Clive J C Phillips

Clive J C Phillips
Estonian University of Life Sciences | EMU

BSc, MA, PhD

About

541
Publications
124,836
Reads
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8,244
Citations
Introduction
My research interests centre on welfare and ethics of animals, especially livestock production systems My early work focused on grazing systems for cattle and sheep. This developed into the risks to human and animal health and the environment posed by heavy metal contamination, with a focus on accumulation in livestock.
Additional affiliations
August 2003 - August 2020
The University of Queensland
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Foundation Director of the Centre for Animal Welfare and Ethics Foundation Chair in Animal Welfare

Publications

Publications (541)
Article
Full-text available
The effects of outdoor access, stocking density, and age on broiler behavior, stress, and health indicators in a tropical climate were assessed over two seasons, winter and summer. Two hundred and forty Cobb500 male chickens were allocated to one of four treatments, with six replicates of ten birds in each: low stocking density indoors with outdoor...
Article
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A person’s gender and age can influence their attitudes towards animal welfare, with more benign attitudes generally ascribed to women. Given that attitudes influence consumer behaviour and the rapid recent social development in China (globally the biggest livestock producer), we surveyed over 1300 individuals across China to elucidate the role of...
Article
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Robotic milking systems (RMS) are increasingly utilised by modern livestock farmers because they can reduce labour costs, and they have the potential to collect data that will improve animal welfare and animal productivity through better monitoring. Sensors and devices installed in RMS enable farmers to routinely collect data on environment conditi...
Article
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Koalas are facing many threats and have now been officially listed as endangered. Recently, concerns were raised in anecdotal reports of koalas being killed by livestock, especially cattle. We investigated the significance of cattle as a threat to koala survival via two koala–cattle interaction experiments, from both the koala and cattle perspectiv...
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate peanut shells and rice husks as bedding for dairy cows. We analyzed material properties including dry matter, water holding capacity, pH level and bacterial counts. Bedding treatments were compared with a one-way ANOVA using twelve cows split into three groups. Colostrum microbiota was analyzed by sequencing of...
Article
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The good intentions of zoos to introduce enrichment practices that stimulate animals mentally and physically are not always achievable. Changes to the policies and procedures in organisations are difficult to fulfil for a range of reasons frequently investigated in change management literature. The implementation of these changes can be the source...
Article
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Effective conservation strategies rely on knowledge of seasonal and social drivers of animal behaviour. Koalas are generally solitary and their social arrangement appears to rely on vocal and chemical signalling. Male koala vocalisations, known as bellows, are believed to be closely related to their breeding behaviour. Previous research suggests th...
Article
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About 30 years ago I had a discussion with my then head of department at Bangor University, the late Professor John Bryn Owen, about what an ideal journal would look like in our field, animal science, in the future [...]
Article
Milk yields and their relationships with blood and milk metabolic parameters were assessed in 59 high-yielding Holstein cows over the course of their lactation to identify metabolic constraints to daily milk production. Over an 11 month lactation period the cows, which were milked thrice daily and fed a total mix ration, had a mean daily milk yield...
Article
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Growing prosperity, but also disease outbreaks, natural disasters, and consumer preferences are changing global meat consumption. We investigated the 2000–2019 trends in 35 countries monitored by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. We also tested relationships with Gross Domestic Pro...
Article
We used spontaneous behaviours to assess response to dry-off involving abrupt dietary and milking frequency changes, followed by regrouping, after the last milking in 15 clinically healthy Holstein-Frisian cows kept outdoors. Moreover, we explored the potential of infrared thermography to detect eye temperature variations possibly induced by dry-of...
Article
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Musculoskeletal injuries remain a global problem for the Thoroughbred racing industry and there is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of age on the incidence of injuries. The ideal time to commence race training is strongly debated, with limited supporting literature. There is also conflicting evidence regarding the effect of high-speed exer...
Article
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Egypt is one of the hottest countries in the world, and extreme climate events are becoming more frequent, which is consistent with the warming of the planet. The impact of this warming on ecosystems is severe, including on livestock production systems. Under Egyptian conditions, livestock already suffer heat stress periods in summer. The predicted...
