Clive A Edwards
In memory of

Clive A Edwards
The Ohio State University | OSU · Department of Entomology

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88
Publications
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8,965
Citations
Citations since 2016
0 Research Items
3569 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500

Publications

Publications (88)
Article
We germinated and grew tomato, pepper, lettuce, and marigold seedlings in a standard commercial soilless plant growth medium (Metro-Mix 360), and in coir/perlite and peat/perlite-based container media substituted with 10% or 20%, by volume, of vermicompost derived from pig manure or food wastes. Half of the treatments were watered with liquid inorg...
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It is well known that parts of earthworms can survive if they are cut off. Our aim was to link the regeneration capacity of an earthworm, Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta, Annelida) with the site of the amputation, so we amputated earthworms at different body segment locations along the length of the body to examine the different survival rates and rege...
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Corrigendum Corrigendum to ''Suppression of tomato hornworm (Manduca quinquemaculata) and cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum and Diabotrica undecimpunctata) populations and damage by vermicomposts'' [Pedobiologia – Int.
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Vermicomposts are produced through interactions between earthworms and microorganisms in the breakdown of organic wastes. Aqueous extracts were prepared in commercial brewing equipment from vermicomposts produced from super-market food wastes. The ratio of vermicompost to water was one to five v:v, to produce a 20% aqueous solution which could be d...
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Vermicomposts are produced through interactions between earthworms and microorganisms in the breakdown of organic wastes. Aqueous extracts were prepared in commercial brewing equipment (Growing Solutions Inc.) from vermicomposts processed from pre-consumer food waste. The ratio of vermicompost to water was 1 to 5 v:v to produce a 20% aqueous soluti...
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Slugs are Suppressed by cereal flour-based baits or pellets containing metaldehyde and other invertebrates. phosphate Plus chelating agents, which are also Consumed by earthworms These studies compared the effects of metaldehyde and iron phosphate alone. with those of iron Phosphate Plus chelating agents EDDS and EDTA, and of the chelating agents a...
Article
Vermicomposts have been shown to promote the germination, growth, and yields of plants. This paper aims to demonstrate the effects of vermicomposts produced from three types of wastes on growth and flowering of petunias which are an important U.S. flowering crop.Vermicomposts, produced commercially from cattle manure, food wastes and paper wastes,...
Chapter
Introduction Case Studies from the IPM CRSP Jamaica: Analysis of Policies Affecting IPM Adoption Central America: Technical Regulations in Agricultural Trade Conclusions
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The Ohio State University has recently proved the potential of vermicomposts in which vermicompost tea during brewing results in significant growth responses, even at the lowest concentration tested. The vermicompost are produced from different organic wastes, including cattle, pig, paper and food wastes. Vermicompost has been used by the researche...
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A vermicompost, produced commercially from food wastes, was tested for its capacity to suppress populations and damage to plants, by two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), mealy bugs (Pseudococcus sp.) and aphids (Myzus persicae), in the greenhouse. A range of mixtures of food waste vermicompost and a soil-less bedding plant growth medium...
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The interactions between earthworms and microorganisms can produce significant quantities of plant growth hormones and humic acids which act as plant regulators. Experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of humic acids extracted from vermicompost and compare them with the action of commercial humic acid in combination with a commercial plan...
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The effects of food waste vermicompost on populations of adult striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum) and spotted cucumber beetles (Diabotrica undecim-punctata) on cucumbers and larval hornworms on tomatoes (Manduca quinquemacu-lata) were evaluated in both greenhouse and field experiments as well as damage caused. In the field, cucumber and t...
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Commercially processed vermicomposts, produced from food wastes, paper wastes and cattle manure, were applied to 8.25 m2 field plots, at rates of 10 or 20 t/ha in 1999 and 5 or 10 t/ha in 2000, to evaluate their effects on the growth and yields of peppers (Capsicum annuum) var. King Arthur. The vermicomposts were incorporated into the upper 10 cm o...
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The effects of commercial vermicomposts, produced from food waste, on infestations and damage by aphids, mealy bugs and cabbage white caterpillars were studied in the greenhouse. Vermicomposts were used at substitution rates into a soil-less plant growth medium, MetroMix 360 (MM360), at rates of 100% MM360 and 0% vermicompost, 80% MM360 and 20% ver...
Article
Vermicomposts, produced commercially from food wastes, were substituted at a range of different concentrations into a soil-less commercial bedding plant container medium, Metro-Mix 360 (MM360), to evaluate their effects on the growth and yields of peppers in the greenhouse. Six-week-old peppers (Capsicum annum L. var. California) were transplanted...
