Colin Ware

Colin Ware
University of New Hampshire | UNH · Department of Computer Science and Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping

PhD University of Toronto

About

247
Publications
83,673
Reads
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13,392
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - present
University of New Hampshire
Position
  • Professor (Full)
June 1985 - December 2000
University of New Brunswick
Position
  • Professor
August 1980 - August 1983
National Research Council Canada
Position
  • Research Associate
Description
  • Research on human color vision
Education
August 1983 - July 1985
University of Waterloo
Field of study
  • Computer Science
August 1975 - June 1980
University of Toronto
Field of study
  • Psychology (Perception)

Publications

Publications (247)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Measurements of the depth of the seabed vary widely in both horizontal and vertical accuracy. To convey this information to mariners, Zones of Confidence (ZOC) are defined for charts. A mosaic of ZOCs can be represented as a chart overlay. This study evaluates two novel designs for textures to represent ZOCs. Both use textures with countable elemen...
Article
Full-text available
The Zones of Confidence (ZOC) is a composite data quality indicator used in Electronic Navigational Charts. Accident reports show that failing to account for chart data quality can result in maritime accidents and loss of life. ZOC overlays are intended to help mariners in identifying potential seafloor hazards and in plotting routes safe for the v...
Article
In many species, group foraging is a strategy used to increase the efficiency of individuals to find and exploit patchy prey. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are one of the few baleen whale species reported to use coordinated foraging strategies. One of these behaviors, bubble-net feeding, has been observed in several populations, though t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The S-57 Category of Zone of Confidence (CATZOC) symbology with star glyphs has received much criticism for its effectiveness in maritime navigation. It adds significant clutter on Electronic Chart Displays and Information System (ECDIS) screens, obscures high-quality more than low-quality data, may not be visible in small areas, is not intuitive,...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT The Atlantic Deepwater Ecosystem Observatory Network (ADEON) is an array of hydrophones deployed along the U.S. Mid- and South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf, that has been collecting long-term measurements of natural and human sounds in the region since 2017. This presentation focuses on the design and implementation of...
Article
Full-text available
A global geographic grid system (Global GGS) is here introduced to support the display of gridded bathymetric data at whatever resolution is available in a visually seamless manner. The Global GGS combines a quadtree metagrid hierarchy with a system of compatible data grids. Metagrid nodes define the boundaries of data grids. Data grids are regular...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Navigational charts contain a combination of geospatial information of varying quality collected at different times using various techniques. Bathymetric data quality is mainly encoded in electronic charts with the Category of Zones of Confidence (CATZOC). CATZOC provides information about the horizontal and vertical uncertainty of depth informatio...
Article
Visualizing 3D vector fields is challenging because of occlusion problems and the difficulty of providing depth cues that adequately support the perception of direction of flow lines in 3D space. One of the depth cues that has proven most valuable for the perception of other kinds of 3D data, notably 3D networks and 3D point clouds, is structure‐fr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. A Global Geographic Grid System (Global GGS) is here introduced to support the display of gridded bathymetric data at whatever resolution is available in a visually seamless manner. The Global GGS combines a quad-tree metagrid hierarchy with a system of compatible data grids. Metagrid nodes define the boundaries of data grids. Data grids...
Presentation
Full-text available
Data quality is visualized in ECDIS as an additional layer with symbols using a rating system of stars: six to two stars for the best to lowest quality data and “U” for unassessed data. This work presents an alternative methodology for consideration by the IHO Data Quality Working Group members.
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation of an improved method for the visualization of zones of confidence (ZOC) and quality of bathymetric data (QoBD) on ECDIS.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most navigational charts are an amalgamation of geospatial information of varying quality collected using different techniques at different times. Data collected with high resolution multi-beam echo sounders or lidar systems may co-exist on the chart with data collected with lead-line as far back as the 18th century. Data quality on charts is curre...
Conference Paper
One advantage of touch interaction is the sense of direct manipulation; there is perhaps no more-intuitive interface than just reaching out and touching virtual entities. However, direct manipulation is generally limited to objects located on the 2D display surface. For 3D spaces extending behind or in front of a touchscreen, the direct manipulatio...
Article
Full-text available
Foundation species like macroalgae provide habitat for large numbers of animals. The spatial structure between branches or thalli can act as a refuge from larger predators and can affect the number and distribution of inhabitant species. Most metrics for habitat architecture are based on 2-dimensional measurements, but habitats are 3-dimensional. W...
