutritional therapy, to improve or maintain bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women has gained traction over the past decade, but limited data exist regarding its efficacy. The purpose of this case report was to compare changes in BMD of an osteopenic pos...
Article
Background Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and its related mortality rate are on the rise in the United States and causes are unclear. Objectives The aim was to examine trends and causes of Fe deficiency anemia prevalence and Fe deficiency–related mortality rates in the total US population. Methods Changes in daily dietary Fe intake, serum i...
Chapter
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Potassium (K) is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The majority of K consumed (60–100 mmol day ⁻¹ ) is lost in the urine, with the remaining excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of K, especially from dietary sourc...
Article
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Training to ensure good documentation practices and adherence to regulatory requirements in human nutrition randomized controlled trials has not been given sufficient attention. Furthermore, it is difficult to find this information conveniently organized or in a form relevant to nutrition protocols. Current gaps in training and research surveillanc...
Article
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Guidelines for designing, conducting, documenting, and reporting human nutrition randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have as yet to be developed and disseminated as reference for investigators, funders, regulators, institutions, assessors, trainees, and others involved in human nutrition research. Diet-related interventions can include diet and/or...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Modifiable lifestyle factors and body composition can affect the attainment of peak bone mass during childhood. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis of the determinants of bone health among pre-adolescent Malaysian children with habitually low calcium intakes and vitamin D status in Kuala Lumpur (PREBONE-Kids Study). Methods:...
Article
This paper, for the 1st time, provides evidence that current practices that lead to agricultural crop removal of potassium is unsustainable and likely contributed to the decline in dietary potassium intake and rise in hypokalemia prevalence in the US population. Potassium concentrations in beef, pork, turkey, fruit, vegetables, cereal crops, etc. d...
Poster
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Objectives: Preclinical studies suggest that blueberry consumption is associated with improved bone health. This study quantified changes in urinary excretion of the long-lived calcium radioisotope 41Ca to assess the dose-response effect of blueberries on bone loss in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that blueberry consumption would reduce bon...
Article
Objectives Fruit and vegetable derived polyphenols are associated with many health benefits when consumed regularly. Blueberries are a rich source of polyphenols, leading to interest in their use as dietary supplements. With expanded use, it is critical to evaluate metabolic changes associated with repeated consumption of purified blueberry polyphe...
Article
Objectives The adolescent period is crucial for optimizing future bone health because during these years bone accumulates rapidly accounting for up to half of adult peak bone mass (PBM). Calcium intake during this stage is critical for adequate bone mineralization but this essential nutrient, the major constituent of hydroxyapatite, is usually inad...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Most studies used serum magnesium concentration and total urine magnesium as nutrition biomarkers of magnesium, but whether these biomarkers are sensitive to changes in dietary intake of magnesium is uncertain. Whole blood ionized magnesium (iMg2+) is the free bioactive form of magnesium in the body, and therefore it could be more sensit...
Article
Objectives Menopause represents a period in which bone deterioration is accelerated; thus, primary prevention strategies to address age-related bone loss are crucial. Dairy products contain more than a dozen essential nutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and high-quality protein, as well as bioactive compounds that may promote bone...
Article
Calcium intake is critical for adequate bone mineralization in adolescence, but it is usually inadequate in US adolescents. A strategy to maximize bone mineralization is to increase calcium absorption, which could be achieved by soluble corn fiber (SCF). There are no studies determining the long-term effects of SCF on bone mass in children. Object...
Article
Women's health and sex differences research remain understudied. In 2016, to address the topic of sex differences, the Center for Women' s Health Research (CWHR) at the University of Colorado (cwhr@ucdenver.edu) held its inaugural National Conference, "Sex Differences Across the Lifespan: A Focus on Metabolism" and published a report summarizing th...
Article
Background: Potassium intake deficiency is a chronic issue in the US and many other countries. Possible causes of the deficiency are understudied. Objective: This study examined potassium deficiency in the US population and possible causes for the new trend. Methods: Serum potassium data of 28,379 men and 29,617 women between ages 12 and 80 years o...
