Clive M Brasier

Clive M Brasier
Forest Research - Forestry Commission UK · Department of Pathology

BSC,PhD, DSc

About

344
Publications
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Publications

Publications (344)
Article
Full-text available
Dutch elm disease (DED) is a vascular wilt disease caused by the pathogens Ophiostoma ulmi and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi with multiple ecological phases including pathogenic (xylem), saprotrophic (bark) and vector (beetle flight and beetle feeding wound) phases. Due to the two DED pandemics during the twentieth century the use of elms in landscape and f...
Article
Full-text available
In the 1970s, clones of the two subspecies of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, subsp. americana (SSAM) and subsp. novo-ulmi (SSNU) began to overlap in Europe, resulting in hybrid swarms. By 1983–1986, hybrids with high, SSAM-like growth and pathogenic fitness comprised ~75% of popula-tions at Limburg, Netherlands and Orvieto, Italy. We resampled these populat...
Article
Full-text available
As global plant trade expands, tree disease epidemics caused by pathogen introductions are increasing. Since ca 2000, the introduced oomycete Phytophthora ramorum has caused devastating epidemics in Europe and North America, spreading as four ancient clonal lineages, each of a single mating type, suggesting different geographical origins. We survey...
Article
As an introduced pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum exists as four near‐clonal evolutionary lineages, of which only EU1 and EU2 are established in the UK. The EU1 has become widespread since the first findings in 2002 whereas the EU2, detected in 2011, has a more limited distribution. Both lineages are epidemic in plantation‐grown larch, sporulating as...
Article
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In 2016 and 2017, surveys of Phytophthora diversity were performed in 25 natural and semi-natural forest stands and 16 rivers in temperate and subtropical montane and tropical lowland regions of Vietnam. Using baiting assays from soil samples and rivers and direct isolations from naturally fallen leaves, 13 described species, five informally design...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive alien species often have reduced genetic diversity and must adapt to new environments. Given the success of many invasions, this is sometimes called the genetic paradox of invasion. Phytophthora ramorum is invasive, limited to asexual reproduction within four lineages, and presumed clonal. It is responsible for sudden oak death in the Unit...
Article
The first pandemic of Dutch elm disease (DED) in Europe and North America caused by the introduced Ophiostoma ulmi began in the early 1900s but declined unexpectedly in Europe from the 1930s onwards after killing 30‐40% of the elms. Later a second pandemic caused by the much more aggressive Ophiostoma novo‐ulmi spread across the same areasand by 19...
Article
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We describe a method for inoculating rachises of Fraxinus excelsior (European or common ash) with Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which is faster than previous methods and allows associated foliar symptoms to be assessed on replicate leaves. A total of ten ash seedlings were inoculated with five isolates of H. fraxineus and lesion development assessed ove...
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Figure S1 Reaction patterns of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus isolate pairings on ash sapwood agar (ASA) and ash leaf malt agar (ALMA) from six UK populations.
Data
Figure S2 Examples of gap reactions and aberrant growth in isolate pairings to test vegetative compatibility of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus collected in the UK in early 2014.
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Figure S3 Plot of the first three principal coordinates of single‐nucleotide polymorphism in Hymenoscyphus fraxineus isolates collected in Great Britain in spring 2014 and in continental Europe from 2008 to 2012.
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Table S1 Location and description of sampling sites for Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in England and Wales.
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Table S2 SNP markers found in the Hymenoscyphus fraxineus genome and the primer sets designed for each SNP marker location. The first 28 markers listed were used in the study.
Article
Full-text available
The ash dieback fungus, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, a destructive, alien pathogen of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), has spread across Europe over the past 25 years and was first observed in the UK in 2012. To investigate the relationship of the pathogen's population structure to its mode of arrival, isolates were obtained from locations in England a...
Article
The native European ash fungus Hymenoscyphus albidus is threatened by the morphologically similar introduced ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. H. fraxineus is heterothallic and its populations comprise numerous different vegetative compatibility (vc) types. H. albidus is homothallic with unknown population diversity. In vitro pairings o...
Article