Article
Full-text available
Foundation species like macroalgae provide habitat for large numbers of animals. The spatial structure between branches or thalli can act as a refuge from larger predators and can affect the number and distribution of inhabitant species. Most metrics for habitat architecture are based on 2-dimensional measurements, but habitats are 3-dimensional. W...
Article
Pseudocoloring is one of the most common techniques used in scientific visualization. To apply pseudocoloring to a scalar field, the field value at each point is represented using one of a sequence of colors (called a colormap). One of the principles applied in generating colormaps is uniformity and previously the main method for determining unifor...
Article
Full-text available
Particle-based simulations are used across many science domains, and it is well known that stereoscopic viewing and kinetic depth enhance our ability to perceive the 3D structure of such data. But the relative advantages of stereo and kinetic depth have not been studied for point cloud data, although they have been studied for 3D networks. This art...
Article
Full-text available
A myriad of design rules for what constitutes a “good” colormap can be found in the literature. Some common rules include order, uniformity, and high discriminative power. However, the meaning of many of these terms is often ambiguous or open to interpretation. At times, different authors may use the same term to describe different concepts or the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite continual research and discussion on the perceptual effects of color in scientific visualization, psychophysical testing is often limited. In-person lab studies can be expensive and time-consuming while results can be difficult to extrapolate from meticulously controlled laboratory conditions to the real world of the visualization user. We...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Probably the most common method for visualizing univariate data maps is through pseudocoloring and one of the most commonly cited requirements of a good colormap is that it be perceptually uniform. This means that differences between adjacent colors in the sequence be equally distinct. The practical value of uniformity is for features in the data t...
Article
Full-text available
The visual landscape of marine and terrestrial systems is changing as a result of anthropogenic factors. Often these shifts involve introduced species that are morphologically dissimilar to native species, creating a unique biogenic structure and habitat for associated species within the landscape. While community level changes as a result of intro...
Article
Humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae are filter feeders that use discrete lunges to effectively capture densely aggregated prey. The objective of this research was to examine how foraging humpback whales in Southeast Alaska responded to varying prey patch densities and depths. Digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs; n = 6) were deployed and focal...
Conference Paper
Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that animated representations of vector fields are more effective than common static representations even for steady flow. We compared four flow visualization methods: animated streamlets, animated orthogonal line segments (where short lines were elongated orthogonal to the flow direction but an...
Article
Full-text available
Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion-an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being use...
Data
This zipped folder contains a set of summary spreadsheet files, two for each animal. The files with names ending in NewAnalysis contain the data used to construct the APBA and ODBA plots. The files ending with “JP edits” contain calculations relating to drag and energy expenditures. Also included is C++ source code required to apply the GIDA method...
Data
Unpacked raw openTag files are provided for animal F00BO,. Also, a set of csv files, one for each dive included in the study. Each file contains a 50Hz time series. Provided are calibrated accelerometer and gyro measurements, together with the estimated gravity vector, and the estimated dynamic accelerations by the different methods. The small file...
Data
Unpacked raw openTag files are provided for animal F97SI. Same components as S2. (ZIP)
Data
Unpacked raw openTag files are provided for animal F97HA. Same components as S2. (ZIP)
Data
Unpacked raw openTag files are provided for animal F97SI. Same components as S2. (ZIP)
Article
Three-dimensional vector fields are common datasets throughout the sciences. Visualizing these fields is inherently difficult due to issues such as visual clutter and self-occlusion. Cutting planes are often used to overcome these issues by presenting more manageable slices of data. The existing literature provides many techniques for visualizing t...
Poster
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are one of the few cetacean species that feed in groups, a strategy that allows them to take advantage of large patches of mobile prey and may minimize the high energetic cost of feeding. One common group behavior is bubble net feeding, where a whale releases a stream of bubbles while encircling prey, effect...
Conference Paper
Studies have found conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of tube-like structures for representing 3D flow data. This paper presents the findings of a small-scale pilot study contrasting static monoscopic depth cues to ascertain their importance in perceiving the orientation of a three-dimensional glyph with respect to a cutting plane. A s...
Article
Considerable effort has gone into building numerical weather and ocean prediction models during the past 50 years. Less effort has gone into the visual representation of output from those forecast models and many of the techniques used are known to be ineffective. The effectiveness of a data display depends on how well critical patterns can be perc...
Chapter
The brain is a powerful pattern-finding engine; this is the fundamental reason why visualization techniques are becoming important. The brain appears to be especially good at discovering linear features and distinct objects, so much so that the discovery of spurious patterns should always be a concern. This chapter presents the Gestalt laws of patt...
