Colin C Williams

Colin C Williams
The University of Sheffield | Sheffield · Management School

BSC (Hons), MPhil
Lead expert, European Commission's European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work.

About

884
Publications
320,879
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Introduction
Colin Williams is Professor of Public Policy in the Management School at the University of Sheffield.
Additional affiliations
September 2006 - present
The University of Sheffield
Position
  • Professor of Public Policy
January 1997 - September 2006
University of Leicester
Position
  • Professor of Work Organisation
September 1991 - September 1997
Leeds Metropolitan University
Position
  • Senior Lecturer in Urban Development & Planning
Education
September 1984 - July 1987
University of Birmingham
Field of study
  • Urban and Regional Studies
September 1979 - July 1983
University of Hertfordshire
Field of study
  • Environmental Studies

Publications

Publications (884)
Article
Full-text available
To advance understanding of the entrepreneurship process in developing economies, this paper evaluates whether registered enterprises that initially avoid the cost of registration, and focus their resources on overcoming other liabilities of newness, lay a stronger foundation for subsequent growth. Analyzing World Bank Enterprise Survey data across...
Article
Full-text available
Recognizing that enterprises operate at varying levels of informality, this paper evaluates the determinants of their degree of informality. Reporting a 2012 survey of 300 informal microenterprises in the city of Lahore in Pakistan, the finding is that the key predictors of their level of informality are the characteristics of the entrepreneur and...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the undeclared economy in general, and envelope wages more particularly, in 10 Central and East European countries, drawing on a 2013 Eurobarometer survey. The explanatory approach focuses on the asymmetry between the codified laws and regulations of the formal institutions and the unwritten socially shared rules of informal i...
Article
Full-text available
Given that 60 per cent of the global workforce is in the informal sector, this article develops a typology that classifies economies according to, firstly, where different countries sit on a continuum of informalization and, secondly, the character of their informal sectors. This is then applied to the economies of the 27 member states of European...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate critically the dominant discourse that consumers acquiring goods and services in the informal economy are rational economic actors seeking a lower price, the results of a 2007 Eurobarometer survey involving 26,659 face-to-face interviews in 27 European Union member states form the basis for analysis. The finding is that achieving a lowe...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades scholars have acknowledged that transactions in the informal economy have not vanished with modernization and industrialization as expected but rather remain an important contemporary aspect of overall production and consumption across the world, in both developing and developed countries. Yet little is known about the profile of...
Article
Full-text available
Little attention has been paid to why consumers choose to purchase goods and services from the informal economy. Similarly, few studies have been conducted on consumer behaviour in relation to informal markets during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the article is to evaluate, for the first time, whether the COVID-19 pandemic influenced consumer b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To help countries make progress on the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Indicator 8.3.1 ("Proportion of informal employment in non-agriculture employment, by sex"), this paper presents an integrated strategic policy approach. This is where: a national government facilitates the transition to formality using a whole government appro...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Tackling undeclared work is often less effective because there is a fragmented and uncoordinated approach across the multifarious government bodies responsible for tackling undeclared work and a limited involvement of social partners, as well as an incomplete range of policy measures used. To resolve this, a holistic integrated strategic approach h...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we use a novel cross‐country dataset to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of the shadow economy and fiscal policy responses to the economic crisis induced by the pandemic. The finding is that countries with a relatively larger shadow economy before the pandemic have adopted a smaller fiscal policy package. The resul...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of this report is to compare social identity (ID) card schemes in the construction sector in different European countries to make recommendations for the design of a social ID card scheme in the construction sector in Romania. Social ID cards provide information on the employer and employee to confirm if workers on a construction site shoul...
Article
Full-text available
Greek economy suffers from economic crisis for over a decade. A continuing problem has been the persistence of a large shadow economy which results in a gap between the tax and social security contribution owed and collected. In this paper, the size of shadow economy (SE) in Greece is estimated using a flexible MIMIC approach with time series data...
Article
Full-text available
To tackle participation in unregistered employment, the conventional policy approach has been to deter such work by increasing the penalties and risk of detection. Recently, an alternative preventative approach has emerged that tackles participation in unregistered employment by improving citizens vertical trust (in the state) and horizontal trust...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report documents the outcomes of the first Peer Learning Dialogue (PLD) on the lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic for the organisation of inspections and inspectorates. The aim of this Peer Learning Dialogue has been to produce recommendations and suggested actions (1) which European Platform tackling undeclared work members can implem...
