Congbo Song

Congbo Song
The University of Manchester · School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences

PhD
Working on clean air solutions. Blogs, data and codes: https://congbo.site

About

42
Publications
26,829
Reads
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2,188
Citations
Citations since 2017
41 Research Items
2188 Citations
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Introduction
Dr. Congbo Song holds the position of Senior Research Scientist in Data Science and Analytics in Atmospheric Air Pollution, at The National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) based in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science, the University of Manchester. He has broad research interests in source emissions, source apportionment, air pollution and machine learning. Details: https://research.manchester.ac.uk/en/persons/congbo-song
Additional affiliations
August 2019 - September 2022
University of Birmingham
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2015 - June 2019
Nankai University
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
September 2015 - June 2019
Nankai University
Field of study
  • Environmental Engineering
September 2012 - June 2015
Nankai University
Field of study
September 2008 - June 2012
University of Science and Technology Beijing
Field of study

Publications

Publications (42)
Article
Full-text available
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are largely affected by ambient temperature. However, responses of source-specific VOCs to ambient temperature are poorly understood. Based on one-year (2016.4–2017.3) observations for 57 VOC species (average: 33.4 ± 26 ppbv), and on the use of a k-means cluster technique and positive matrix factorization model, te...
Article
Gasoline vehicles (GVs) emissions generally dominate ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban areas, while VOC emissions from liquefied natural gas (LNG)-fueled vehicles play an increasingly important role in urban air quality, due to fuel transition from gasoline/diesel to alternative fuels. Here, an extensive dataset of VOC samples coll...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 lockdowns led to major reductions in air pollutant emissions. Here, we quantitatively evaluate changes in ambient NO2, O3, and PM2.5 concentrations arising from these emission changes in 11 cities globally by applying a deweathering machine learning technique. Sudden decreases in deweathered NO2 concentrations and increases in O3 were...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the Arctic is key to predicting the climate in this rapidly changing region. Whilst many studies have focused on sub-micrometer aerosol (diameter less than 1 µm), relatively little is known about the supermicrometer aerosol (diameter above 1 µm). Here, we present a cluster analysis of multiyear (2...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric aerosols are important drivers of Arctic climate change through aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. However, large uncertainties remain on the sources and processes controlling particle numbers in both fine and coarse modes. Here, we applied a receptor model and an explainable machine learning technique to understand the sources and dri...
Article
Full-text available
A single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to accurately quantify the contribution of vehicle non-exhaust emissions to particulate matter at typical road environment. The PM2.5, black carbon, meteorological parameters and traffic flow were recorded during the test period. The daily trend for traffic flow and speed on TEDA Street s...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Arctic is a rapidly changing ecosystem, with complex ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks. An important process is new particle formation (NPF) from gas phase precursors, which provide a climate forcing effect. NPF has been studied comprehensively at different sites in the Arctic ranging from those in the high Arctic, those at Svalbard, and those in...
Article
Full-text available
Emergency responses to the COVID-19 pandemic led to major changes in travel behaviours and economic activities in 2020. Machine learning provides a reliable approach for assessing the contribution of these changes to air quality. This study investigates impacts of health protection measures upon air pollution and traffic emissions and estimates hea...
Article
Volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) have been widely used in personal care products and industrial applications, and are an important component of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) indoors. They have sufficiently long lifetimes to undergo long-range transport and to form secondary aerosols in the atmosphere through atmospheric oxidation. To investigate...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Strict lockdown measures imposed in most countries to stop the 2020 COVID‐19 pandemic spread, led to changes in air pollutant concentrations. The lockdown in China started at the start of the Chinese Spring Festival (CSF), making it difficult to disentangling the lockdown from the CSF effects. We applied a machine learning me...
Article
Potential health benefits from improved ambient air quality during the COVID-19 shutdown have been recently reported and discussed. Despite the shutdown measures being in place, northern China still suffered severe haze episodes (HE) that are not yet fully understood, particularly how the source emissions changed. Thus, the meteorological condition...
Article
Levels of toxic elements in ambient PM2.5 were measured from 29 October 2019 to 30 March 2020 in Linfen, China, to assess the health risks they posed and to identify critical risk sources during different periods of the COVID-19 lockdown and haze episodes using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and a health-risk assessment model. The mean PM2.5 c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the Arctic is key to predict the climate in this rapidly changing region. Whilst many studies have focused on submicron aerosol (diameter less than 1 μm), relatively little is known about the climate relevance of supermicron aerosol (diameter above 1 μm). Here, we present a cluster analysis of mul...
Article
PM2.5 in Shijiazhuang was collected from 15 October 2018 to 31 January 2019, and selected toxic elements were measured. Five typical haze episodes were chosen to analyze the health risks and critical risk sources. Toxic elements during the haze episodes accounted for 0.33% of PM2.5 mass. Non-cancer risk of toxic elements for children was 1.8 times...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Megacities in developing countries such as China and India are facing severe air pollutions. There are still large uncertainties in quantifying the sources of fine particles at the citywide scale due to the synergetic effects of complex aerosol chemistry and transboundary transport. The COVID‐19 lockdown led to the lowest int...
Article
Full-text available
Black carbon (BC) not only warms the atmosphere but also affects human health. The nationwide lockdown due to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to a major reduction in human activity during the past 30 years. Here, the concentration of BC in the urban, urban-industry, suburb, and rural areas of a megacity Hangzhou were monitored...
Article
Full-text available