Phytophthora ramorum is the causal agent of sudden oak death and sudden larch death, and is also responsible for causing ramorum blight on woody ornamental plants. Many microsatellite markers are available to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of P. ramorum. However, only two markers are polymorphic in the NA2 lineage, whic...
Article
Following recent discovery of . Phytophthora lateralis on native . Chamaecyparis obtusa in Taiwan, four phenotypically distinct lineages were discriminated: the Taiwan J (TWJ) and Taiwan K (TWK) in Taiwan, the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in North America and Europe and the UK in west Scotland. Across the four lineages, we analysed 88 isolates from mult...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Aneuploidy can result in significant phenotypic changes, which can sometimes be selectively advantageous. For example, aneuploidy confers resistance to antifungal drugs in human pathogenic fungi. Aneuploidy has also been observed in invasive fungal and oomycete plant pathogens in the field. Environments conducive to the generation of a...
Article
A new species, Phytophthora chlamydospora, is described. P. chlamydospora, previously known informally as P. taxon Pgchlamydo, is found in streams and wet soil worldwide and is a pathogen of some riparian tree species. It is self-sterile, and produces persistent non-papillate sporangia, usually on unbranched sporangiophores. Clamydospores are forme...
Article
In late summer 2013, stem cankers and sparse foliage were reported on European grey alder ( Alnus incana ) growing on a 500 ha site recently-planted with broadleaf and coniferous trees in south-west England. A site visit showed that…
Article
Phytophthora lateralis, the cause of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana root disease, was introduced in North America about 1950, and has since killed trees along roads and streams throughout the tree’s range. Recent results suggest an Asian origin for this Oomycete and four genetic lineages were identified. This raised questions for the genetic exapted resi...
Article
Phytophthora lateralis, the cause of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana root disease, was introduced in North America about 1920, and has since killed trees along roads and streams throughout the tree’s range. Recent results suggest an Asian origin for this oomycete and four genetic lineages were identified. This raised questions for the genetic exapted resi...
Article
Loss of forests due to non-native invasive pests (including insects, nematodes, and pathogens) is a global phenomenon with profound population, community, ecosystem, and economic impacts. We review the magnitude of pest-associated forest loss worldwide and discuss the major ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of these invasions. Aft...
Article
Pairings were carried out between isolates of the ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (Chalara fraxinea) to determine whether vegetative incompatibility (mycelial self–nonself recognition) reactions could be discriminated. On malt agar (MA) and ash sapwood agar (ASA) distinct compatible and incompatible reactions were observed. Compati...
Article
A new evolutionary lineage of the destructive introduced tree pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, EU2 lineage, was recently discovered attacking larch and other hosts in Northern Ireland and south west Scotland, UK. Sixteen ‘medium × agar concentration × incubation temperature’ stress environments were tested to find a rapid and repeatable method to dis...
Article
Since its first isolation from Salix roots in 1972, isolates of a sexually sterile Phytophthora species have been obtained frequently from wet or riparian habitats worldwide and have also been isolated from roots of Alnus and Prunus spp. Although originally assigned to Phytophthora gonapodyides on morphological grounds, it was recognized that these...
Article
In 2010–2011, Phytophthora lateralis was isolated from diseased Chamaecyparis lawsoniana exhibiting dieback and mortality at eight geographically separate forest, parkland and shelterbelt locations in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. In 2011, P. lateralis was also isolated from young symptomatic nursery plants of C. lawsoniana and Thuja occi...
Article
Until recently Phytophthora lateralis was known only as the cause of dieback and mortality of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana in its native range in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Since the 1990s however disease outbreaks have occurred increasingly on ornamental C. lawsoniana in Europe; and in 2007 the pathogen was discovered in soil around old growth Chama...
Article
Phytophthora ramorum is a recently introduced, aggressive Phytophthora species that has caused extensive mortality of oak and tanoak trees in the western USA and Japanese larch trees in the UK. P. ramorum is also present on Rhododendron, Camellia, and Viburnum in the nursery industry, which is thought to have been the pathway for its spread into ne...
Article
Full-text available
The introduced pathogen Phytophthora ramorum has been the cause of dieback and mortality of millions of live-oak and tanoak trees in near-coastal native forests in California and Oregon since 1995 (Frankel, 2008). P. ramorum has also…
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