Article
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African lion (Panthera leo) cubs are extensively used in South Africa in wildlife-interaction tourist activities. Facilities provide close interaction opportunities, but the welfare impacts on the cubs are unclear. A workshop was held with 15 lion-experienced stakeholders, including government officials, nature conservationists, animal welfare orga...
Article
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China is the largest food fish producer in the world. Chinese consumers normally purchase fish that are still alive to ensure freshness. Therefore, the live transport of fish is important in China’s aquaculture, although it carries potential risks for animal welfare. This study investigated the attitudes and knowledge of stakeholders within Chinese...
Article
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Koala populations in Australia are declining due to threats such as chlamydiosis, wild dog predation and vehicle collision. In the last decade, grazing livestock emerged anecdotally as a threat to koala survival in areas where koala habitat and livestock grazing land overlap. This is the first study investigating the significance of livestock-infli...
Article
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Different people relate to dogs in different ways. We investigated differences between volunteers in their behavioural interactions with shelter dogs when they were walked on a leash. Cameras were used to record and quantify the behaviour of volunteers and a leash tension metre was used to measure pulling by both volunteers and shelter dogs. Effect...
Article
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Leash pulling is a concern for dog owners and can be detrimental to the health and welfare of dogs. Neck-collars and back-connection harnesses are popular restraint types. Harnesses have been proposed as a better and more considerate option for canine health and welfare. Anecdotally, dogs pull more when wearing a back-connection harness; however, t...
Article
As aquaculture continues to grow and intensify, there is an increasing public concern over the welfare of farmed fish. Stress and production-related pathologies and repressed growth are examples of the challenges facing aquaculture, and their impacts could be minimised by effective identification of the early signs of impaired welfare. Many welfare...
Article
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Cows are divine beings in Indian culture, a philosophy that is an important part of the Hindu faith. Although shared with other non-human animals, the focus on cows is well established in historical literature and is currently growing with a pattern of cow vigilantism in the country to try to enforce ethical standards in cattle keeping systems. The...
Article
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We aimed to study the gaps between the law and sheep farmer and citizen opinions re- garding animal maltreatment by discussing the risk of sheep maltreatment in regular farming prac- tices in Southern Brazil. We surveyed the perception of 56 farmers and 209 citizens regarding gen- eral animal and specific on-farm sheep maltreatment issues. The main...
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The provision and quality of bedding materials affect the behaviour, welfare, and health of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preference, behaviour, cleanliness, and physiological status of cows on three bedding materials, peanut shells, rice husks, and a combination of two-thirds peanut shells, one-third rice husk. In an...
Article
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The conservation status of great apes (chimpanzees Pan troglodytes, gorillas Gorilla sp., orangutans Pongo sp., and bonobos Pan paniscus) is grave and zoological institutions are vital for maintaining numbers of these species and educating the public about their importance. Technology provides tools that can assist zoos in meeting these objectives....
Article
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Low temperatures can provide a risk to the welfare of sheep during transport because of increased ventilation chilling the sheep, and we examined the importance of three factors—covering the vehicle, duration of transport, and feeding prior to transport—on the welfare of sixty transported 4-month-old Dorper × Mongolian female sheep in a cold climat...
Article
1. The effects of housing system and stocking density on growth performance and carcase yield of a commercial strain of broiler chickens reared under tropical environmental conditions may differ from temperate conditions. 2. In two experimental periods, carried out during two contrasting seasons of the year (winter and summer), 240 Cobb 500 male c...
Article
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Identifying key welfare issues for thoroughbred racehorses could lead to an improvement in standards. A lack of scientific information on the relative importance of key issues was addressed by soliciting the views of, first, welfare experts in the industry and, second, a broader group of stakeholders, who selected the best welfare options by adapti...
Article
The welfare of dairy cows is sometimes compromised by anxiety that could be indicated by changes in body temperature. We hypothesized that there was an association between external body surface infrared temperature (IRT) of lactating cows and behavioural responses to anxiety, using rectal temperature as a reference point. Approximately 50 cows were...
Article
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Human personality influences the way people interact with dogs. This study investigated the associations between the personality of animal shelter volunteers and behavior during on-leash walks with shelter dogs. Video recording and a canine leash tension meter were used to monitor the on-leash walking. Personality was measured in five dimensions (n...
