Colin A. Ross

Colin A. Ross

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262
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Publications

Publications (262)
Article
Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) has recently been recognized as an official psychiatric diagnosis in ICD-11, after years of research and advocacy in the field. It has been suggested that dissociative symptoms are a major feature of CPTSD. This scoping review aimed to summarize the existing knowledge base on the relationship between d...
Article
Background To improve the outcomes of depression treatment, personalized treatments that take individual needs into account are recommended. Recent research suggests that a subgroup of depressed people who suffer from co-occurring dissociation may be more likely to have encountered traumatic or stressful experiences and they may also have more psyc...
Article
Background: The overlapping symptoms of schizophrenia and dissociation have been increasingly recognized. This paper explains why it is reasonable to expect that there would be a substantial subgroup of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) who suffer from pathological dissociation. Objective: As little is known about the...
Chapter
This chapter explores the most pertinent research questions to understand and advance the study of dissociation. Drawing on specifi c themes, recommendations for future work are outlined at the end of each section. Our chapter in the fi rst edition of this book still contains questions empirically unanswered (e.g., genetics and neurobiology of diss...
Article
Background: Childhood adversities have been increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for depression. However, the underlying mediating mechanism between childhood adversities and depression requires further investigation. The literature shows that childhood adversities are also closely associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTS...
Article
Pathological dissociation is a common trauma-related condition and is associated with considerable health and social care needs. People with pathological dissociation typically require psychosocial interventions, but there are many challenges in providing such interventions for this vulnerable population. An important question that remains unexplor...
Article
Betrayal trauma theory proposes that betrayal and non-betrayal traumas are different in terms of their nature and impacts. The theory predicts that dissociation is more strongly related to betrayal than to non-betrayal trauma, however there is a lack of cross-cultural evaluation of the theory. One competing theory is the socio-cognitive model, whic...
Conference Paper
In this workshop the presenters will review their research and clinical experience with dissociative disorders in China, Hong Kong, India and the Asian Pacific. This work has resulted in over 25 peer-reviewed papers. They will describe the prevalence of dissociative disorders in China, assessment tools they have used in their research, and a web-ba...
Article
Hearing voices is generally linked to biological factors, but its psychosocial aspects should not be overlooked. The empirical literature indicates the need for acknowledging the psychosocial aspects of voice-hearing experiences. We conducted a review of online health information about voice-hearing experiences and examined if the most widely acces...
Article
Full-text available
A replication study of treatment outcomes for patients at a residential treatment center for substance use disorders was conducted. A set of measures was completed on admission and discharge by 200 patients admitted to a residential treatment center for substance use disorders. Participants in the replication sample did not differ from those in the...
Article
The ability to predict which groups of mental health service users are more likely to require psychosocial care could facilitate intervention planning and optimize utilization of resources. Dissociation may be a transdiagnostic indicator of psychosocial intervention needs because dissociation is theoretically and empirically associated with psychos...
Article
People with pathological dissociation should receive proper clinical attention and timely support. Recent studies have shown that pathological dissociation is common in the Chinese context. However, little is known about the clinical features of Chinese people with pathological dissociation. This paper reports the first data regarding trauma histor...
Article
Full-text available
Auditory hallucinations are common among people seeking treatment for trauma and dissociation and can result in diagnostic challenges. This study examined the correlates of hearing voices in two samples of people seeking interventions for dissociation - a sample of 83 English speakers and a sample of 82 Chinese speakers. We found that, compared wit...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Although people with pathological dissociation (PD) can benefit from specific interventions, there are challenges in providing suitable interventions for them in the field (e.g., high cost, lack of specialized services, stigma). Many people with PD cannot receive dissociation-focused services in their current service locations. It is impor...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Early identification of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is important as timely interventions are beneficial and cost-effective. Unrecognized BPD not only results in suffering for individuals and their families, but also leads to considerable social costs. Although web-based measures have the potential to facilitate screening assessme...
Article
Full-text available
Depression is a common and challenging comorbid condition in people with pathological dissociation. To our knowledge, this preliminary study is the first study that has looked at the clinical correlates of depression in a sample of people with pathological dissociation (N = 72). We found that severe depression is common in this sample and that depr...
