Colin Austin Chapman

Colin Austin Chapman
George Washington University | GW · Center for the Advanced Study of Hominid Paleobiology

Ph.D. Univ of Alberta / Zoology & Anthropology

About

632
Publications
170,084
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
29,960
Citations
Introduction
Colin Austin Chapman currently works at the Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology at George Washington University. Colin does research in ecology, social behaviour, disease ecology, and long-term global trends. Email him for the latest colin.chapman.research@gmail.com
Additional affiliations
September 1993 - October 2004
University of Florida
Position
  • Professor
January 1993 - January 2016
The Wildlife Society
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 1991 - present
Makerere University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (632)
Article
Full-text available
Many of the world’s most biodiverse regions are found in the poorest and second most populous continent of Africa; a continent facing exceptional challenges. Africa is projected to quadruple its population by 2100 and experience increasingly severe climate change and environmental conflict—all of which will ravage biodiversity. Here we assess conse...
Article
Full-text available
Finding suitable sleeping sites is highly advantageous but challenging for wild animals. While suitable sleeping sites provide protection against predators and enhance sleep quality, these sites are heterogeneously distributed in space. Thus, animals may generate memories associated with suitable sleeping sites to be able to approach them efficient...
Article
Full-text available
Resource availability is intricately linked to female reproductive success, and poor timing of reproduction can negatively impact maternal and/or infant survival. Thus, females should exhibit flexibility in the timing of reproduction that reflects local conditions. We examined eight years of data on births, conceptions, mating seasonality, and inte...
Article
1. The degree to which variation in adult food availability affects the population dynamics of a species depends on its position on the capital-income breeding continuum. The long-lived butterflies that feed on fruits as adults constitute an example of Lepidoptera with a high degree of income breeding. 2. For three species of fruit-feeding butterfl...
Article
Full-text available
Flies are implicated in carrying and mechanically transmitting many primate pathogens. We investigated how fly associations vary across six monkey species (Cercopithecus ascanius, Cercopithecus mitis, Colobus guereza, Lophocebus albigena, Papio anubis, and Piliocolobus tephrosceles) and whether monkey group size impacts fly densities. Fly densities...
Article
Full-text available
Adult males living in a one-male multi-female social group are expected to try to monopolize copulations with resident females to increase reproductive fitness. Gibbons have traditionally been described as living in monogamous groups, with the sole resident adult male assumed to sire all of the group's offspring. Here, we used microsatellite analys...
Article
Full-text available
Historically, Internet access has been linked to a country’s wealth. However, starting a decade ago, this situation changed dramatically and Internet access became increasingly available in primate range countries. The rapid growth of smartphone use in developing nations has created new avenues to communicate conservation. Here we assess the potent...
Article
Sixty years ago, Rachel Carson published her book Silent Spring, which focused the world's attention on the dangers of pesticides. Since that time human impacts on the environment have accelerated and this has included reshaping the chemical landscape. Here we evaluate the severity of exposure of tropical terrestrial mammals to pesticides, pharmace...
Article
As deforestation progresses in the tropics, wildlife populations are increasingly restricted to forest fragments. Here we study genetic population structure in the endangered Ashy red colobus (Piliocolobus tephrosceles) population in the forest fragments surrounding Kibale National Park, Uganda. Subsequently, we use landscape features (elevation, r...
Article
Full-text available
With open-access publishing authors often pay an article processing charge and subsequently their article is freely available online. These charges are beyond the reach of most African academics. Thus, the trend towards open-access publishing will shift the business model from a pay-wall model, where access to literature is limited, to a pay-to-pub...
Article
Leucism is an aberration of color that occurs in individuals as a consequence of genetic mutations. Along with albinism and piebaldism, leucism is one of the most commonly reported types of chromatic anomalies in mammals, however, detailed descriptions of such conditions are rare. We report the first record of a leucistic black howler monkey ( Alou...
Article
Full-text available
Flowers are ubiquitous in primate environments, yet their nutritional advantages are underexamined. Symphonia globulifera is a widely distributed tree exploited by a variety of animals in Africa and the Americas. We collected S. globulifera flower samples consumed by red-tailed monkeys ( Cercopithecus ascanius ) and compared them nutritionally to f...
