Clive Gareth Jones

Clive Gareth Jones
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies | CIES

D. Phil.

About

218
Publications
68,958
Reads
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26,470
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2016 - present
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
June 2008 - present
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Position
  • Senior Researcher
March 1983 - July 2007
Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
June 1975 - June 1978
The University of York
Field of study
  • Biology
October 1973 - July 1975
University of Salford
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (218)
Chapter
This chapter discusses controls over ecosystem structure and function, which is a complicated topic, and offers some general observations about ecosystem controls that can be used in both scientific studies and management contexts. Control is defined, and several reasons why this topic occupies a central position in ecosystem science is discussed....
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Burial of aboveground plant litter by animals reduces the amount available for surface transport and places it into a different environment, affecting decomposition rates and fluxes of organic matter to adjacent ecosystems. Here we show that in a Southwestern Atlantic salt marsh the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata buries aboveground plant litter...
Article
Boom-bust dynamics – the rise of a population to outbreak levels, followed by a dramatic decline – have been associated with biological invasions and offered as a reason not to manage troublesome invaders. However, boom-bust dynamics rarely have been critically defined, analyzed, or interpreted. Here, we define boom-bust dynamics and provide specif...
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Ecosystem engineering, the physical modification of the environment by organisms, is a common and often influential process whose significance to food web structure and dynamics is largely unknown. In the light of recent calls to expand food web studies to include non-trophic interactions, we explore how we might best integrate ecosystem engineerin...
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All living organisms modify their biotic and abiotic environment. Niche construction theory posits that organism-mediated modifications to the environment can change selection pressures and in consequence the evolutionary trajectories of natural populations. While there is broad support for this proposition in general, there is considerable uncerta...
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Fluxes of energy, materials and organisms among ecosystems are consequences of their openness to exchange, and lead to consideration of reciprocal connections among adjacent ecosystems. This may have implications for ecosystem functioning and management, but is generally not studied for multiple factors. We ask to what extent these fluxes may apply...
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Progress in the study of ecosystem impacts of invasive species can be facilitated by moving from the evaluation of invasive species impacts on particular processes to the analysis of their overall effects on ecosystem functioning. Here we propose an integrative ecosystem-based approach to the analysis of invasive species impacts that is based on an...
Chapter
This chapter discusses controls over ecosystem structure and function, which is a complicated topic, and offers some general observations about ecosystem controls that can be used in both scientific studies and management contexts. Control is defined, and several reasons why this topic occupies a central position in ecosystem science is discussed....
Article
Although environmental modification by ecosystem engineers influences species distributions and abundances and ecological process rates, general determinants of the environmental states of engineered landscapes are not well understood. Here we develop a general, spatially implicit model of engineered landscapes that includes parameters driving engi...
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Ecological engineering is an idea and field whose time has already come, but what will it be in the future? It can be a leader in environmental sustainability, but this will not be easy to achieve. Three grand challenges need to be met and integrated into practice to accomplish this ambitious goal; they are the ethical, the relational, and the inte...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Prey persistence can be difficult where predators are generally abundant, particularly when prey cannot behaviorally select times and places of low risk. However, persistence can be enhanced by passive mechanisms to exploit spatial and temporal refugia, such as spatial inheritance of refugia and variance in timing of v...
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Biogeomorphologists study the roles of biota in landscape formation and decay. Ecologists interested in ecosystem engineering study environmental change caused by biota and the consequences for the engineer, other organisms, and ecological processes. The interface is geomorphological change, an interface both are aware of but study somewhat indepen...
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The South American temperate and sub-Antarctic forests cover the longest latitudinal range in the Southern Hemisphere and include the world's southernmost forests. However, until now, this unique biome has been absent from global ecosystem research and monitoring networks. Moreover, the latitudinal range of between 40 degrees (°) south (S) and 60°...
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Summary: A great diversity of organisms modify the physical structure of estuarine and coastal environments. These physical ecosystem engineers – particularly, dune and marsh plants, mangroves, seagrasses, kelps, reef-forming corals and bivalves, burrowing crustaceans and infauna – often have substantive functional impacts over large areas and acro...