Chapter
As a general observation, the use of gray-scale colors is not a particularly good method for coding data as it reduces the accuracy; therefore, the luminance channel of the visual system becomes fundamental to much of the perception. The relative nature of lightness perception sometimes causes errors. These errors are mostly because of a simplified...
Article
Most professional wind visualizations show wind speed and direction using a glyph called a wind barb in a grid pattern. Research into flow visualization has suggested that streamlines better represent flow patterns but these methods lack a key property-unlike the wind barb, they do not accurately convey the wind speed. With the goal of improving th...
Conference Paper
When we interact with a touch screen computational device we have the strong subjective impression that we are directly causing changes that occur on the screen. For example, sliding a finger on a screen causes scrolling of the information. But the current method for showing causal relationships derived from models is to use a causal network diagra...
Article
Full-text available
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are known for the variety and complexity of their feeding behaviors. Here we report on the use of synchronous motion and acoustic recording tags (DTAGs) to provide the first detailed kinematic descriptions of humpback whales using bottom side-rolls (BSRs) to feed along the seafloor. We recorded 3,505 events...
Article
In visual analytics, interactive data visualizations provide a bridge between analytic computations, often involving “big data”, and computations in the brain of the user. Visualization provides a high bandwidth channel from the computer to the user by means of the visual display, with interactions including brushing, dynamic queries, and generaliz...
Article
Full-text available
The objective was to evaluate the use of a spatially aware handheld chart display in a comparison with a track-up fixed display configuration and to investigate how cognitive strategies vary when performing the task of matching chart symbols with environmental features under different display geometries and task constraints. Small-screen devices co...
Article
With increasing computing power, it is possible to process more complex fluid simulations. However, a gap between increasing data size and our ability to visualize them still remains. Despite the great amount of progress that has been made in the field of flow visualization over the last two decades, a number of challenges remain. While the visuali...
Article
Full-text available
Previously, all inferences regarding fine-scale baleen whale mother-calf relationships have come from surface observations, aerial surveys, or underwater video recordings. On May 19, 2010, we attached high-resolution digital acoustic recording tags (Dtags) to an adult female humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae and her calf in Wilhelmina Bay (West...
Article
Weather maps commonly display several variables at once, usually a subset of the following: atmospheric pressure, surface wind speed and direction, surface temperature, cloud cover, and precipitation. Most often, a single variable is mapped separately and occasionally two are shown together. But sometimes there is an attempt to show three or four v...
Article
Information Visualization: Perception for Design is a comprehensive guide to what the science of human perception tells us about how we should display information. The human brain is a super-computer for finding patterns in information. Our understanding of visual data and visual information is greatly enhanced or impeded by the way information is...
Article
Lateralized behaviour refers to a preference for using a specific limb or direction of movement that is consistent across events. We investigated apparent lateralized behaviour in North Atlantic humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in the southern Gulf of Maine using digital acoustic tag ('DTAG') technology to analyse feeding behaviours during...
Article
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) belong to the class of marine mammals known as rorquals that feed through extraordinarily energetic lunges during which they engulf large volumes of water equal to as much as 70% of their body mass. To understand the kinematics of humpback lunge feeding, we attached high-resolution digital recording tags inc...
Article
Full-text available
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) employ a unique and complex foraging behaviour — bubble-netting — that involves expelling air underwater to form a vertical cylinder-ring of bubbles around prey. We used digital suction cup tags (DTAGs) that concurrently measure pitch, roll, heading, depth and sound (96 kHz sampling rate), to provide the fir...
Article
We present a method for automatically evaluating and optimizing visualizations using a computational model of human vision. The method relies on a neural network simulation of early perceptual processing in the retina and primary visual cortex. The neural activity resulting from viewing flow visualizations is simulated and evaluated to produce a me...
Article
Modern ocean flow simulations are generating increasingly complex, multi-layer 3D ocean flow models. However, most researchers are still using traditional 2D visualizations to visualize these models one slice at a time. Properly designed D visualization tools can be highly effective for revealing the complex, dynamic flow patterns and structures pr...
Article
What can crossmodal associations reveal about working memory capacity for complex objects? Forming these associations starts before baby first shakes a rattle and continues past Grandma's first cellphone purchase. To examine the contributions of perceptual and conceptual characteristics of images to WM for novel visual-auditory associations, we ass...
Article
Full-text available
Representing bivariate scalar maps is a common but difficult visualization problem. One solution has been to use two dimensional color schemes, but the results are often hard to interpret and inaccurately read. An alternative is to use a color sequence for one variable and a texture sequence for another. This has been used, for example, in geology,...