Water-soluble inorganic ions such as ammonium, nitrate and sulfate are major components of fine aerosols in the atmosphere and are widely used in the estimation of aerosol acidity. However, different experimental practices and instrumentation may lead to uncertainties in ion concentrations. Here, an intercomparison experiment was conducted in 10 di...
Article
Factor analysis models use the covariance of measured variables to identify and apportion sources. These models, particularly positive matrix factorization (PMF), have been extensively used for analyzing particle number concentrations (PNCs) datasets. However, the variation of observed PNCs and particle size distribution are driven by both the sour...
Article
Samples of ambient PM2.5 were collected in the Qingdao harbor area between 21 March and May 25, 2016, and analyzed to investigate the compositions and sources of PM2.5 and to assess source-specific selected toxic element health risks to workers via a combination of positive matrix factorization (PMF) and health risk (HR) assessment models. The mean...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicular non-exhaust emissions account for a significant share of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution, but few studies have successfully quantified the contribution of non-exhaust emissions via real-world measurements. Here, we conduct a comprehensive study combining tunnel measurements, laboratory dynamometer and resuspension experiment...
Article
Nitrate (NO3−) has become recognized as the most important water-soluble ion in fine particulate (PM2.5), and has been proposed as a driving factor for regional haze formation. However, nitrate formation mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected from September 2017 to August 2018 in Shijiazhuang, a city loc...
Article
The multi-scale chemical characteristics and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analysed in Tianjin, China, using 1-hr resolution VOC-species data between November 1, 2018 and March 15, 2019. The average total VOC (TVOC) concentration was 30.6 ppbv during the heating season. The alkanes accounted for highest proportion o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Water soluble inorganic ions such as ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate are major components of fine aerosols in the atmosphere and are widely used in the estimation of aerosol acidity. However, different experimental practices and instrumentation may lead to uncertainties in ion concentrations. Here, an inter-comparison experiment was conduc...
Article
Full-text available
Given the inconsistency of epidemiologic evidence for associations between maternal exposures to traffic-related metrics and adverse birth outcomes, this manuscript aims to provide clarity on this topic. Pooled meta-estimates were calculated using random-effects analyses. Subgroup analyses were conducted by study area, study design, and Newcastle-O...
Article
The chemical species in PM2.5 and air pollutant concentration data with 1-hr resolution were monitored synchronously between 15 November 2018 and 20 January 2019 in Linfen, China, which were analysed for multiple temporal patterns, and PM2.5 source apportionment using positive matrix factorisation (PMF) modelling coupled with online chemical specie...
Article
With the intensification of Chinese source control of air pollution, there is an urgent need for refined and rapid source apportionment techniques. A refined source apportionment method was constructed based on an off-line sampling dataset using a receptor model coupled with a source-oriented model, and the method was implemented in Shijiazhuang du...
Article
The size distribution of a particle population has proven to be of great value in source apportionment studies. Previous studies have reported that particle size distributions in ambient urban air vary with location and time, indicating that the ambient particles are affected by known sources. However, the size distributions of individual chemical...
Article
To study the short-term effects of air pollution on asthma visits and differences in susceptibility to various groups of people, data for asthma visits from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015 were obtained from a Hangzhou hospital. Considering the nonlinear relationships among concentration of air pollutants, respiratory hospital outpatient visit...
Article
Sulfate is a major component of atmospheric fine particulate matter in the troposphere. Globally, observed sulfate concentrations are generally high in summer and low in winter. Current air quality models fail to reproduce high winter sulfate concentrations observed during substantial pollution episodes in northern China. From ambient measurement d...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicular emission is a key contributor to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx in Chinese megacities. However, the information of real-world emission factors (EFs) for a typical urban fleet is still limited, hindering the development of a more reliable emission inventory in China. Based on a more-than-two-week (August 8–24, 2017) tunn...
Article
In Xi'an, a city that frequently experiences serious PM pollution in northern China, 1476 PM10 and 1464 PM2.5 valid daily filter samples were collected at six sites from December 2014 to November 2015 and analyzed for 29 species. The annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 149.4 ± 93.1, 108.0 ± 70.9 μg/m3, respectively. Organic carbon (OC) i...
Article
To investigate the interannual variations of particulate matter (PM) pollution in winter, this paper examines the pollution characteristics of PM with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 and 10 μm (i.e., PM2.5 and PM10), and their relationship to meteorological conditions over the Beijing municipality, Tianjin municipality, and Hebei Province—an...
Article
This study describes the characteristics of particulate matter and carbonaceous species at different air quality levels. The concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, PM1, and carbonaceous species in PM2.5 were monitored on-line in Langfang City on March 1-22, 2016. The PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations were 204.1 μg·m⁻³, 107.9 μg·m⁻³, and 87.8 μg·m⁻³, resp...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, China has experienced severe and persistent air pollution associated with rapid urbanization and climate change. Three years' time series (January 2014 to December 2016) concentrations data of air pollutants including particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) and gaseous pollutants (SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, and O 3) from over 1300 national ai...
Article
In January 2013, the real-time hourly average concentrations of six pollutants (CO, NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5 and SO2) based on data from air quality monitoring stations in major Chinese cities were released to the public. That report provided a good opportunity to publicise nationwide temporal and spatial pollution characteristics. Although several stu...
Article
Full-text available
Continuous measurements were undertaken of NO, NO2, O3 and meteorological conditions at four monitoring stations at urban area of Langfang, Hebei province from January 2013 to December 2015. During this period, the mean concentrations (×10⁻⁹) of NO, NO2, NOx and O3 were 15.10, 23.00, 38.10 and 23.25 respectively. Peak NO concentrations often appear...

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