Article
Full-text available
Healthcare accessibility and equity remain important issues, as corruption in the form of informal payments is still prevalent in many countries across the world. This study employs a panel data analysis over the 2006-2013 period to explore the role of different institutional factors in explaining the prevalence of informal payments. Covering 117 c...
Article
Full-text available
Although major advances have been made in relation to explaining the supply side of the informal economy, this is not the case for the demand-side of the informal economy. This study analyses for the first time the purchasers of undeclared goods and services in the healthcare sector. To evaluate the purchase of undeclared healthcare goods and servi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The eleventh meeting in plenary of the European Platform tackling undeclared work (the Platform) was held in Bratislava on 21-22 October 2021 as a hybrid meeting both onsite as well as online. The first day of this meeting was a thematic day dedicated to examining COVID-19’s impact on enforcement authorities’ work and priorities. This thematic da...
Book
Full-text available
The aim of this report is to evaluate “e-formalization” in European countries. To tackle informality, the lockdown and physical distancing measures resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a decrease in onsite workplace inspections in Europe and the greater use of e-initiatives as a complement to the traditional onsite workplace inspect...
Article
Full-text available
Confronted with a global pandemic, public healthcare systems are under pressure, making access to healthcare services difficult for patients. This provides fertile ground for using illegal practices such as informal payments to gain access. This paper aims to evaluate the use of informal payments by patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and the ins...
Article
Full-text available
Usually, studies on the informal economy focus mainly upon those working in the informal economy (supply side). However, many exchanges in the informal economy are initiated by purchasers asking how much a good or service costs if paid cash in hand. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to advance understanding of who make purchases in the informal e...
Book
Full-text available
In transition economies, a significant number of companies reduce their tax and social contributions by paying their staff an official salary, described in a registered formal employment agreement, and an extra, undeclared “envelope wage,” via a verbal unwritten agreement. The consequences include a loss of government income and a lack of fair play...
Technical Report
On 16 September 2021, the European Platform tackling undeclared work organised an online seminar on Tackling undeclared work in the HORECA sector. The seminar brought together 43 participants from 20 countries, representing labour inspectorates and other enforcement authorities, European and national level social partners in the HORECA sector, as w...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The aim of this paper is to evaluate contrasting ways of tackling self-employment in the informal sector. Conventionally, the participation of the self-employed in the informal sector has been viewed as a rational economic decision taken when the expected benefits outweigh the costs, and thus enforcement authorities have sought to change th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In many economies, there is a fragmented and uncoordinated approach across the multifarious government bodies responsible for tackling undeclared work and a limited involvement of social partners, as well as an incomplete range of policy measures used. To resolve this, a holistic integrated strategic approach has been proposed. This is where govern...
Technical Report
Full-text available
On 11th June 2021, the Western Balkan Network Tackling undeclared work held a workshop for enforcement authorities in the Western Balkans on data collection, sharing and analysis to tackle undeclared work. This learning resource reports the outcomes of the workshop. This workshop was organised to provide an opportunity for enforcement authorities i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
On 13th May 2020, as part of the “Relaunch” decree in Italy, it was agreed that from 1 June to 15 July 2020, requests for regularisation may be submitted for undocumented migrant agricultural workers, and domestic workers and carers. The aim was to regularize undocumented migrant workers enabling them to move into the declared economy As of April 1...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In Albania, the State Labour and Social Services Inspectorate has introduced an online inspection platform to prevent abusive behaviour by labour inspectors and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the planning and conduct of inspections. It now includes data from 34,500 inspections. The outcomes have been that: 45% more undeclared work has...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In 2009, the Republika Srpska Labour Inspectorate established a call centre established to receive complaints on some labour law irregularities on businesses practices, including undeclared work. These complaints can be reported either by telephone or electronically by email or online. In the first quarter of 2021, 77 complaints were reported relat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In the Labour Inspectorate in Serbia, the strategic objective of transforming undeclared work into declared work has been fully adopted and operationalized in the measurement of the performance of the inspectorate. The outcome is that in 2020, of the total of 5,951 persons found working undeclared during inspections, 4,072 (68%) were subsequently e...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A ChatBot application Inspector Virtual Assistant has been introduced to provide support for citizens and entrepreneurs completing the online complaint reporting form on the web portal of the Coordination Commission for Inspection Oversight (inspektor.gov.rs). In the first year, 16,884 complaints have been reported by citizens and businesses, of wh...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Collecting, sharing and analysing data can improve enforcement authority performance not only in detecting undeclared work but also preventing non-compliance. The aim of this toolkit is to support enforcement authorities in the Western Balkans to improve their knowledge and awareness of how to develop efficient databases to detect, prevent and pred...
