Colleen M Schaffner

Colleen M Schaffner
Adams State University · Psychology

PhD University of Nebraska at Omaha

About

107
Publications
27,330
Reads
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3,459
Citations
Citations since 2016
27 Research Items
1825 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Introduction
Colleen M Schaffner currently works at Adams State University. Colleen does research in animal behavior. Her current project is 'Fission decisions in wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)'.
Additional affiliations
June 2018 - present
Adams State University
Position
  • Chair
January 2012 - June 2018
Universidad Veracruzana
Position
  • Professor
January 2002 - December 2011
University of Chester

Publications

Publications (107)
Article
Full-text available
The behavior of bees is modulated by the presence of other bees and potentially by the visual information transmitted by the different body positions of bees while visiting flowers. We tested whether bee body position promoted the attraction and/or antagonistic behavior of con- and hetero-specific bees that interacted on prickly pear flowers of Opu...
Article
Communicative complexity relates to social complexity, as individuals in more complex social systems either use more signals or more complex signals than individuals living in less complex ones. Taking the individual group member's perspective, here we examine communicative complexity in relation to social complexity, which arises from two componen...
Article
Full-text available
Senses form the interface between animals and environments, and provide a window into the ecology of past and present species. However, research on sensory behaviours by wild frugivores is sparse. Here, we examine fruit assessment by three sympatric primates ( Alouatta palliata , Ateles geoffroyi and Cebus imitator ) to test the hypothesis that die...
Article
Male–male relationships are mostly characterized by competition. However, males also cooperate with one another if socio-ecological conditions are suitable. Due to their male philopatry, the need for cooperation in home range defence and high degree of fission–fusion dynamics, spider monkeys provide an opportunity to investigate how male–male inter...
Article
Group-living animals need to deal with conflicting interests to maintain cohesion. When the costs of doing so outweigh the benefits, the group may (temporarily) split into two or more subgroups. Conflicting interests can concern what activity to pursue or the direction of travel. Temporary group separation is a common feature in species with a high...
Article
Full-text available
In 2002, Otoch Ma’ax Yetel Kooh (OMYK) was decreed a federal Flora and Fauna Protected Area in the state of Yucatán, Mexico, resulting in bans on hunting, logging and slash-and-burn agriculture within its limits. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the establishment of the protected area on local primate populations. We compared relative abund...
Article
Research on non-human primates in the endangered tropical dry forest of Sector Santa Rosa (SSR), Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), was launched in 1983 and is now one of the longest running studies of primates globally. Such continuous study provides a rare opportunity to ask questions that are only answerable through decades-long monitoring o...
Article
Spider monkeys provide an intriguing opportunity to examine behavioural flexibility in relation to their social environment given their high degree of fission–fusion dynamics and the nature of male–male relationships. These characteristics allow us to examine how flexibility in social interactions is modulated by the perception of risk and uncertai...
Article
Mirror self-recognition (MSR), usually considered a marker of self-awareness, occurs in several species and may reflect a capacity that has evolved in small incremental steps. In line with research on human development and building on previous research adopting a gradualist framework, we categorized the initial mirror responses of naïve spider monk...
Article
Anthropogenic habitat disturbances are causing large-scale declines in animal abundance. For many species, information on the drivers of decline is lacking or restricted to single sites, despite calls for regional approaches. In this study, we determined the effect of different types of habitat disturbance (natural or anthropogenic) and ecological...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme climate events can have important consequences for the dynamics of natural populations, and severe droughts are predicted to become more common and intense due to climate change. We analysed infant mortality in relation to drought in two primate species (white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus imitator, and Geoffroy's spider monkeys, Ateles...
Article
Drought‐related tree mortality is now a widespread phenomenon predicted to increase in magnitude with climate change. However, the patterns of which species and trees are most vulnerable to drought, and the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive, in part due to the lack of relevant data and difficulty of predicting the location of catastrophic...