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The international congress “Ecological Engineering: From Concepts to Applications (EECA)” was held from 2 to 4 December 2009, at the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris, France. Six keynote presentations and over 60 talks and 40 posters were presented during the 3-day conference. More than 200 participants attended the conference (Fig. 1; Ta...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Spatial selection promotes population persistence via short-distance dispersal interacting with spatially heterogeneous risk such that offspring tend to remain near successful mothers thus increasing offspring survival rates and generating realized population growth rates significantly higher than the average, non-spat...
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While well-recognized as an important kind of ecological interaction, physical ecosystem engineering by organisms is diverse with varied consequences, presenting challenges for developing and using general understanding. There is also still some uncertainty as to what it is, and some skepticism that the diversity of engineering and its effects is a...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a very common small mammal in northeastern deciduous forests, is involved in a diverse array of ecological interactions. It preys on the invasive gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and eggs of ground nesting songbirds, is an important prey item for various terrestrial and avian pr...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in predator activity can influence the availability of refugia to prey. Prey are more able to exploit refugia through passive and active mechanisms if refugia persist over time. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) are abundant generalist rodents a...
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1. The area or size of an ecosystem affects the acquisition, storage and redistribution of energy and matter. Patch size reduction due to natural or anthropogenic habitat loss will not only modify species distribution and patch structure but also affect the ecosystem processes that are, in part, responsible for patch persistence. 2. In a fog-depend...
Chapter
ABSTRACT Our studies of ecological dynamics in oak forests of southeastern New York State began in 1980 with the monitoring of the introduced insect, the gypsy moth. After observing a complete population cycle and massive defoliation event, we developed hypotheses about the role of white-footed mice in influencing moth dynamics via predation on the...
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This festschrift tribute to Moshe Shachak traces the history of development of ecosystem engineering. The concept came out of the Negev, has gone far beyond the desert, and holds much promise for the future. Moshe has played and will no doubt continue to play a central role. In honor of Moshe, his wife Dahlia, and their children and grandchildren,...
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Competitive exclusion – n species cannot coexist on fewer than n limiting resources in a constant and isolated environment – has been a central ecological principle for the past century. Coexistence in natural communities and even in simple microcosms would seem to belie such a principle. Nevertheless, because competitive exclusion has been substan...
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‘Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution’Theodosius Dobzhansky Why do organisms make the types of chemicals that they do? Evolutionary theory tells us that individuals within populations will be subject to mutation and that some of those mutations will be enzyme variants that make new chemicals. A mutant making a novel chemi...
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Boundaries are ubiquitous across a wide range of ecological systems and spatial scales. However, most research on boundaries has been scale and system specific. To promote the synthesis of boundary studies across the range of environments and scales they represent, we present an inclusive scope for boundary studies. Three linked tools make the scop...
Article
Spatial heterogeneity in predation risk can ameliorate impacts on prey populations, particularly for prey of generalists. Spatially heterogeneous risk implies the existence of refugia, and the spatial scale of those refugia and their persistence over time affect whether prey can avoid predation by aggregating therein. Our objective was to quantify...
Chapter
Ecosystem engineers, or more precisely physical ecosystem engineers, are organisms that change the abiotic environment by physically altering structure. As a consequence they often, but not invariably, have effects on other biota and their interactions, and on ecosystem processes. The physical ecosystem engineering concept interconnects a number of...
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The persistence of rainforest patches at Fray Jorge National Park (FJNP) in semiarid Chile (30°40′S), a region receiving approximately 147 mm of annual rainfall, has been a source of concern among forest managers. These forests are likely dependent on water inputs from oceanic fog and their persistence seems uncertain in the face of climate change....
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Which factors fundamentally separate infectious disease from other types of predator-prey interactions studied by community ecologists? Could parasitism and predation be combined into a unifying model? After all, parasites and predators both convert energy and nutrients contained in their resources (hosts or prey, respectively) into new biomass and...
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Phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation occurs at all levels of organization and across temporal scales within plants. However, the magnitude and functional significance of plasticity is largely unexplored in perennial species. We measured the plasticity of leaf- and shoot-level physiological, morphological and developmental tr...