Technical Report
Full-text available
On 29th April 2021, the European Platform tackling undeclared work (hereafter the ‘Platform’) held a webinar on ‘COVID 19: combating fraud in short-term financial support schemes’. This report documents the discussion at the webinar which brought together 31 participants from 20 countries, representing labour inspectorates and other enforcement aut...
Article
This paper reviews the policy options and measures available for tackling informal sector entrepreneurship. Four possible policy options are critically reviewed: doing nothing, eradicating informal entrepreneurship; eradicating formal entrepreneurship and formalizing informal entrepreneurship. Concluding that the latter is the most feasible option,...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To transcend the view of employment as either formal or informal, this paper evaluates the prevalence of quasi-formal employment where formal employers pay formal employees an unreported (“envelope”) wage in addition to their formal reported salary. To explain the individual-level variations in quasi-formal employment, the “marginalisation”...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Greece in 2018 introduced an online company registration portal. An entrepreneur can access the portal using an electronic ID or personal access code from the tax authority and register a business without leaving the office or exchanging any paperwork. To incentivise the use of the portal, registration fees are 30% lower than if the paperwork proce...
Technical Report
Full-text available
To improve tax compliance by making available to taxpayers the software for them to conduct a tax compliance risk assessment using the same algorithms as the Italian Revenue Agency. The view is that this will encourage voluntary compliance by encouraging taxpayers to be more honest in the tax returns they submit, thus reducing audit costs for the t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The entrepreneurial account is an e-initiative to improve tax compliance amongst micro-entrepreneurs. Primarily for those providing private person-to-person services, the bank automatically transfers his/her information to the tax authorities and the amount of tax to be paid. All this is done free of charge. By October 2020, over 3,000 entrepreneur...
Technical Report
Full-text available
E-Tax enables the online declaration of tax. Any taxpayer can file their tax return online and much of it is pre-filled. It now takes taxpayers an average of 3 minutes to complete. Even one-click tax returns have been possible since 2015. 98% of tax declarations are now completed online.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The e-business register seeks to prevent undeclared work by both simplifying the business registration process using electronic services as well as allowing businesses and taxpayers to undertake due diligence investigations of businesses. From 2011, most companies have been established over the internet using the e Business Register and the time ta...
Article
Purpose Despite a widespread assertion that wages are lower in the informal than formal economy, there have been few empirical evaluations of whether this is the case and even fewer studies of the gender variations in wage rates in the formal and informal economies. Consequently, whether there are wage benefits to formal employment for men and wome...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to transcend the long-standing depiction that workers universally participate in the undeclared service economy out of necessity due to their exclusion from the formal labour market, by proposing and evaluating the existence of a dual undeclared labour market in the service sector composed of an ‘upper-tier’ of voluntary ex...