Article
Full-text available
Vigilance is used to monitor extra-group threats as well as risky group members. We examined whether relationship quality affects vigilance patterns of spider monkeys. We used focal animal sampling to collect data on social interactions and individual vigilance of all adults and subadults (N = 22) in a community of well-habituated Geoffroy’s spider...
Article
Full-text available
Population estimates are critical for making informed conservation decisions. However, methods for data collection and analysis of population estimates from wildlife surveys vary, often preventing comparisons between sites or years. In this study we compared population density estimates of spider monkeys, Ateles geoffroyi, derived from four commonl...
Article
Full-text available
Network analysis has increasingly expanded our understanding of social structure in primates and other animal species. However, most studies use networks representing only one interaction type, when social relationships (and the emerging social structure) are the result of many types of interactions and their interplay through time. The recent deve...
Article
We report 2 cases of predation on an adult and a subadult spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) by a puma (Puma concolor) and an unidentified terrestrial predator at the natural protected area of Otoch Ma’ax yetel Kooh, in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Although spider monkeys are believed to experience overall low predation pressure compared to other p...
Article
Full-text available
Groups of animals (including humans) may show flexible grouping patterns, in which temporary aggregations or subgroups come together and split, changing composition over short temporal scales, (i.e. fission and fusion). A high degree of fission-fusion dynamics may constrain the regulation of social relationships, introducing uncertainty in interact...
Article
Full-text available
Homosexual behavior is defined as genital contact or genital manipulation between same-sex individuals. In nonhuman primates, it may regulate social relationships by serving as a means of reconciliation, tension alleviation, or alliance formation. Grappling is a rare and complex behavior, which most frequently occurs between same-sex individuals of...
Article
Full-text available
The fast movement and high degree of fission-fusion dynamics of spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) make them notoriously difficult to survey. We examined which aspects of survey design affect spider monkey sightings along transects in a group of individually recognized spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Punta Laguna, Yucatan, Mexico. We calculated the...
Article
Full-text available
Group living leads to competition for food between group members. Two types of intragroup food competition may occur: scramble competition, in which all group members use the same resource, such that feeding opportunities are equal for everyone; and contest competition, in which some group members monopolize resources through aggression and dominan...
Article
Full-text available
The introduction of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), into the arid environments of Mexico has affected the behavioral ecology of native bees. We described the behavioral repertoire and interactions between A. mellifera and the native bee Lithurgus littoralis Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) on Opuntia huajuapensis Bravo...
Article
Fission–fusion dynamics are thought to be mainly a response to differential availability of food resources. However, social factors may also play a role. Here, we examined whether the quality of social relationships between group members affects fission decisions. During 21 months, we collected data on social interactions and fission events of 22 s...
Article
Arboreal fauna living in tropical ecosystems may be particularly affected by roads given their dependency on forest cover and the high vulnerability of such ecosystems to changes. Over a period of 4 yr, we followed subgroups of spider monkeys living in a regenerating dry tropical forest with 8.2 km of roads within their home range. We aimed to unde...
Chapter
Conflicts of interest and aggressive interactions are part of the normal day-to-day fabric of social interactions. Although aggression can be damaging to former opponents, postconflict resolution, such as reconciliation, can mitigate some of the damage and restore relationships to the preconflict level. Reconciliation is the postconflict affiliativ...
Chapter
Fission–fusion” was introduced to describe the social system of species that change group size by means of the fission and fusion of subgroups according to their activities and the availability and distribution of resources. The term “fission–fusion dynamics” was proposed to refer to the extent of variation in spatial cohesion and individual member...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main costs of group living is feeding competition. Fission–fusion dynamics are thought to be a strategy to avoid overt competition for food resources. We tested whether food abundance and quality affected such dynamics in a species characterized by a high degree of fission–fusion dynamics. We collected data on 22 adult and subadult spide...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Feeding competition is an important factor affecting female social relationships in primates. Socioecological models point out that when food sources are monopolizable, contest competition, dominance relationships and female philopatry are expected. Although spider monkeys rely on fruits for up to 90% of their diet, a monopolizable food source, the...