Article
Full-text available
Significant gaps remain in understanding the response of plant reproduction to environmental change. This is partly because measuring reproduction in long-lived plants requires direct observation over many years and such datasets have rarely been made publicly available. Here we introduce MASTREE+, a dataset that collates reproductive time-series d...
Article
Full-text available
The lives lost and economic costs of viral zoonotic pandemics have steadily increased over the past century. Prominent policymakers have promoted plans that argue the best ways to address future pandemic catastrophes should entail, “detecting and containing emerging zoonotic threats.” In other words, we should take actions only after humans get sic...
Article
Forest loss and degradation are the most significant threats to terrestrial biodiversity in the tropics. Promoting flagship or umbrella species is a strategy that can be used to conserve intact forests and restore degraded ecosystems, conserve biodiversity, and achieve sustainable development goals. The Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) is an...
Article
Full-text available
In mammal herbivores, fiber digestion usually occurs predominantly in either the foregut or the hindgut. Reports of mechanisms showing synergistic function in both gut regions for the digestion of fiber and other nutrients in wild mammals are rare since it requires integrative study of anatomy, physiology and gut microbiome. Colobine monkeys (Colob...
Article
Full-text available
Parks are essential for protecting biodiversity and finding ways to improve park effectiveness is an important topic. We contributed to this debate by examining spatial and temporal changes in illegal activities in Kibale National Park, Uganda between 2006 and 2016 and used existing data to evaluate how the changes were correlated with the living c...
Article
Full-text available
Background Young adult offenders represent a third of the UK prison population and are at risk of poor health outcomes including drug and alcohol misuse, self-harm and suicide. Court diversion interventions aim to reduce the negative consequences of formal criminal justice sanctions and focus resources on addressing the root causes of offending. Al...
Article
Full-text available
Although selecting advantageous sleeping sites is crucial for nonhuman primates, the extent to which different factors contribute to their selection remains largely unknown for many species. We investigated hypotheses relating to predator avoidance, food access, and thermoregulation to explain the sleeping behavior of Bale monkeys ( Chlorocebus dja...
Article
Full-text available
Background Tropical forests are repositories of much of the world’s biodiversity and are critical for mitigation of climate change. Yet, the drivers of forest dynamics are poorly understood. This is in large part due to the lack of long-term data on forest change and changes in drivers. Methodology We quantify changes in tree abundance, diversity,...
Preprint
With open-access publishing authors pay an article processing charge and subsequently their article is freely available online. These charges are beyond the reach of most African academics. Thus, the trend towards open access publishing will shift the business model from a pay-wall model, where access to literature is limited, to a pay-to-publish o...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical forests store 40-50% of terrestrial vegetation carbon. Spatial variations in aboveground live tree biomass carbon (AGC) stocks remain poorly understood, in particular in tropical montane forests. Because of climatic and soil changes with increasing elevation, AGC stocks are lower in tropical montane compared to lowland forests. Here we ass...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical forests store 40–50 per cent of terrestrial vegetation carbon1. However, spatial variations in aboveground live tree biomass carbon (AGC) stocks remain poorly understood, in particular in tropical montane forests2. Owing to climatic and soil changes with increasing elevation3, AGC stocks are lower in tropical montane forests compared with...
Article
Open access to the scholarly literature is crucial for African academics but, without urgent action, the move from paywall to pay-to-publish wall will continue to disenfranchise researchers. In an unpublished study, we looked at the 40 journals with the highest impact factors in our field (ecology), and found that the average article-processing c...
Article
Twenty years ago, we published an assessment of the threats facing primates and with the passing of two decades, we re‐evaluate identified threats, consider emerging pressures, identify exciting new avenues of research, and tackle how to change the system to rapidly advance primate and primate habitat conservation. Habitat destruction and hunting h...
Article
In socially living mammals, females often form highly differentiated and stable social relationships, commonly with genetically related individuals, which leads to social clusters within groups (i.e. matrilines). However, in primates, research on female social relationships commonly focuses on species and populations with female philopatry and the...