Technical Report
Full-text available
MiningWatch is a data mining tool which uses predictive modelling to define fraud risks in three different sectors: construction, cleaning and the hotels and catering sector. The analytical tool supports inspectors in choosing inspection targets. Detection rates have increased with average detection rates rising from a 16% success rate prior to Min...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of the Crossroads Bank for Social Security (CBSS) is to provide a gateway improve service delivery to the socially insured people and the companies involved. Social benefits are automatically granted without citizens or their employers having to make declarations anymore and the administrative burden for citizens and companies has been dras...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of this experiment was to encourage voluntary compliance by service providers on digital platforms. They were requested to voluntarily report their earnings from digital platforms to the Estonian Tax and Customs Board (ETCB). The ETCB would then pre-fill service providers annual income tax returns with the information received from the plat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of the electronic Employment Register is to collect up-to-date data on employment in one place. Employers must register employees in the Register prior to starting work. This creates efficiencies for authorities who use the data to help detect undeclared work and simplifies the process for employers, who can input details in one single regi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
To tackle undeclared work, a voluntary disclosure initiative was implemented for a 6-month period in 2019 to enable those voluntarily disclosing to the Lithuanian State Tax Inspectorate (STI) their past undeclared work to have the penalties waived that would have applied if they are compliant in the future. The outcome was that an estimated that €4...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In Finland, the Grey Economy Information Unit (GEIU) is a one-stop shop in the form of a central unit that produces and shares information on undeclared work to all interested public authorities. The GEIU has produced 2 million compliance reports since 2011. On average annually, it produces circa 200,000 compliance reports, 100 classification repor...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The main aim of the electronic REVISAL Employment Register has been to reduce the bureaucratic burden on employers of registering employees and to improve the detection of undeclared work by providing up-to-date data on businesses to inspectors. REVISAL has considerably reduced the bureaucratic burden on employers and improved the detection of unde...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Incomes Register is an online database. It contains comprehensive information on individuals' wages, pensions and benefits. Data providers report individuals' earnings to the Incomes Register in real time, whenever a payment is made. The overall aim of the Incomes Register is to reduce undeclared work by showing in real-time which payment oblig...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Launched in 2010, Connect brings together 40 data sets, 22 billion lines of data and 600 million documents. Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) have spent £90 million on developing this system, but it has helped secure an additional £3 billion in tax revenues. More than 7 out of 10 enquiry case selections are generated by Connect.
Article
Full-text available
This paper tests competing hypotheses on the relationship between marginalization and participation in undeclared work. The ‘marginalization’ thesis views undeclared work as conducted primarily by marginalized populations among which young, unemployed and economically fragile people dominate. A competing ‘reinforcement’ thesis argues that undeclare...
Technical Report
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This proposal seeks to make agricultural subsidies conditional on compliance with labour law to tackle undeclared work in the agricultural sector.
Technical Report
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RAISE UP is an EU-funded pilot project (2017-2020) that adopts a holistic approach towards tackling undeclared work in agriculture. It has involved cooperation between trade unions, employers' organisations and labour inspectorates from Italy, Bulgaria, the Republic of North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Hellenic Labour Inspectorate identified that some employers were abuses the COVID-19 short-term job retention scheme by engaging in the bogus declaration of suspension of employees’ employment contracts. The outcome was that they were claiming for government support for the suspension of these employees’ contracts, but the employees were contin...
Technical Report
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To help micro- and small-sized enterprises (MSEs) conduct risk assessment to improve occupational safety and health (OSH), the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) has developed the Online Interactive Risk Assessment (OiRA) web-based platform solution. By March 2021, OiRA had more than 103 400 registered users and 164 200 risk as...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A competition was arranged by the main trade union in Latvia to educate students about labour law and occupational safety and health (OSH), as part of their permanent ongoing efforts to tackle undeclared work. This competition was organised through the school system and the final rounds were broadcast on national television. The outcome was 119 cla...
Technical Report
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In Iceland, all employers and workers must have been issued with workplace identity cards before their first day of work and the social partners have been given the authority to appoint inspectors to perform the inspections in relation to the Workplace ID Cards.
Technical Report
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In Spain, there were inadequate regulations on employers’ responsibilities and workers’ rights in relation to remote working. With the increase in remote working due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Royal Decree Law 28/2020, passed in October 2020, provide new legislation setting out employers’ responsibilities and workers’ rights, enabling enforcement au...
Technical Report
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To raise awareness about the unfair competition resulting from undeclared work, the Latvian Employers Confederation organised an awareness raising campaign. This included an advertising campaign and an online tool for measuring one’s “shadow”.
Technical Report
Full-text available
On 19th April 2021, the Western Balkan Network Tackling Undeclared Work held an online seminar that brought together representatives from enforcement authorities and social partners. The intention was to discuss and share understanding of the major challenges they face in pursuing greater cooperation and provide tips for other Western Balkan econom...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This toolkit firstly evaluates the current involvement of Western Balkan social partners in tackling undeclared work and secondly, provides inspiration for social partners by reporting numerous policy initiatives being used by social partners to tackle undeclared work across the Western Balkans, European Union and beyond.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Many economies tackle undeclared work by increasing the real or expected costs of participation in undeclared work. This can be achieved by increasing the perceived and/or actual sanctions imposed on those caught or by increasing the real and/or expected risk of detection. This report focuses upon the range and effectiveness of the available sancti...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Wage under-reporting (or under-declared employment) occurs when a formal employer pays a formal employee an official declared wage but also an additional undeclared (“envelope”) wage. Given that employers often give this undeclared part of the wage to the employee as cash in an envelope, the study of wage under-reporting is commonly referred to as...