Article
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Worldwide, musculoskeletal injuries remain a major problem for the Thoroughbred racing industry. There is a strong interest in developing training and management strategies to reduce the impact of musculoskeletal injuries, however, progress has been limited by studies reporting conflicting findings, and a limited understanding of the role of differ...
Article
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There are concerns about inclusion of antibiotics in the feed of broiler chickens, because of the development of antibiotic resistance, leading to a search for alternative feed additives. Turnip extract is known to have antibacterial properties but has not been tested in the diet of broiler chickens. We allocated 200 broiler chicks to receive one o...
Article
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Food‐producing animals make up the majority of animals that humans manage globally, and China has been a major producer and exporter of animal products since the late 1990s. The opinions of the population in China regarding animal welfare are not as well understood as those in Europe. In China, animal welfare as a societal concern is still at an ea...
Article
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Musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) continue to affect Thoroughbred racehorses internationally. There is a strong interest in developing training and management strategies to reduce their impact, however, studies of risk factors report inconsistent findings. Furthermore, many injuries and fatalities occur during training rather than during racing, yet m...
Article
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There is international public concern regarding retirement of racehorses, including the reason for retirement and the outcome for horses after racing. However, there are currently no prospective studies investigating these factors. A recent independent inquiry in Queensland, Australia, highlighted that the true outcomes for horses after retirement...
Article
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Cattle are susceptible to heat stress, especially those kept on high levels of nutrition for the purpose of maximising growth rates, which leads to a significant heat increment in their bodies. Consequences include compromised health and productivity and mortalities during extreme events, as well as serious economic loss. Some measures of heat stre...
Article
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Supplementation with selenium is common for dairy cows, but the importance of selenium source is not clear. This study aimed to compare nano-selenium (Nano-Se) and sodium selenite supplements for dairy cows on lactation performance, milk Se levels and selenoprotein (Sel) gene expression. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were randomly divided into t...
Chapter
This book draws attention to the need for a comprehensive and rigorous focus on local solutions to improve the welfare of captive elephants, their mahouts and local residents, and to enhance tourists' experiences of elephant tourism. It achieves this by critically reviewing recent research into elephant tourism, and providing contemporary analytica...
Article
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Inappropriate leash reactivity is one of the most common problems in shelter dogs, which negatively affects the health of dogs and reduces their adoptability. We explored 370 human-dog interactions, involving 74 volunteers and 111 dogs, in an animal shelter when volunteers walked shelter dogs on a leash, considering the effects of canine demographi...
Article
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Confinement can be stressful for some dogs and this can lead to behavioural issues and poor welfare. A key component of the stress response is behavioural arousal, characterised by increased alertness and sensory sensitivity. This makes behavioural observations a useful tool to assess stress, as they provide insight into an animal’s internal state....
Article
Full-text available
Despite over three decades of active research, musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) remain a global problem for the Thoroughbred (TB) racing industry. High-speed exercise history (HSEH) has been identified as an important risk factor for MSI. However, the nature of this relationship remains unclear, with an apparent protective effect of HSE against injur...
Article
Full-text available
Musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) remain a concerning cause of racehorse morbidity and mortality with important ethical and welfare consequences. Previous research examining risk factors for MSI report inconsistent findings. Age is thought to affect MSI risk, but, to date, there have been no prospective studies comparing MSI in two-year-old versus old...
Article
Most research to enrich the environment of psittacines in captivity has focused on foraging. Little is known about the importance of bathing substrates for enrichment of their environment, despite this being a natural behaviour that is rarely possible in captivity. Twelve captive-bred, adult cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) were housed in groups...
Article
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Previous studies have indicated that human gender and canine sex influences human–dog interactions. However, the majority of studies have considered the interaction when dogs were off-leash and the behavioural interactions when dogs are walked on a leash have not been addressed. This study investigated human–dog interactions when shelter volunteers...
Article
Full-text available
In shelters, it is usual to conduct a standardised behaviour assessment to identify adoption suitability. The information gathered from the assessment is used to identify the behaviour of the dogs, its suitability for adoption and to match the dog with an ideal home environment. However, numerous studies have demonstrated a lack of predictability i...