Article
Full-text available
Research is an interconnected global endeavor. Networks of research collaborations are often using Social Networks Analysis. Its variant Spatial Social Networks allowing explicit embedding of spatial information in the network. Variations in incorporating spatial information results in multiple conceptualizations of networks, enabling exploration o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: In mammal herbivores, the digestion of fiber usually occurs predominantly in either the foregut or in the hindgut. However, how both gut regions function synergistically in the digestion of fiber and other nutrients has rarely been reported in wild mammals. This requires an integrative study of host anatomy, physiology and gut microbiom...
Article
Tropical forests are the most diverse and productive ecosystems on Earth. While better understanding of these forests is critical for our collective future, until quite recently efforts to measure and monitor them have been largely disconnected. Networking is essential to discover the answers to questions that transcend borders and the horizons of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Tropical forests are repositories of much of the world’s biodiversity and are critical for mitigation of climate change. Yet, the drivers of forest dynamics are poorly understood. This is in large part due to the lack of longitudinal data on forest change and changes in drivers. Methodology: We quantify changes in tree abundance, divers...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary protein is often considered a factor that limits the growth of primate populations. The ratio of crude protein (CP) to fiber in common mature leaves in a forest reliably predicts colobine biomass across Africa and Asia. This relationship is puzzling because CP of mature leaves is notably high in some forests, including Kibale National Park,...
Article
Objectives Although fermented food use is ubiquitous in humans, the ecological and evolutionary factors contributing to its emergence are unclear. Here we investigated the ecological contexts surrounding the consumption of fruits in the late stages of fermentation by wild primates to provide insight into its adaptive function. We hypothesized that...
Article
Full-text available
Deforestation represents one of the greatest threats to tropical forest mammals, and the situation is greatly exacerbated by bushmeat hunting. To construct informed conservation plans, information must be gathered about responses to habitat degradation, regeneration, and hunting over a sufficiently long period to allow demographic responses. We qua...
Article
Full-text available
Deforestation has carved tropical forest landscapes into millions of different-sized patches worldwide. Research has focused on the effect of patch size on biodiversity, while neglecting patch quality effects and leaving geographic and interspecific variance to patch attributes largely unexamined. Here, we assess how patch size and quality affect t...
Preprint
The study of animal movement has gained impetus in recent years with improvements in telemetric technologies which enable high resolution tracking, providing researchers with a wealth of animal "big-data". Coupling such movement data with information about the environments in which the animal moves provides a rich data source that can be exploited...
Article
Full-text available
The term ‘smart forest’ is not yet common, but the proliferation of sensors, algorithms, and technocentric thinking in conservation, as in most other aspects of our lives, suggests we are at the brink of this evolution. While there has been some critical discussion about the value of using smart technology in conservation, a holistic discussion abo...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that a decline in people’s exposure to nature corresponds to decreasing support for nature—a phenomenon we call extinction of nature experience. Here, we evaluate three current trends in conservation research and consider if they contribute to a decrease in exposure to nature. We suggest that while using sensors, algorithms, techn...
Article
Full-text available
We report the discovery and sequence-based molecular characterization of a novel virus, lanama virus (LNMV), in blood samples obtained from two wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), sampled near Lake Nabugabo, Masaka District, Uganda. Sequencing of the complete viral genomes and subsequent phylogenetic analysis identified LNMV as a distinc...
Article
Apposite conceptualization and measurement of resource variation is critical for understanding many issues in ecology, including ecological niches, persistence and distribution of populations, the structure of communities, and population resilience to perturbations. We apply the nutritional geometry framework to conceptualise and quantify the respo...
Article
Establishing protected areas (PAs) is an essential strategy to reduce biodiversity loss. However, many PAs do not provide adequate protection due to poor funding, inadequate staffing and equipment, and ineffective management. As part of China's recent economic growth, the Chinese government has significantly increased investment in nature reserves...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Fruit scent is increasingly recognized as an evolved signal whose function is to attract animal seed dispersers and facilitate plant reproduction. However, like all traits, fruit scent is likely to evolve in response to conflicting selective pressures and various constraints. Two major constraints are (i) phylogenetic constraints, in w...
Article
Objectives: Social animals often have dominance hierarchies, with high rank conferring preferential access to resources. In primates, competition among males is often assumed to occur predominantly over reproductive opportunities. However, competition for food may occur during food shortages, such as in temperate species during winter. Higher-rank...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the ecological and social factors that influence group size is a major focus of primate behavioural ecology. Studies of species with fission-fusion social organizations have offered an insightful tool for understanding ecological drivers of group size as associations change over short temporal and spatial scales. Here we investigated...