Article
Purpose Until now, most scholars have used one of four competing theories to explain undeclared work. Political economy theories explain undeclared work as resulting from the exclusion of workers from formal work and welfare, neo-liberal theories explain such work as a voluntarily chosen rational economic decision and neo-institutionalist and post-...
Article
Informal entrepreneurs have been viewed variously as reluctant participants in such endeavors doing so out of economic necessity because of their exclusion from formal work and welfare (structuralist theory), or as willing entrepreneurs who voluntarily exit the formal economy either as a rational economic decision (neo-liberal theory) or as social...
Technical Report
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The government of the Republika Srpska has a Coordination Body for Inspection Supervision that joins-up inspection supervision across the Ministry of the Interior, the Tax Administration and the Republic Administration for Inspection Affairs (Inspectorate)
Technical Report
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To overcome an uncoordinated and fragmented approach where the multifarious organisations involved in tackling undeclared work operate in “silos” with separate strategies and targets, the Commission for the Suppression of the Grey Economy in Montenegro is developing an Action Plan for the Suppression of the Grey Economy.
Technical Report
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To incentivize employers to regularize their unregistered workers, employers were offered short-term financial assistance of 130 EUR per month per employee for two consecutive months during the COVID19 public health emergency, conditional upon the employer putting the worker on a declared contract for at least one year. Funding of 6 million EUR was...
Technical Report
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A Commission for the Suppression of the Grey Economy has been established to develop and implement an action plan to move beyond a fragmented approach where the organisations involved in tackling undeclared work operate in “silos” with separate strategies and targets.
Technical Report
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The idea of this “social labelling” scheme is to identify and promote hotels and other tourist establishments that respect workers’ rights, differentiating them from those that do not, so that purchasers can make an informed decision. Under this initiative, those establishments whose employment practices and whose staff’s working conditions meet pr...
Technical Report
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To reduce undeclared earnings in the tourist accommodation sector, public sector workers are provided with holiday vouchers which can only be spent in registered tourist accommodation.
Technical Report
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To overcome an uncoordinated and fragmented approach where the various organisations involved in tackling undeclared work operate in “silos” with separate strategies and targets, Serbia has coordinated strategy towards undeclared work through a single body.
Technical Report
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Certified cash registers, which send transactions automatically to the tax administration, are in use in many economies. What is innovative in Slovenia is that the purchasers can electronically check whether the receipt has been verified by scanning the code on the invoice in the 'Check the receipt' app. To incentivise purchasers to do so, purchase...
Article
The conventional depiction of the prevalence, character and motives of informal sector entrepreneurs, here termed the ‘marginalization thesis,’ has been that informal entrepreneurs are a small, insignificant minority of all entrepreneurs, are more likely than formal entrepreneurs to belong to marginalized groups and are more likely to be necessity-...
Technical Report
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As a result of the ILO South-South and Triangular Cooperation knowledge-sharing project on an Integrated Approach Towards Formalization in Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan, the report sets out road maps for the four countries to make progress towards an integrated strategic approach to facilitate the transition to formality. The st...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Although enforcement authorities play a key role in tackling undeclared work, social partners also have an interest in preventing undeclared work. Employer federations wish to tackle the unfair competition that results from other businesses operating in the undeclared economy and trade unions wish to protect declared workers and tackle unscrupulous...
Article
When explaining participation in undeclared work, the dominant theorisation views undeclared workers as rational economic actors participating in undeclared work when the benefits exceed the expected costs of being caught and punished. An alternative theorisation views participants’ in the undeclared economy as social actors driven into undeclared...
Article
Three competing theories have been used to explain participation in the undeclared economy. A structuralist perspective asserts that workers are pushed into undeclared work because of their "exclusion" from the declared economy. Two alternative theoretical perspectives assert that undeclared operators voluntarily "exit" the declared economy. Neo-li...