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The effects of pesticide applications on pests (aphids and acarid mites) and predators (ladybeetles and spiders) were investigated in transgenic Bt cotton and nontransgenic cotton agroecosystems in 1999, 2000 and 2001. Transgenic cotton did not cause changes in populations of acarids and did not reduce numbers of predators considerably; its effects...
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During spring and summer 1999 a ring-test and field-validation study with an open, intact Terrestrial Model Ecosystem (TME) was conducted at four different European sites (Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Bangor, U.K.; Coimbra, Portugal; Flörsheim, Germany). The objective of the study was to establish a standardised method which allows the impact of che...
Article
Our investigation used carbendazim as a representative pesticide for testing an integrated soil microcosm (ISM) test protocol. Microcosms, set up in a greenhouse, consisted of cylinders made from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe, 7.5 cm (i.d.) x 15 cm high. A fine nylon mesh was placed across the bottom of each microcosm for leachate collectio...
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In spite of the resolutions of Conference of Parties on Climate Change (COP7), policy practitioners in many countries are currently obligated to react to perceived domestic environmental damages. Like few other sectors, utilities, especially, coal-based electricity generation is often identified as a major source of emission. Since the generating c...
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Vermicomposts, produced commercially from cattle manure, market food waste and recycled paper waste, were applied to small replicated field plots planted with tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and bell peppers (Capsicum anuum grossum) at rates of 10 t ha−1 or 20 t ha−1 in 1999 and at rates of 5 t ha−1 or 10 t ha−1 in 2000. Food waste and recycled...
Article
Humic acids were extracted from cattle, food and paper-waste vermicomposts using an alkali/acid fractionation procedure which produced 1 g dry wt humates from 400 g vermicompost. They were applied to a soilless growth medium, Metro-Mix 360 (MM360), at rates of 0, 250 or 500 mg humates kg–1 dry wt of container medium, to young marigold, pepper, and...
Article
SummaryWe studied the effect of the earthworm, Eisenia andrei, on the nematode community and on the microbial activity during the vermicomposting of two organic wastes, cow manure and sewage sludge. Fresh cow manure and sewage sludge was placed in five replicated boxes with and without earthworms for a period of 16 weeks. Samples were collected per...
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SummaryThe growth, fecundity, and mortality of the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida, in a range of different wastes were studied for more than one year in the laboratory. Separated, pre-composted, and fresh cattle manure solids, fresh pig manure solids of different levels of maturity (nursery young, growing-finish, and sow pigs), and fruit and vege...
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Summary The effects of vermicomposts on plant parasitic, fungivorous and baterivorous nematode populations were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera) and strawberry (Fragaria ananasa) field crops. Commercially-produced vermicomposts derived from recycled paper, and supermarket food waste were applied to replicated plots at the rates of 2.5 t ha-1...
Article
The effects of organic (composted cow manure) and synthetic (NPK) fertilizers on pests (aphids and flea beetles) and predatory arthropods (anthocorids, coccinellids and chrysopids) associated with tomatoes were evaluated in a 2-year randomized complete block field experiment. Our data suggested that the application of either organic or synthetic fe...
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Earthworms affect agroecosystem processes and few studies have addressed population dynamics when earthworms are intentionally introduced. Handsorting and formalin extraction were used semi-annually from fall 1994 to fall 1997 to measure populations in plots with and without added earthworms under chisel till in a corn-soybean rotation (CT) and a r...
Article
In a field experiment aimed at the management of pests, diseases and weeds in tomato agroecosystems using a recommended range of pesticide applications compared with lower chemical input systems, the economics of pesticide use on processing tomatoes in Ohio, USA, was evaluated in 1994 and 1995. The pesticide regimes used included: (i) full-spectrum...
Article
The influence of two experimental soil treatments, Z93 and W91, on nitrogen transformations, microbial activity and plant growth was investigated in soil microcosms. These compounds are commercially marketed fermentation products (Agspectrum) that are sold to be added to field soils in small amounts to promote nitrogen and other nutrient uptake by...
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SummaryThe growth and fecundity of Eisenia fetida, in separated cattle solids, that had been composted for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks, was followed in laboratory microcosms. These were 12 × 12 × 6 cm plastic boxes with perforated lids, each containing 150 g (wet weight) of manure inoculated with five earthworms, replicated three times. There was no...
Article
Weed control, an important practice in agroecosystems to protect crop production, is usually achieved with herbicides. However, these pesticides are expensive, pose potential risks to the environment, may affect some beneficial organisms indirectly, and decrease overall arthropod biodiversity, including pests and their natural enemies, by removing...