Article
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Oral supplementation may improve the dietary intake of magnesium, which has been identified as a shortfall nutrient. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate appropriate methods for assessing responses to the ingestion of oral magnesium supplements, including ionized magnesium in whole blood (iMg2+) concentration, serum total magnesium concentration,...
Chapter
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, existing primarily in the skeleton where it serves a structure–function role and also as a reserve when dietary calcium is inadequate. All homeostatic mechanisms are evolved to maintain constant serum calcium levels to ensure cell signal transmission. Dietary calcium intakes around the world are bel...
Article
Full-text available
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) provide nutrition advice for Americans >2 y of age. The 2020-2025 DGA proposes a life stage approach, focusing on birth through older adulthood. Limited recommendations for beverages exist except for milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol. The goal of this article is to provide a better understanding of the r...
Conference Paper
Objectives: Quantifying the long-term effects of nutritional or drug treatments on bone is challenging due to the delay in time between treatment and changes in bone mass. The objective of this study was to develop a dynamic (non-steady state) mathematical model of calcium metabolism in young growing rats as an analogue for human adolescents and t...
Article
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Current research on diets and health focuses on composite food patterns and their likely impact on health outcomes. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) have likewise adopted a more food group–based approach. By contrast, most nutrient profiling (NP) models continue to assess nutrient density of individual foods, based on a small number of in...
Article
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Objectives: Determine the effects of an 8-wk chronic consumption of two different blueberry varieties at varying doses on calcium balance, calcium kinetics, bone microarchitecture and polyphenol metabolism and distribution in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Eighty 5-mo old ovariectomized rats were sorted by weight and block-randomized to an 8-wk c...
Article
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Objectives: Accurate estimates of sodium (Na) intake are critical for advancing our understanding of Na and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to utilize data from a controlled feeding study to assess the agreement between estimated 24hUNa, calculated from several timed spot urine collections, and known Na intake. Methods: This se...
Article
Objectives: Fruit and vegetable derived polyphenols are often touted for their health benefits and marketed as dietary supplements. Following consumption, polyphenols are extensively metabolized by gut microbiota to small molecular weight phenolics and absorbed in the colon. While these metabolites may drive observed health benefits, the pharmacok...
Article
Objectives: To estimate the annualized BMD changes of the lumbar spine and femoral neck by the use of calcium with or without vitamin D supplements in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-center, multi-ethnic, community-based longitudinal cohort across the menopause transition. Methods: Mixed model regression was used to...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Potassium is an essential nutrient of concern according to recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committees. Current recommendations established by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) are given as an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4700 mg/d, met by less than 3% of the population. Little is known about potassium (K) tissue retention and...
Article
Introduction: Exercise can cause a decrease in serum ionized calcium (iCa) concentration, which stimulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and activates bone resorption. We postulated that dermal Ca loss during cycling exercise is the major determinant of the serum iCa, PTH, and bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen; CTX)...
Article
Full-text available
Increased intake of potassium should be promoted to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke and to protect against bone loss, but confidence in recommended intakes depends on the strength of the evidence. All public health recommendations are considerably higher than current average intakes. Evidence on which current potassium intake r...
Chapter
Nutrients are essential to the viability of all cells, including those in bone. Osteoporosis has been called a pediatric disorder because adult peak bone mass is largely determined during childhood. Bone mass is ultimately determined by genetics as modified by current and past mechanical loading and limited or permitted by nutrition. Recommended fo...
Preprint
In 2016–2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety [1] that set out to determine whether conclusions presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, Nawrot et al. [2], remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380 studies published between June 2001 and June 2015, which were ident...
Article
Full-text available
A summary of systematic reviews and meta-analyses addressing the benefits and risks of dietary protein intakes for bone health in adults suggests that dietary protein levels even above the current RDA may be beneficial in reducing bone loss and hip fracture risk, provided calcium intakes are adequate. Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses ha...