Article
Background Adverse childhood experiences are an important public health issue. It is well documented that they are associated with many health problems. Nevertheless, little is known about childhood emotional abuse and neglect (CEA and CEN) among Hong Kong people. Objective This study aimed to explore the demographic and mental health correlates o...
Article
Maladaptive daydreaming is a proposed disorder characterized by excessive daydreaming that causes subjective distress and/or interferes with function. The daydreaming involves complex inner worlds, characters, and plots that are understood by the person as fantasy, and the daydreaming may occupy many hours per day. The disorder has good reliability...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose : Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common mental health problem but it is often unrecognized in health care and social service settings. Reliable and valid measures are important for practitioners to screen for PTSD in the Chinese context. This study developed and pilot tested a Chinese version of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL...
Article
Social workers are major mental health service providers in many countries and regions. This paper presents five reasons to explain why complex dissociative disorders (complex DD) should receive more attention from social workers. We conducted a preliminary review of complex DD in the social work literature. In March 2018, we searched all articles...
Article
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have become a major concern in the mental health field. The literature suggests that ACEs could be associated with various mental health problems. Yet, ACEs require further investigation in Chinese cultures, especially in Hong Kong. Both the frequency of ACEs and their relationships with dissociation remain unkn...
Book
Be A Teammate With Yourself is written for people who have experienced trauma or stress, and for people with any kind of post-traumatic and dissociative reactions. People with a trauma related mental disorder (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorder) may also benefit from this self-help resource....
Chapter
This chapter aims to give an overview of findings on childhood trauma in patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders and dissociative disorders. Existing evidence consistently shows a high prevalence of trauma in people with psychosis. The majority of patients of both sexes living with psychosis had experienced abuse in childhood. Dissociative diso...
Article
The authors hypothesized that their Integrated Addiction Model, a trauma-focused treatment approach at a residential treatment center for substance use disorders, would result in a reduction of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and dissociative symptoms from admission to discharge. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventor...
Article
Introduction Dissociative symptoms are common in people with trauma-related disorders and often co-occur with other psychiatric conditions. In particular, the relationships between dissociative symptoms, Schneiderian first-rank symptoms and borderline personality symptoms are still contentious, poorly understood and require more attention. Objecti...
Article
The trophoblast model of cancer is incorporated into The Gonzalez Protocol for treatment of cancer and a range of noncancer chronic diseases. The other main component of the Protocol involves the prescription of detailed diets and supplementation. The foundation of the diet and supplementation component of the Protocol is the theory of autonomic ty...
Article
Accurate interpretations of psychological assessments rely heavily on forthright reporting. However, researchers and practitioners recognize that examinees can easily invalidate their test results by underreporting symptoms or overstating positive attributes. Rogers (2008) delineated two distinct but related forms of positive impression management...
Article
Las autolesiones suelen ser una estrategia de afrontamiento derivada del trauma, que pueden entenderse desde la perspectiva del modelo de procesamiento adaptativo de la información (PAI) y tratarse con terapia de desensibilización y reprocesamiento mediante movimientos oculares (EMDR) (Shapiro, 1995, 2001). Las autolesiones a menudo están conectada...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Pathological dissociation (PD) is an easily overlooked phenomenon in the mental health field. Standardized assessment is important for identifying dissociative symptoms and disorders. However, the use of PD measures in Chinese cultures needs investigation. This pilot study investigated the psychometric properties of three PD measures amon...
Article
A set of measures of trauma, dissociation, altered states of consciousness, and spiritual experiences was administered to a convenience sample of 100 inpatients in a hospital Trauma Program. The inpatients had an average Dissociative Experiences Scale score of 42.3 and an average Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale score of 6.6, both of which are v...
Article
Pathological dissociation is widely regarded as a cross-culturally occurring condition related to trauma and adversity and is an important construct in the mental health field. Yet, the frequency of pathological dissociation in both clinical and nonclinical populations in Hong Kong remains unknown. In addition, the relationship of pathological diss...
Article
A recent study of the frequency of schizophrenia in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome illustrates the serious problems with genome-wide association studies in schizophrenia. In an editorial accompanying the paper in The American Journal of Psychiatry, it is stated that this deletion occurs in only 0.3% of cases of schizophrenia, and yet it is said to be on...