Article
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Leash tension forces exerted by dog and handler during walks affect their welfare. We developed a novel ambulatory measurement device using a load cell and a tri-axial accelerometer to record both the tension and direction of forces exerted on the leashes. Data were relayed telemetrically to a laptop for real time viewing and recording. Larger and...
Article
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Animal shelters can be stressful environments and time in care may affect individual dogs in negative ways, so it is important to try to reduce stress and arousal levels to improve welfare and chance of adoption. A key element of the stress response is the activation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and a non-invasive tool to measure this act...
Article
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All of the veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand worked together to develop the online One Welfare learning and teaching portal (OWP) for sharing teaching resources to assist veterinary graduates to become leaders in animal welfare and ethics (AWE). The materials in the portal are organised around eight key themes including two overarchin...
Article
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In shelters it is usual to conduct standardised behaviour assessments on admitted dogs. The information gathered from the assessment is used to identify dogs that are suitable for adoption and assist in matching the dog with suitable adopters. These assessments are also used to guide behaviour modification programs for dogs that display some unwant...
Article
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Slaughter sets the debate about what is acceptable to do to animals at an extremely low bar. Recently, there has been considerable investment in developing cell-based meat, an alternative meat production process that does not require the raising and slaughtering of animals, instead using muscle cells cultivated in a bioreactor. We discuss the anima...
Article
Gentling of cats in a shelter has been shown to increase contented behavior and reduce anxiety, but it is not clear how gentling should be provided. Two experiments were conducted with cats confined to cages, each having a central room with a large shelf at the back of the cage and a small one at the front, and a separate, closed off litter area. I...
Article
Infrared thermography is a tool to investigate the welfare of cattle. This study aimed to identify a sampling strategy for recording infrared thermograms in dairy cows, in order to most efficiently determine biologically relevant changes in the maximum infrared temperature (IRT) of the eyes and coronary band of forelimbs. Thirty-one dairy cows were...
Article
Behavioral assessment of dogs is performed at shelters worldwide, often in an attempt to identify dogs that may have behavior problems following adoption. However, the assessment components have been shown to have unknown or in some cases limited predictability for exhibition of problems in the new home, with generally good predictability for socia...
Article
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The welfare of aquatic animals is receiving increasing attention around the world, and this should be reflected in the veterinary curricular. Veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand ranked the importance of five pre-selected topics on aquatic animal welfare and ethical issues for newly qualified veterinarians in an online survey. They rank...
Article
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One of the world’s longest sea transport routes of live sheep for slaughter is from Australia to the Middle East. Heat stress is a major cause of mortality in shipments of sheep, particularly in sheep leaving Australia in the Southern Hemisphere winter to arrive in the Middle Eastern summer. Temperature and mortality data were utilized and recorded...
Article
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Shelter environments are stressful for dogs, as they must cope with many stimuli over which they have little control. This can lead to behavioural changes, negatively affect their welfare and downgrade the human‐animal bond, affecting re-homing success. Arousal is evident in their behaviour, particularly increased activity and frequent vocalisation...
Article
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Farm animal welfare in the People’s Republic of China (henceforth, China) is not well represented in the international scientific literature. This may lead researchers, advocates and those with agricultural partnerships in China to assume that animal welfare is not a field of interest there. This study reports a literature review of published pig a...
Article
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Alternatives to antibiotics as growth promoters for broilers could reduce bacterial resistance to antibiotics, while at the same time maintaining growth and improving carcass composition. We investigated the benefits of adding the medicinal plants sumac and thyme at 1, 2 or 3% of the diet for male Ross broiler chicks, with four replicates of ten bi...
Article
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Transporting livestock at high stocking density by ship presents significant risks to their welfare, especially if it is over long distances. Previous research has investigated small variations in density for long periods or a moderate variation for short periods. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a doubling of space allowanc...
Article
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Gaushala management is a specialized profession requiring particular skills relating to the management of cow shelters or gaushalas, which are traditional and ancient Indian institutions that shelter old, unproductive and abandoned cows, The 1800 registered cow shelters in India have managers who are important stakeholders in the management of cows...