Article
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of two contrasting policy approaches in tackling informal sector entrepreneurship. The dominant deterrence approach theorizes entrepreneurs as rational economic actors who operate in the informal sector when the benefits of doing so outweigh the costs. The resultant policy focus is upon deterri...
Article
The coronavirus pandemic has led to revenue loss for tourism enterprises and workers due to restrictions on movement. In response, governments have made available temporary financial support, but not to those tourist enterprises and workers in the undeclared economy. Reporting a 2019 Eurobarometer survey, this paper reveals that one in 165 European...
Article
In recent years, a social actor approach has emerged to explain informal sector entrepreneurship. Grounded in institutional theory, this asserts that formal institutional failures lead entrepreneurs to view participation in the informal sector as acceptable, which results in the prevalence of informal entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to e...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this report is to enable Western Balkan enforcement authorities to share and deepen their understanding of: • the effectiveness of using sanctions to tackle undeclared work, and • the range of sanction tools available.
Article
Full-text available
Wage under-reporting (or under-declared employment) occurs when a formal employer pays a formal employee an official declared wage but also an additional undeclared (“envelope”) wage. Given that employers often give this undeclared part of the wage to the employee as cash in an envelope, the study of wage under-reporting is commonly referred to as...
Article
To tackle undeclared work in Central and East Europe, the conventional bureaucratic public sector management approach has used the hard-direct controls of penalties and increasing the risk of detection. Recently, an alternative post-bureaucratic public sector management approach has emerged advocating soft indirect controls to improve tax morale an...

Questions

Questions (15)
Question
I am currently doing a project for a government who are considering the introduction of the use of body cameras among their labour inspectors and health & safety inspectors when conducting visits to business premises. They are thinking of combining this with the use of GPS so that the camera automatically switches on when the inspector reaches the business and automatically switches off when he/she leaves the business. Does anybody know of any research on the impacts of the usage of such body cameras, in this or related areas (e.g., policing)?
Question
I am currently doing a project for a government who wish to introduce the use of body cameras among their labour inspectors and health & safety inspectors when conducting visits to business premises. They are thinking of combining this with the use of GPS so that the camera automatically switches on when the inspector reaches the business and automatically switches off when he/she leaves the business. Does anybody know of any research on the impacts of the usage of such body cameras, such as in related areas (e.g., policing)?
Question
Does anybody know of any specific policy initiatives that a country has adopted that has been successful in moving work in the informal economy into the formal economy? 
I am looking for 'good practice' policy initiatives that might be transferable from one country and could be implemented more broadly. These might be deterrence initiatives that increase the penalties or improve the risks of detection (e.g., initiatives to improve workplace inspections, improve data mining to identify the informal economy).
They might also be incentive measures that encourage the shift from the informal to the formal economy. These might be supply-side initiatives that make it beneficial and easier to operate in the formal economy (e.g., simpler registration, tax incentives). They might also be demand-side initiatives that encourage consumers/purchasers to buy from the formal economy (e.g., service vouchers, tax incentives).
Finally, they might involve awareness raising and education campaigns to persuade people of the benefits or working in the formal economy or costs of working in the informal economy. Or they might be initiatives that seek to improve the structural systemic drivers that lead to the prevalence of the informal economy (e.g., reducing corruption, modernizing governance).   
Ideally, I am looking for specific concrete policy initiatives that have been evaluated to assess their impact.
Question
Letterbox companies might be defined as chiefly legal entities established in a country where they have no (or very little) economic activity, in order to benefit from more advantageous tax and social security systems.
A letterbox company is therefore a company with no significant activity, created solely for the purposes of circumventing the applicable laws and regulations in the country in which it operates by registering itself in another.
Does anybody know of any research conducted on this issue? 
Question
In recent years, there has been growing concern about the growth of what is called either 'bogus' or 'false' self-employment across many governments in Europe and beyond. I am interested to find out whether any research has been conducted on this issue.
Question
In Business Schools in particular, and Universities more generally, the recruitment and support of Early Career Researchers is an important issue. What good practice exists so far their recruitment and support is concerned? How can business schools in particular, and universities more generally, attract and retain their research talent? Examples of good practice from individual institutions, as well as country-wide initiatives, would be very useful.