Article
Most studies that aim at assessing the effects of pesticides on soil organisms or soil ecosystem processes are related to a single species of organism or soil process. Such individual studies are usually performed according to standard test guidelines, prepared by national or international authorities or approved test organizations and used in risk...
Article
A wide range of pollutants reach the soils of natural and managed ecosystems in concentrations that can affect their function. These chemicals, which include pesticides, heavy metals, acid deposition and a range of industrial chemicals, can reach soils in many different ways and by various routes. The ecological impacts of these chemicals on agricu...
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The trophic structure of soil arthropods in earthworm casts or vermicomposts produced by Eisenia fetida (Savigny) from paper waste, food waste and cow manure, and in field trials was studied during summer 1999. The numbers of soil arthropods in the soil were counted before treatment (as a control), in the vermicomposts, and after application of ver...
Article
We investigated the effects of two commercially available soil biostimulants, designated Z93 and W91, on key microbial and nutrient cycling processes in the soil, by conducting short-term (1 week) and longer-term (8 weeks) soil incubations in the laboratory. In the short-term soil incubations, the two compounds differed in their effects on microbia...
Article
The growth and reproduction of Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) in cattle waste solids was studied by growing groups of 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 small earthworms in 100 g of waste in small containers in incubators at 15°, 20°, 25° and 30 °C. Earthworms were weighed weekly and the numbers of cocoons produced per week assessed. Fecundity, growth, maturation and b...
Article
Earthworm casts can contribute significantly to surface soil structure in agroecosystems. We suggest that the water stability of such earthworm casts depends on the earthworm food source, and the depth at which casts are made. We studied the effects of fertilizer inputs to cropping systems as earthworm feedstocks, and depth of cast placement on cas...
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A field experiment tested the feasibility of vermicomposting as a method for elimi- nating human pathogens to obtain United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Class A stabilization in domestic wastewater residuals (biosolids). The ex- perimental site was at the City of Ocoee's Wastewater Treatment Facility in Ocoee, Florida, and Class B...
Article
The use of fungicides in agriculture, to protect plants from soil-borne pathogens, is a common practice. However, there is a dearth of information on the side-effects of fungicides on key soil ecological processes. We investigated the effects of three fungicides, benomyl, captan and chlorothalonil, on soil microbial activity (substrate-induced resp...
Article
The effects of benomyl and captan on soil ecological processes were tested in integrated terrestrial microcosms containing agricultural soil, organic amendments and wheat seedlings. The effects of the two fungicides on important soil ecological processes were evaluated by measuring soil microbial activity and biomass, including soil substrate-induc...
Chapter
Agricultural systems have four main inputs, cultivations, nutrients, crops and pest management, all of which are interlinked and influenced by each other. They are affected by land and water and energy availability and soil erosion. To achieve long-term agricultural sustainability, the need for fossil-fuel-based inputs should be minimized and the b...
Article
The biochemical changes in fresh cow manure caused by the earthworm Eisenia andrei (Bouché) were measured over a period of four months, under controlled laboratory conditions. Earthworms were introduced into each of four plastic containers (0.4 × 0.27 × 0.15 m) containing fresh cow manure (2500 g), and four containers containing manure but without...
Article
The effect of different residual bulking agents (paper, cardboard, grass clippings, pine needles, sawdust and food wastes) in mixtures with sewage sludge (1:1 dry weight) on the growth and reproduction of Eisenia andrei, Bouché 1972 was studied in smallscale laboratory experiments with batches of sixty earthworms. The maximum weight achieved and th...
Article
The life cycle of Perionyx excavatus has been studied and the potential of this epigeic earthworm species for breaking down and processing organic wastes is well known. Understanding of its optimal environmental requirements is required in order to optimize and accelerate the vermicomposting process. The rates of growth and reproduction of P. excav...
Article
Laboratory bioassays were used to investigate plant growth‐regulating effects of three different experimental soil additives, designated EXP95, W91, and Z96. A yeast growth test was used as a general assay of bioactivity, responses to soil additives were compared to those of known plant growth regulators [indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (...
Article
We assessed the responses of nematode communities to mixtures of insecticides, fungicides and herbicides in a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) field experiment. The treatments were: (i) full spectrum of recommended pesticides; including insecticides (carbaryl, endosulfan and esfenvalerate) a fungicide (chlorothalonil) and herbicides (trifluralin...
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Full-text available
We examined the influence of earthworms on surface litter decomposition in corn (Zea mays) agroecosystems in Wooster, Ohio. We employed a split-plot experimental design with 12 main plots, each 20 × 30 m and containing three 4.5 × 4.5 m field enclosures in which earthworm populations were (1) increased, (2) decreased, or (3) unmodified. The main pl...