Article
Les sévices auto-infligés constituent une stratégie de coping actionnée par le trauma qui peut se comprendre du point de vue du modèle du Traitement adaptatif de l’information (TAI) et se prendre en charge par la psychothérapie EMDR (désensibilisation et retraitement par les mouvements oculaires) (Shapiro, 1995, 2001). Les sévices auto-infligés son...
Article
Thirty-seven inpatients in a hospital-based Trauma Program completed a set of measures at admission and at 6 and 10-months follow-up. On the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, the average number of secondary features of dissociative identity disorder at baseline was 3.6 (SD ⇤ 4.2), and the average score on the Dissociative Experiences Scale...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sixty-three inpatients in a psychiatric hospital who had previously undergone bariatric surgery were interviewed by the hospital dietitian. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of adverse childhood experiences in this population. Methods: Participants completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Scale. Result...
Article
Full-text available
Daydreaming, a common mental activity, can be excessive and accompanied by distress and impaired functioning in daily life. Although currently not formally identified by diagnostic manuals, daydreaming disorder (maladaptive daydreaming-MD) is a clinically well-defined phenomenon. However, research is lacking regarding the diagnostic reliability of...
Article
Full-text available
In order to determine the comorbidity profile of individuals meeting criteria for a proposed new disorder, Daydreaming Disorder (more commonly known as Maladaptive Daydreaming, MD), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders were administered to 39 participants who met criteri...
Article
The philosophical foundations of reductionist biological psychiatry are internally selfcontradictory. Mind is simultaneously disallowed and "explained" by the reductionist approach; this internal self-contradiction invalidates reductionist biological psychiatry at the level of its philosophical foundation. Three theories that dominate science today...
Article
Extensive LSD testing was conducted by the US Army at Edgewood Arsenal and other locations from 1955 to 1967. A number of different reports have been produced describing the health effects of this testing, including the Veterans Health Initiative Report in 2003. By and large, these reports gloss over and minimize the short and long-term side effect...
Article
Identifying dissociation is important for mental health services because it could fundamentally affect one’s diagnosis and treatment plan. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is a widely-used self-report scale for measuring dissociative experiences. It has been translated into many languages and used in many countries. However, there is no val...
Article
Individuals in treatment for dissociative identity disorder (DID) not uncommonly describe childhood involvement in organized, multi-perpetrator ritual abuse. They described being “programmed” by the perpetrators and feel that the programming is out of their control. The author has developed a set of treatment strategies and interventions for such c...
Article
Full-text available
In order to determine the comorbidity profile of individuals meeting criteria for a proposed new disorder, Daydreaming Disorder (more commonly known as Maladaptive Daydreaming, MD), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders were administered to 39 participants who met criteri...
Article
Severe, chronic childhood trauma commonly results in a set of negative core self-beliefs. These include blaming the self for the abuse, feeling unworthy and unlovable, believing the world would be better off if one committed suicide, and believing that one does not deserve peace or happiness. Linked to these cognitive errors are beliefs that one is...
Article
Responses by Miccio-Fonseca (2015) and DeFeo (2015) to a commentary by Ross on problems with the sexual disorders sections of DSM-5 are based on a misunderstanding of Ross’s article (2015a). Miccio-Fonseca and DeFeo describe what they consider to be confusion and misunderstanding in Ross’s opinions about gender, sexuality, and related topics. Howev...
Article
Full-text available
Hostile voices are a common problem in both dissociative identity disorder and psychosis. They may take the form of command hallucinations for suicide, or express negative thoughts and feelings about the self. The authors describe a psychotherapeutic treatment approach for hostile voices that converse with each other, keep up a running commentary o...
Article
Full-text available
Self-harm is frequently a trauma-driven coping strategy that can be understood from the perspective of the adaptive information processing (AIP) model and treated with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy (Shapiro, 1995, 2001). Self-harm is often connected with memories of adverse and traumatic life experiences. Identifying...