Article
In most animal species, predation risk is considered the main factor affecting vigilance, and an individual is expected to spend less time vigilant in larger than in smaller groups. However, vigilance patterns in primates appear to differ, with no consistency in group-size effects. As individuals in highly gregarious species such as diurnal primate...
Conference Paper
Spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) are large-bodied Neotropical primates threatened across their range largely due to habitat loss. Their fast movement and high degree of fission-fusion dynamics make them notoriously difficult to survey. The aim of our study was to test line transect methodology on a community of individually recognized spider monkeys (A...
Conference Paper
Line transect surveys are the most commonly used method to census arboreal primates. However, to date, no study has tested whether fast moving arboreal species with high levels of fission-fusion dynamics, like spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) violate the assumptions associated with distance sampling such as miscounting groups and recounting individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Our aim was to evaluate the role of sucrose and the role of smell, taste and touch in the selection and consumption of fruit in wild spider monkeys. We recorded the feeding bouts of 14 adults for 9 mo in the Otoch Ma’ax Yetel Kooh Reserve, Punta Laguna, Yucatan, Mexico. For each of 2346 inspections on fruits of six species the consumption or reject...
Article
In species with a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics group members may differ in the use of the group home range to reduce food competition. Such differential use may result in distinct individual core areas. We studied core area quality and overlap among 21 female spider monkeys belonging to the same group over a period of 4 years. Core areas...
Data
Appendix S1 Inference of ancestral opsins. Appendix S2 An alternative ancestral inference at site 217. Appendix S3 An alternative scenario of ancestral sequence inference using a different out-group. Materials and Methods S1 PCR and DNA sequencing. Materials and Methods S2 Opsin photopigment reconstitution. Materials and Methods S3 Calculation of J...
Article
Full-text available
New World monkeys exhibit prominent color vision variation due to allelic polymorphism of the long-to-middle wavelength (L/M) opsin gene. The known spectral variation of L/M opsins in primates is broadly determined by amino acid composition at three sites: 180, 277 and 285 (the "three-sites" rule). However, two L/M opsin alleles found in the black-...
Article
Full-text available
Contact calls, which function to coordinate group movement and maintain contact between conspecifics, are predicted to show high levels of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness. We investigated interindividual variation in whinnies, a contact call, between two geographically distinct communities of wild Geoffroyi’s spider monkeys (Ate...
Article
Dispersal patterns are critical for understanding social systems as they influence social interactions and relationships. Spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) are typically described as being characterized by male philopatry and female dispersal, with these patterns reflected in stronger affiliative and cooperative relationships among males than among fema...
Article
Full-text available
Animal home ranges may vary little in their size and location in the short term but nevertheless show more variability in the long term. We evaluated the degree of site fidelity of two groups of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) over a 10- and 13-year period, respectively, in the northeastern Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. We used the Local Convex Hull...
Data
Maps of the HR (lighter tones) and CA (darker tones) polygons for each year of study. Polygons for the W group are shown in green and those for the E group in orange. The thin blue line shows the contour of the Punta Laguna lake. Panel A shows the results of the LoCoH method and Panel B those of the KDE method. Points correspond to the location of...
Article
Full-text available
Humans have the cognitive abilities to implement the revenge and forgiveness systems hypothesized by McCullough et al., but the evidence suggests that simpler processes may underlie most revenge cases in humans and other animals. The mediating role of emotions can be at the basis of the flexibility needed in the hypothesized systems and the associa...
Chapter
Color provides a reliable cue for object detection and identification during various behaviors such as foraging, mate choice, predator avoidance, and navigation. The total number of colors that a visual system can discriminate is largely dependent on the number of different spectral types of cone opsins present in the retina and the spectral separa...