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We examined the influence of earthworms on surface litter decomposition in corn (Zea mays) agroecosystems in Wooster, Ohio. We employed a split-plot experimental design with 12 main plots, each 20 x 30 m and containing three 4.5 x 4.5 m field enclosures in which earthworm populations were (1) increased, (2) decreased, or (3) unmodified. The main pl...
Article
Earthworms were added to enclosures in two agroecosystems to determine their influence on soil nitrogen availability and microbial activity, and to quantify their effect on the leaching of water and nitrogen through the surface soil. The two agroecosystems were a corn-soybean rotation with chisel-plow-disk tillage following corn (CS), and a corn-so...
Article
The effect of stocking rate and moisture content on the growth and maturation of Eisenia andrei (Bouché, 1972) in pig manure was studied in laboratory trials at 20°C. Six moisture contents (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 or 90%) and five stocking rates (1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 worms, each per the same volume of substrate) were tested. Growth and maturation of earthwo...
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We designed a microcosm experiment to investigate the effects of earthworms on N cycling processes and microbial activity, in soil receiving organic or inorganic nutrient amendments. Cylindrical microcosms contained 16l. of field-collected soil that received 1 of 3 nutrient amendments, added to the upper 5 cm of soil at a rate of 150 kg N ha−1; (1)...
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Earthworms are known to have an important impact on soil fertility but much remains to be known about the factors that influence earthworm abundance and species diversity in agricultural soils and the impact of earthworm diversity on soil processes in those soils. We have studied factors that influence earthworm community structure and biodiversity...
Chapter
We propose that a holistic view be taken to the study and implementation of ecological research into soils, soil organisms and plant growth. This builds upon the spatial and temporal aspects of soil physical and biological characteristics at the micro-and macroaggregate scales. This has major implications for the interactions of the soil biota and...
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Many question the applicability of past developmental approaches or paradigms to the current issues of agricultural development and suggest that new paradigms are required. In this paper we characterize the common agricultural science-led development paradigm of the past and a newly emerging approach that we have titled the socio-ecological paradig...
Chapter
The use of chemicals to control pests which harm crops, annoy humans, and transmit diseases of both animals and humans is not a new practice. Homer described how Odysseus fumigated the hall, house, and the court with burning sulfur to control pests. As long ago as A.D. 70, Pliny the Elder recommended the use of arsenic to kill insects, and the Chin...
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During the past 25 yr, research by the authors at Rothamsted Experimental Station investigated many aspects of the utilization of earthworms in land improvement and environmental management. Results of some of these investigations are summarized in this paper with the aim of illustrating the general principles of how earthworm populations can be ma...
Article
Earthworms are probably the most important members of the soil biota. Although they are not numerically dominant in soils, their large size makes them one of the major contributors to total biomass, and their activities are such that they are extremely important in maintaining soil fertility in a variety of ways. Aristotle was the first to draw att...
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Soil-inhabiting invertebrates are extremely diverse in form, differ greatly in size and numbers, and are often aggregated in horizontal and vertical distribution. Methods available for assessing populations are all based on representative samples. They include field counting, use of attractant traps or pitfall traps, and assessing numbers of invert...
Article
Conventional agriculture has caused economic problems associated with over production of crops, increased costs of energy-based inputs and decreased farm incomes. It has also produced ecological problems such as poor ecological diversity, soil and water pollution and soil erosion. The adoption of integrated systems of agricultural production involv...
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The digestive system of earthworms consists of a pharynx, oesophagus and gizzard (‘reception zone’) followed by an anterior intestine that secretes enzymes and a posterior intestine that absorbs nutrients. During progress through this digestive system there is a dramatic increase in numbers of micro-organisms of up to 1000 times. There is experimen...
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Conventional agriculture has caused economic problems associated with overproduction of crops, increased costs of energy-based inputs and lessened farm incomes. It has also produced ecological problems such as poor ecological diversity, soil erosion, and soil and water pollution. The adoption of integrated systems of agricultural production involvi...
Article
Summary The biochemical changes in fresh cow manure caused by the earthworm Eisenia and- rei (Bouché) were measured over a period of four months, under controlled laboratory conditions. Earthworms were introduced into each of four plastic containers (0.4 × 0.27 × 0.15 m) containing fresh cow manure (2500 g), and four containers con- taining manure...
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Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1957. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 155-165). Abstracted in Dissertation abstracts,
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"Proceedings of the International Conference on sustainable Agricultural Slystems that was held at Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, in September 1988 ... [under the] sponsorship of USAID ... [et al.]." Incluye bibliografía e índice