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Abstract The physical ecosystem engineering concept has garnered substantial interest since publication while generating controversy and uncertainty over purpose, meaning, and usage. Here we clarify and amplify core aspects. We describe the conceptual domain, general purpose and components, focusing on the two direct interactions comprising ecosys...
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What is good scientific practice in ecology? This essential issue is both widely discussed and contentious. It is also a philosophical matter. However, the vast majority of ecologists know very little about the contemporary philosophy of science that informs these discussions. This book brings together key insights from recent work in the philosoph...
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Spatial and temporal variation in interactions among plants, other species and the abiotic environment create context-dependency in vegetation pattern. We argue that we can enhance understanding of context-dependency by being more explicit about the kinds of direct interactions that occur among more than two living and non-living entities (i. e., t...
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Apterous populations of Chaitophorous populicola Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae) appear to track Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) leaf development. Few aphids occur on mature leaves. Marked individual aphids on leaves of different developmental stages were observed through a period of new leaf initiation. Nymph and adult C. populicola fr...
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Castor canadensis is considered an archetypical ecosystem engineer, which modifies the state of biotic and abiotic factors through non-trophic interactions. This species was introduced by the Argentinean government into Tierra del Fuego island in 1946, and subsequently colonized autonomously the neighboring islands of Navarino, Dawson and Hoste. Cu...
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Castor canadensis is considered an archetypical ecosystem engineer, which modifies the state of biotic and abiotic factors through non-trophic interactions. This species was introduced by the Argentinean government into Tierra del Fuego island in 1946, and subsequently colonized autonomously the neighboring islands of Navarino, Dawson and Hoste. Cu...
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Organisms in highly suitable sites generally produce more offspring, and offspring can inherit this suitability by not dispersing far. This combination of spatial selection and spatial inheritance acts to bias the distribution of organisms toward suitable sites and thereby increase mean fitness (i.e., per capita population increase). Thus, populati...
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The ecosystem engineering concept focuses on how organisms physically change the abiotic environment and how this feeds back to the biota. While the concept was formally introduced a little more than 10 years ago, the underpinning of the concept can be traced back to more than a century to the early work of Darwin. The formal application of the ide...
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Previously we found that cloned cottonwood saplings (Populus deltoides) grew twice as large in New York, New York, USA, compared to surrounding rural environments and that soils, temperature, CO2, nutrient deposition, and microclimatic variables could not account for the greater urban plant biomass. Correlations between final season biomass and cum...
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Comparative and integrative tools are of fundamental value in ecology for understanding outcomes of biological processes, and making generalizations and predictions. Although ecosystem engineering has been shown to play a fundamental role in community organization, there are no standardized methods to measure such effects. We present a framework an...
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Ecosystem engineers affect other organisms by creating, modifying, maintaining or destroying habitats. Despite widespread recognition of these often important effects, the ecosystem engineering concept has yet to be widely used in ecological applications. Here, we present a conceptual framework that shows how consideration of ecosystem engineers ca...
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Understanding biotic influences on soil processes is a major research frontier made challenging by organismal diversity, variation in distribution, and variety of interactions. Nevertheless, two fundamental influences can be recognized: assimilation/dissimilation (uptake, metabolism, wastes, death) and physical ecosystem engineering (non-assimilato...
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1 The effect of physical ecosystem engineering – structurally mediated modification of the abiotic environment by organisms – on species richness and composition probably depends on the area of observation and environmental context. 2 We develop specific hypotheses to evaluate how such effects will vary with spatial scale and environmental variabi...
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Tree presence in semiarid ecosystems is generally constrained by insufficient annual rainfall. However, in semiarid Chile, rainforest patches dominated by Aextoxicon punctatum are unexpectedly found on coastal mountaintops (450–600 m) at 30°S, surrounded by a xerophytic vegetation matrix that receives only 147 mm of annual precipitation. It has bee...
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Geomorphology, vegetation and tidal fluxes are usually identified as the factors introducing variation in the flushing of particulate organic matter (POM) from tidal marshes to adjacent waters. Such variables may, however, be insufficient to explain export characteristics in marshes inhabited by ecosystem engineers that can alter the quantity and q...