Article
Exercise can cause a decrease in serum ionized calcium (iCa) and increases in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone resorption. We used a novel intravenous iCa clamp technique to determine whether preventing a decline in serum iCa during exercise prevents increases in PTH and carboxy‐terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX). Eleven cycling‐trained men (aged...
Article
Full-text available
Background Protein may have both beneficial and detrimental effects on bone health depending on a variety of factors, including protein source. Objective The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effects of animal versus plant protein intake on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and select bone...
Data
Search strategy: Ovid MEDLINE®, 1946-October week 4 2016. The following search strategy was modified as needed for each database and conducted in: MEDLINE®, Scopus (including EMBASE from 1974), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Global Health, and Web-of-Science databases. (DOCX)
Data
Sensitivity analysis1. 1BMD, bone mineral density; FN, femoral neck; CI, confidence interval; LS, lumbar spine. (DOCX)
Data
Study characteristics summary table, cohort studies (N = 10)1. 1BMC, bone mineral content; BMD, bone mineral density; BMI, body mass index; CTX, C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen; F%, percent female participants; FFQ, food frequency questionnaire; FN, femoral neck; gov, government; ind, industry; LS, lumbar spine; M, male; NA, not applicabl...
Data
Cohort studies’ results, by study (N = 10)1. 1BMC, bone mineral content; BMD, bone mineral density; BL, baseline; CI, confidence interval; E3N MGEN, Etude Epidémiologique de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale; FN, femoral neck; HR, hazard ratio; IQR, interquartile range; IR, rate ratio; kcal, kilocalorie; LS, lumbar spine; ref,...
Data
RCT ROB assessments, by study (N = 7)1. 1H, high; L, low; NA, not applicable; RCT, randomized controlled trial; ROB, risk of bias; U, unclear. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020 identified vitamins A, C, D, and E, in addition to calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline, and fiber as "underconsumed nutrients". Based on nationally representative data on 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examinati...
Article
Full-text available
Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients. The Dietary Guidelinesfor Americans 2015–2020 specifically identified vitamins A, C, D and E, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
Article
Full-text available
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported that nutritional deficiencies in the U.S. population vary by age, gender, and race/ethnicity, and could be as high as nearly one third of certain population groups. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES)...
Chapter
Full-text available
In recent years, the intestinal microbiota has emerged as a crucial regulator of health with dysbiosis linked to a number of pathological states such as inflammatory bowel disease. In addition to a local intestinal effect, emerging evidence has demonstrated the potential for the microbiota to modulate systemic bone health via a gut-bone axis. In th...
Article
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Although >50% of U.S. adults use dietary supplements, little information is available on the impact of supplement use frequency on nutrient intakes and deficiencies. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2009 to 2012, assessments were made of intakes from food al...
Article
Clinical nutrition research has played a pivotal role in establishing causality between diet or nutrient intake and health outcome measures and in the determination of dietary requirements and levels of supplementation to achieve specific outcomes. Because the studies are performed with humans, clinical nutrition research can be readily translated...
Article
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Background: Considerable attention has recently focused on dietary protein's role in the mature skeleton, prompted partly by an interest in nonpharmacologic approaches to maintain skeletal health in adult life.Objective: The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effects of dietary protein intake alone and with calc...
Article
Full-text available
To date, one of the most heavily cited assessments of caffeine safety in the peer-reviewed literature is that issued by Health Canada (Nawrot et al., 2003). Since then, >10,000 papers have been published related to caffeine, including hundreds of reviews on specific human health effects; however, to date, none have compared the wide range of topics...
Article
The complex interactions between the diet, gut microbiome, and host characteristics that provide a functional benefit to the host are an area of great interest and current exploration in the nutrition and health science community. New technologies are available to assess mechanisms that may explain these functional benefits to the host. One emergin...
Article
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