Article
The habitats of wild primates are increasingly threatened by surrounding anthropogenic pressures, but little is known about primate exposure to frequently used chemicals. We applied a novel method to simultaneously measure 21 legacy pesticides (OCPs), 29 current use pesticides (CUPs), 47 halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and 19 organophosphate f...
Article
Full-text available
Threats to biodiversity are well documented. However, to effectively conserve species and their habitats, we need to know which conservation interventions do (or do not) work. Evidence-based conservation evaluates interventions within a scientific framework. The Conservation Evidence project has summarized thousands of studies testing conservation...
Article
Colobine monkeys generally spend less time each day engaged in social interactions than other primates. However, a notable feature of their social interaction involves females exchanging infants (i.e., infant handling). Here, we report on the handling of an infant in relation to pelage color change in a group of black-and-white colobus (Colobus gue...
Article
Full-text available
Hepatocystis is a genus of single-celled parasites infecting, amongst other hosts, monkeys, bats and squirrels. Although thought to have descended from malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), Hepatocystis spp. are thought not to undergo replication in the blood–the part of the Plasmodium life cycle which causes the symptoms of malaria. Furthermore, He...
Article
Full-text available
Both biotic and abiotic factors play important roles in influencing ecological distributions and niche limits. Where biotic and abiotic stressors co‐occur in space and time, homeostatic systems face a scenario in which stressors can compound to impose a challenge that is greater than the sum of the separate factors. We studied the homeostatic strat...
Article
Full-text available
Background Saliva contains a very complex mixture of proteins for defense against microbiological pathogens and for oral food perception. Howler monkeys are Neotropical primates that can consume a mostly leaf diet. They are well known to thrive in highly disturbed habitats where they may cope with a diversity of dietary challenges and infection ris...
Article
Full-text available
The difficulty of obtaining reliable individual identification of animals has limited researcher’s ability to obtain quantitative data to address important ecological, behavioral and conservation questions. Traditional marking methods placed animals at undue risk. Machine learning approaches for identifying species through analysis of animal images...
Article
Full-text available
Certain features of both extant and fossil anthropoid primates have been interpreted as adaptations to ripe fruit foraging and feeding particularly spatulate incisors and trichro-matic color vision. Here, we approach the question of anthropoid fruit foraging adaptations in light of the sensory and mechanical properties of anthropoid-consumed fruits...
Article
Full-text available
Depicting a taxonomic group's evolutionary trajectory as a function of changes in the geographical landscape and its historical distribution is critical for constructing informed conservation strategies. Based on fossil sites from the Pliocene to the Holocene, and historical records since 1175 AD, we established macaques’ dispersal pathways into an...
Article
Full-text available
Owing to climate change, species’ geographical distribution may be extended, reduced or displaced in the future. Across species’ ranges, novel climate conditions may also expose species to thermal conditions for which they are not adapted. Migration toward more suitable climates will, however, only be possible if species are able to keep pace with...
Article
Full-text available
With 60% of all primate species now threatened with extinction and many species only persisting in small populations in forest fragments, conservation action is urgently needed. But what type of action? Here we argue that restoration of primate habitat will be an essential component of strategies aimed at conserving primates and preventing the exti...
Article
Full-text available
The availability and spatial distribution of food resources affect animal behavior and survival. Black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) have a foraging strategy to balance their nutrient intake that involves mixing their consumption of leaves and fruits. The spatial aggregation of food items should impact this strategy, but how it does so is largely...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hepatocystis is a genus of single-celled parasites infecting monkeys, bats and squirrels. Although thought to descend from malaria parasites ( Plasmodium spp. ), Hepatocystis spp. are thought not to undergo replication in the blood – the part of the Plasmodium life cycle which causes the symptoms of malaria. Furthermore, Hepatocystis is transmitted...
Article
Full-text available
Research is a highly competitive profession where evaluation plays a central role; journals are ranked and individuals are evaluated based on their publication number, the number of times they are cited and their h-index. Yet such evaluations are often done in inappropriate ways that are damaging to individual careers, particularly for young schola...