Article
Humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae have adopted unique feeding strategies to take advantage of behavioral changes in their prey. However, logistical constraints have largely limited ecological analyses of these interactions. Our objectives were to (1) link humpback whale feeding behaviors to concurrent measurements of prey using scientific echo...
Article
Analyses of the foraging behavior of large cetaceans have generally focused on either correlations with environmental conditions at regional scales or observations of surface behavior. We employed a novel approach combining multi-scale analyses of simultaneous environmental conditions, surface and subsurface humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae mo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GeoCoastPilot is a research software application built to explore techniques for simplifying access to the navigation information a mariner needs prior to entering or leaving a port. GeoCoastPilot is intended to demonstrate what is possible with current technology and to facilitate technology transfer. We started with the question, "What might a di...
Conference Paper
Mapping and charting of the seafloor underwent a revolution approximately 20 years ago with the introduction of multibeam sonars-sonars that provided complete, high-resolution coverage of the seafloor rather than sparse measurements. The initial focus of these sonar systems was the charting of depths in support of safety of navigation and offshore...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Optimizing complex displays is difficult because there are many alternative ways of mapping the data to its graphical representation. In this paper we report on a study employing a method we call ¿interactive design space hill climbing¿. This involves first parameterizing the mapping from data to display. Next, using an interactive interface, des...
Conference Paper
We report on an experiment designed to examine the effect of type and size of projection textures on the ability of human subjects to correctly estimate the surface normal on each of two terrain-like layered surfaces. Normal estimation was determined by the ability to correctly orient a probe so that it is aligned with the normal local to the surfa...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the perceptual and cognitive structure of space, taking into account both how depth is perceived and the costs of navigation to access information. It also discusses the ways in which depth is perceived. The cognitive organism acts on visual information that is imaged on the retina. The perceptual egocentric space is commonly...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the fundamental differences between visual and linguistic forms of expression. Linguistic forms of expression are characterized by the use of a rich set of socially invented arbitrary symbols as well as a form of logic exemplified by the “ifs,” “ands,” and “buts” of natural language. The grammar of visual representation is qu...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the psychology of constructive visual thinking in the service of design. Although creative visual thinking can be almost infinitely varied, studies of designers, artists, and scientists have identified some common elements no matter what the tasks. There are four steps involved in the stages of the creative process, which in...
Chapter
This chapter is about the theory of vision that describes what makes something small easy to see. It is also about the details of design. The most important and frequent visual queries should be supported with the most visually distinct objects. The perceptual laws of visual distinctness are based on the low-level early-stage processing in the visu...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the dimensions of space to show why image plane patterns are so special. It also discusses how patterns are formed from the low-level features. Patterns are formed where ideas meet the evidence of the world. Top-down attentional processes cause patterns to be constructed from the retinal image that has been decomposed, like a...
Chapter
This book about graphic design provides a channel for clear communication that supports visual thinking and acts as an interface to the vast information resources of the modern world. Visual thinking is a process that has the allocation of attention as its very essence. Attention, however, is multifaceted. Making an eye movement is an act of attend...
Article
To investigate the process of reasoning with an interactive diagram, we recorded eye movements and mouse clicks of 28 users as they investigated social relationships in a 313-node network diagram. The MEgraph application used to display this network combines techniques such as topological range searching and motion highlighting to enable interactiv...
Conference Paper
To investigate the process of reasoning with an interactive diagram, we recorded eye movements and mouse clicks of 28 users as they investigated social relationships in a 313-node network diagram. The MEgraph application used to display this network combines techniques such as topological range searching and motion highlighting to enable interactiv...
Chapter
Full-text available
Book
Increasingly, designers need to present information in ways that aid their audience's thinking process. Fortunately, results from the relatively new science of human visual perception provide valuable guidance. In Visual Thinking for Design, Colin Ware takes what we now know about perception, cognition, and attention and transforms it into concrete...
Article
Currently, most researchers in visualization pay very little attention to vision science. The exception is when the effective use of color is the subject. Little research in flow visualization includes a discussion of the related perceptual theory. Nor does it include an evaluation of effectiveness of the display techniques that are generated. This...
Article
Full-text available
It has been known for some time that larger graphs can be interpreted if laid out in 3D and displayed with stereo and/or motion depth cues to support spatial perception. However, prior studies were carried out using displays that provided a level of detail far short of what the human visual system is capable of resolving. Therefore, we undertook a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It has been previously proposed that understanding the mechanisms of contour perception can provide a theory for why some flow rendering methods allow for better judgments of advection pathways than others. In the present paper we develop this theory through a numerical model of the primary visual cortex of the brain (Visual Area 1) where contour e...