Article
A self-report version of the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (SR-DDIS) was administered to 100 inpatients in a hospital-based Trauma Program. All participants had previously completed the interviewer-administered version of the interview schedule (DDIS). When comparing the overall results on the DDIS and SR-DDIS for the 100 inpatients, th...
Article
Unlike the relationship between dissociation and Schneiderian first-rank symptoms, the relationship between dissociation and catatonia has not been investigated empirically. In order to gather some initial data about catatonia, dissociation and childhood adverse experiences, we administered the Bush-Francis Catatonia Scale (BFCS), the Dissociative...
Article
A review of the effectiveness of antipsychotic medications was conducted with a focus on quetiapine, olanzapine, and clozapine. The different antipsychotics are equally effective if given in equivalent doses; therefore, what is true of one is true of all. In large, randomized, placebo-controlled studies, less than 15% of participants respond to ant...
Article
Understanding Osama bin Laden's personal history illuminates his motivation, inner conflicts, decisions and behaviors. His relationships with his mother, father, country and religion set the stage for his conflicted choices as an adolescent and then as an adult. Although only a cursory psychological profile is possible based on public domain inform...
Article
Psychological trauma, stress, childhood abuse, neglect, and loss are mentioned as important features or risk factors for mental disorders in 15 out of 19 sections of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]). This means that, according to the DSM-5, trauma and stress are relevant themes throughout the mental health...
Article
Previously undiagnosed dissociative identity disorder (DID) may be present in individuals being assessed for eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Previously undiagnosed DID was present in 3.9% of 1,529 general adult psychiatric inpatients in 10 studies conducted in 6 different countries. In this article, a case of likely DID that w...
Article
There are a number of problems with the sexual disorders sections of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. These problems must be understood in a historical context, namely the evolution of criteria for psychosexual disorders from DSM-II (1968) to DSM-5 (2013). There are many inconsistencies in the DSM-5 criteria...
Article
John Beard, the British embryologist and histologist, first proposed his trophoblast model of cancer in 1902. The model has subsequently been expanded by Kelley, and in current times, Gonzalez and Isaacs. The trophoblast model of cancer can be stated as a specified, scientifically testable model, including its core predictions that 1) adult stem ce...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the association between exposure to domestic violence and dissociative symptoms. A sample of 68 Israeli opiate use disorder patients in recovery, 80 battered Arab Israeli women, and 103 respondents from a community sample participated in structured interviews that included the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), th...
Article
It is widely stated that schizophrenia is “genetic”. The main basis for this claim is the literature on twin concordance for schizophrenia in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The validity of twin studies depends on the equal environments assumption. However, the low concordance rates in MZ and DZ twins prove two things: (1) schizophrenia...
Article
The literature indicates that, among individuals with borderline personality disorder, pathological dissociation correlates with a wide range of impairments and difficulties in psychological function. It also predicts a poorer response to dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. We hypothesized that (a) dissociative identit...
Article
Full-text available
Article
In Schizophrenia: Innovations in Diagnosis and Treatment, Dr. Colin A. Ross—founder of the Colin A. Ross Institute for Psychological Trauma—presents a new theory of the existence of a dissociative subtype of schizophrenia. Dr. Ross determines that some patients diagnosed with schizophrenia have symptoms closely related to dissociative identity diso...
Article
DSM-5 includes a number of statements concerning the biology and genetics of mental disorders, and these represent a significant landmark in the history of psychiatry. According to DSM-5, there are no laboratory tests, x-rays, or other biological markers for any mental disorder; there is no physiological specificity to any mental disorder; there is...
Article
The author reviewed a set of classical texts on dementia praecox and schizophrenia looking for dissociative conceptualizations of the disorder, and looking for case descriptions that were dissociative in nature. The review included Bleuler, Kraepelin, Schneider, Meyer, Hoch, Jung, Kahlbaum, and Bateson. Quotations from these texts confirmed the rol...
Article
The psychosis section of DSM-5 contains a number of changes from DSM-IV. These are mostly minor and there is no reason to expect any significant change in diagnosis or treatment as a result of the changes in the diagnostic criteria or the text. The psychosis section of DSM-5 contains errors in logic, oversights, and inconsistencies, however, and th...