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Predation is an important factor in the dynamics of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) populations, yet predation rates can be difÞcult to estimate accurately in the Þeld. Biased estimates can result from spatial heterogeneity in risk or from artifacts associated with deploying prey. Here we compare predation rates on freeze-dried gypsy moth pupae af...
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Physical ecosystem engineers are organisms that physically modify the abiotic environment. They can affect biogeochemical processing by changing the availability of resources for microbes (e.g., carbon, nutrients) or by changing abiotic conditions affecting microbial process rates (e.g., soil moisture or temperature). Physical ecosystem engineers c...
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The modification of the physical environment by organisms is a critical interaction in most ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem engineering acknowledges this fact and allows ecologists to develop the conceptual tools for uncovering general patterns and building broadly applicable models. Although the concept has occasioned some controversy during...
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White-footed mice prey on gypsy moth pupae while foraging for other, more abundant food. Mice appear capable of locally extirpating moths since mice exert high predation pressure on sparse pupae and are numerically decoupled from moth populations. Nevertheless, during 23 years of monitoring, moths persisted at scales .1 ha despite frequent extincti...
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Spatial heterogeneity in risk is a critical component of predator-prey interactions. However, at small spatial scales, it is difficult to quantify predation risk without altering it. We used track plates to measure local predation risk created by white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) foraging activity on oak-forest plots in Millbrook, New York....
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1] Isoprene is the dominant volatile organic compound produced in many forest systems. Uncertainty in estimates of leaf level isoprene emission rate stems from an insufficient understanding of the patterns and processes controlling isoprene emission capacity in plant leaves. Previous studies suggest that variation in isoprene emission capacity is s...
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The ecosystem concept has been a powerful tool in ecology, as it allows the use of the quantitative and rigorous laws of conservation of mass and energy in the analysis of entire ecological systems.These laws require delimiting an ecosystem by specifying its boundaries; however, we know that these boundaries are porous and that all ecosystems are o...
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Relationships between spatial patterns and ecosystem function are briefly reviewed with regard to the current state of the science and its application and some important challenges. Ecosystem functions that are affected by heterogeneity include maintenance of species diversity (habitat) as well as material and energy cycles. Structural diversity an...
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The boreal forest covers 14% of the earth's vegetated surface but contains about 27% of the world's vegetation carbon and between 25% and 30% of the world's soil carbon. Unique features of this biome include cold climates, large areas of relatively flat topography, discontinuous permafrost, large and severe fire events, and the accumulation of peat...
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Lakes, far from being the homogeneous environments we might expect, offer a rich and dynamic heterogeneity at multiple spatial and temporal scales that we are just beginning to understand. At the within-lake scale, a complex set of phenomena such as internal waves and stream intrusions leads to both horizontal and vertical heterogeneity. Developing...
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Spatial heterogeneity is a hallmark of vegetation patterns in arid and semiarid landscapes. First observed in terms of the spatial array of vegetation patches, spatial heterogeneity is now more broadly interpreted as the cumulative outcome of the processes affecting the spatial and temporal distribution of vital resources such as water, topsoil org...
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The consideration of spatial heterogeneity in ecosystem science is a challenging problem both empirically and conceptually. Although conceptual frameworks have been developed for some aspects of the problem, there is as yet no overarching framework that links them together. In this paper, we review many of the conceptual frameworks used in the chap...
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This chapter presents a discussion on the evolution of plant biochemistry and the implications for physiology. Integrating physiological and biochemical knowledge can gain a functional understanding of plants. Plant cells are usually treated as unusual but only in so far as they have walls and chloroplasts. This emphasis on the commonality of the b...
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We conducted field experiments in 2002 and 2003 to determine whether the functional response of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) pupae is decelerating (e.g. type 2) or accelerating (e.g. type 3) at low pupal density. In both experiments, live gypsy moth pupae were deployed in June (prior to the appearance of...
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Ecosystem engineering—the physical modification of habitats by organisms—can create patches with altered species richness relative to adjacent, unmodified patches. The effect of ecosystem engineering on patch-scale species richness is likely to be difficult to predict from the identity of the engineer, the resources altered as a result of engineeri...