Article
Full-text available
Fission–fusion dynamics derive from spatial adjustments that animals make depending on resource distribution, resulting in splitting and merging of subgroups. New frameworks propose to classify social systems depending on their degree of fission–fusion dynamics, but little has been done to quantify such dynamics. Operationally defining subgroup is...
Article
Full-text available
Hurricanes can bring about dramatic changes to ecosystems and adversely affect animals that live in them. We monitored behavioral responses in wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis) in the aftermath of two hurricanes (Emily and Wilma) that moved through the Yucatan peninsula in 2005. We predicted that the monkeys would shift their diet...
Article
Core areas are thought to be critical parts of animal home ranges for sustaining the population, but few studies have tested this important assumption. We examined whether core areas of spider monkeys Ateles geoffroyi had better habitat quality than the rest of their home range (non‐core areas). Habitat quality parameters, including density and div...
Chapter
Full-text available
Opsins provide an excellent model system for studying evolutionary interconnections at genetic, phenotypic and behavioural levels. Primates have evolved a unique ability for trichromatic colour vision from a dichromatic mammalian ancestor. This was accomplished via allelic differentiation (e.g. most New World monkeys) or gene duplication (e.g. Old...
Article
Full-text available
Core areas are highly used parts of the home range on which the survival of solitary or group-living animals depends. We investigated the home range and core area size and area fidelity of a spider monkey community in a tropical dry forest over a 4-year period. Home ranges overlapped extensively across years, subgroup sizes, and seasons. In contras...
Article
Full-text available
Sociality exists in an extraordinary range of ecological settings. For individuals to accrue the benefits associated with social interactions, they are required to maintain a degree of spatial and temporal coordination in their activities, and make collective decisions. Such coordination and decision-making has been the focus of much recent researc...
Data
Behavioral variants with a sufficiently large sample size for statistical analysis and their domains and sub-domains. †Additional data collected between 2004 and 2005 was also used for analysis. (TIF)
Data
Central America map showing location of study sites. Arrows illustrate location of participating field sites within their host country. (TIF)
Data
Photographs of some behavior variants examined (Photo credit Claire J. Santorelli unless otherwise stated). (TIF)
Data
ANOVA results for the behavioral variants that did not differ significantly across communities. PL-East = Punta Laguna – East community; PL-West = Punta Laguna – West community; *Not significant as critical value is 0.013 when Bonferroni's correction was applied (see Methods); †Not significant as critical value is 0.017 when Bonferroni's correction...
Article
Full-text available
Candidate traditions were documented across three communities of wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) using an a priori approach to identify behavioral variants and a statistical approach to examine differences in their proportional use. This methodology differs from previous studies of animal traditions, which used retrospective data and relied...
Article
Full-text available
In social organizations characterized by male philopatry, social relationships between males are argued to be the strongest. Little is known about the social relationships of philopatric male spider monkeys. To address this limitation, we investigated social relationships among individually recognized wild adult male spider monkeys from two well-ha...
Article
In group-living animals, social relationships are the result of the interactions between two individuals over time and can provide fitness benefits to both the participants. Recently, components of social relationships were identified in Old World primates and ravens through the use of principal component analysis (PCA). We employed PCA to identify...
Chapter
Full-text available
La conservación de los primates en México / Conservación aplicada a primates mexicanos La conservación de los primates en México / Conservación aplicada a primates mexicanos el Vínculo enTre inVesTigación y conserVación del mono araña en punTa laguna, yucaTán
Data
Ateles geoffroyi hand showing dramatic reduction in pollex (external thumb) (Photograph by Claire J. Santorelli). Photograph illustrates area of reduced pollex on the left hand. (TIF)
Data
Map of Central America showing locations of the five field sites participating in the study. Arrows illustrate location of participating field sites within their host country. (TIF)
Data
Definitions and domains of the 62 behaviors considered in the study. (DOC)
Data
Distance (kilometers) between sites (using Google Earth ruler, http://earth.google.com ). (DOC)