Article
Suicide, attempted suicide, and suicidal ideation are serious problems in the military, particularly among combat veterans. Self-blame and guilt are recognized risk factors for suicide in military personnel. The author describes his clinical experience with suicidal combat veterans, the role of self-blame in their suicidal ideation, and a series of...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine whether classical culture-bound syndromes occur among psychiatric inpatients with dissociative disorders in North America. The Dissociative Trance Disorder Interview Schedule, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule were administered to 100 predominantly Caucasian,...
Article
At present, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (EKG) recording requires contact electrodes that are inconvenient and time-consuming to apply. Emerging technology based on non-contact electrodes may alter the way such data are gathered in clinical, field and research settings. A number of investigators have demonstrated that clinical-g...
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency, clinical characteristics, and comorbidity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) among psychiatric outpatients in two clinics at Shanghai Mental Health Center. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted. From 3,075 outpatients screened using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-...
Article
Different hypotheses exist for the relationship among trauma, dissociation, and recovered memory. According to one view, recovered memory results from dissociation that a survivor adopts as a defense mechanism during a traumatizing event to avoid emotional pain. From this perspective, trauma is a necessary antecedent to relate dissociative symptoms...
Article
Research on feigned mental disorders indicates that severe psychopathology coupled with significant trauma histories often complicate feigning determinations, resulting in inaccuracies on otherwise effective measures. As part of malingering assessments, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is often used because of its excellent validation and...
Article
Full-text available
The author proposes that a wide range of traditional beliefs and practices may provide clues to real electromagnetic field interactions in the biosphere. For instance, evil eye beliefs may be a cultural elaboration of the sense of being stared at, which in turn may have a basis in real electromagnetic emissions through the eye. Data to support this...
Article
Full-text available
The author proposes that a wide range of traditional beliefs and practices may provide clues to real electromagnetic field interactions in the biosphere. For instance, evil eye beliefs may be a cultural elaboration of the sense of being stared at, which in turn may have a basis in real electromagnetic emissions through the eye. Data to support this...
Article
The aim of the study was to assess the outcome of an educational effort by two North American experts in dissociative disorders to teach Chinese psychiatrists to make reliable dissociative disorder diagnoses. In the final phase of the educational effort, 569 patients at Shanghai Mental Health Center completed the Chinese version of the Dissociative...
Article
This study sought to examine the stability of dissociative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders as well as relationships between psychotic symptoms, childhood trauma, and dissociation. One hundred forty-five patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (72% schizophrenia, 67% men) were examined at admission to inpatient trea...
Article
Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statisti...
Article
Changes in the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical-circuit loop have been suggested in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and have been studied using (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) with interesting findings. However, whether neural metabolites are abnormal in the medial prefrontal cortex in patients with OCD is un...
Article
The authors used the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to compare structured interview symptom patterns in a general population sample (N= 502) and a sample of patients with clinical diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder (N= 303). Based on the Trauma Model, the authors predicted that the patterns would be similar in the 2 samples and...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dissociative disorders in a sample of Chinese psychiatric inpatients. Participants in the study were 569 consecutively admitted inpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, China, of whom 84.9% had a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia based on the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Crite...
Article
There are numerous problems with the Proposed DSM‐5 category of Psychosis Risk Syndrome. It should not be included in DSM‐5. Problems with the proposed category include: the name of the category – a syndrome rather than a disorder; the relationship between Psychosis Risk Disorder, Brief Psychotic Disorder, Schizophreniform Disorder, and Schizophren...
Article
The sense of being stared at is the basis of evil eye beliefs, which are regarded as superstitions because the emission of any form of energy from the human eye has been rejected by Western science. However, brainwaves in the 1–40 Hertz, 1–10 microvolt range emitted through the eye can be detected using a high-impedance electrode housed inside elec...
Article
Gender identity disorder is unique among all DSM-IV-TR diagnoses. It is the only disorder in which treatment is designed to confirm, reinforce, and validate the belief that is the basis of the mental disorder. In all other diagnoses, the symptoms in the diagnostic criteria are viewed as pathological and the goal of treatment is to remove the sympto...

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Projects (2)
Project
Self-Mirroring Therapy in Phases-Oriented Treatment of Dissociative Disorders