Clive Belfield

Clive Belfield
City University of New York - Queens College | QC CUNY

About

162
Publications
67,890
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5,412
Citations
Citations since 2016
10 Research Items
2429 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400

Publications

Publications (162)
Article
Objective: This study examines the labor market gains for students who enrolled at for-profit colleges after beginning their postsecondary education in community college. Method: We use student-level administrative record data from college transcripts, unemployment insurance earnings data, and progression data from the National Student Clearinghous...
Article
What distinctions are there between vocational (career and technical) education and academic learning in college? In this essay, we compare broad academic and vocational program goals, embodied skills, tasks, and jobs, with a focus primarily on community college students. There is considerable overlap between the two types of education, so a separa...
Article
Cost, cost-effectiveness, and benefit-cost analysis are methods used by economists to evaluate public policies. Essentially, these methods rely on impact evaluations, that is, research studies of efficacy and effectiveness. However, in most research in education, these cost and impact evaluations are performed separately. This separation creates me...
Article
Benefit–cost analysis is an important part of regulatory decision-making, yet there are questions as to how often and how well it is performed. Here we examine 28 Regulatory Impact Assessments performed by the federal government on education regulations since 2006. We find many Regulatory Impact Assessments estimated costs, albeit using informal me...
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Full-text available
There is growing evidence that social and emotional skills can be taught to students in school and teaching these skills can have a positive effect on later outcomes, such as better mental health and less drug use. This paper presents a benefit-cost analysis of a longitudinal social and emotional learning intervention in Sweden, using data for 663...
Article
This paper estimates technical efficiency scores across the community college sector in the United States. Using stochastic frontier analysis and data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System for 2003–2010, we estimate efficiency scores for 950 community colleges and perform a series of sensitivity tests to check for robustness. We f...
Article
Educational interventions are complex: Often they combine a diagnostic component (identifying student need) with a service component (ensuring appropriate educational resources are provided). This complexity raises challenges for program evaluation. These interventions, which we refer to as service mediation interventions, affect additional resourc...
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Full-text available
There is a growing body of research emphasizing the advantages of teaching students social and emotional (SE) skills in school. Here we examine the economic value of these skills within a benefit-cost analysis (BCA) framework. Our examination has three parts. First, we describe how the current method of BCA must be expanded to adequately evaluate S...
Article
Despite copious research on the labor market returns to college, very little has adequately modeled the pathways of non-completers or compared their outcomes with those of award-holders. In this paper, we present a novel method for linking non-completers with completers according to their program of study. We use this method to calculate the labor...
Article
Talent Search was created to improve high school completion and college enrollment for disadvantaged students. Since the program’s inception in 1967, there has not been a valid study on its economic value. In this paper, we perform a full economic evaluation, yielding direct information on the value of Talent Search and highlighting key methodologi...
Article
Schools have historically and increasingly played an important role in providing services to meet students’ social and emotional, family, health, and academic needs. Coordinating these services in a way that is strategically aligned with a school’s academic mission and that efficiently addresses the needs of all students is often challenging and co...
Technical Report
Full-text available
There is a growing body of research emphasizing the advantages of teaching students social and emotional (SE) skills in school. Here we examine the economic value of these skills within a benefit-cost analysis (BCA) framework. Our examination has three parts. First, we describe how the current method of BCA must be expanded to adequately evaluate S...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing body of research emphasizing the advantages of teaching students social and emotional (SE) skills in school. Here we examine the economic value of these skills within a benefit-cost analysis (BCA) framework. Our examination has three parts. First, we describe how the current method of BCA must be expanded to adequately evaluate S...
Article
This paper examines the relative labor market gains for first-time college students who entered the North Carolina Community College System in 2002-2003. We compare the returns to diplomas, certificates, and degrees to the returns to some college credits. The authors also investigate the returns to subject field, transfer, and the early trajectorie...
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Full-text available
Cost-effectiveness analysis is rarely used in education. When it is used, it often fails to meet methodological standards, especially with regard to cost measurement. Although there are occasional criticisms of these failings, we believe that it is useful to provide a listing of the more common concerns and how they might be addressed. Based upon b...
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Community colleges are under pressure to improve completion rates and efficiency despite limited economic evidence on how to do so and the consequences of different reform strategies. Here, we set out an economic model of student course pathways linked to college expenditures and revenues. Using detailed data from a single college, we calculate bas...
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Full-text available
The authors examined school readiness from the parental perspective, focusing on parents’ efforts and expectations for kindergarten in conjunction with their child's academic development. Using self-reported survey data from two waves of the National Household Education Surveys, the authors tested for changes in school readiness between 1993 and 20...
Article
In this report we calculate social and taxpayer benefits of national service using current data and including a wider array of gains across a range of different programs. We use national datasets and existing studies of the association between service, education, and long-term impacts to calculate the economic value of national service programs.
Article
In this article, we perform cost-effectiveness analysis on interventions that improve the rate of high school completion. Using the What Works Clearinghouse to select effective interventions, we calculate cost-effectiveness ratios for five youth interventions. We document wide variation in cost-effectiveness ratios between programs and between site...
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Full-text available
This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis of seven early literacy programs that have all been previously identified as effective at improving reading outcomes for students in Grades K-3. We use the ingredients method to collect cost data for each program and compare the cost-effectiveness of programs serving students in the same grade level.
Article
This paper examines the institutional determinants of federal loan status for a recent cohort of college students. We first set out how institutions influence loan accumulations and repayment rates, with particular focus on for-profit colleges. We then test a set of hypotheses about loan status and repayment using national data on loans, defaults,...
Article
At an annual cost of roughly $7 billion nationally, remedial coursework is one of the single largest interventions intended to improve outcomes for underprepared college students. But like a costly medical treatment with non-trivial side effects, the value of remediation overall depends upon whether those most likely to benefit can be identified in...
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Full-text available
This report demonstrates the methods of cost-effectiveness analysis as applied to several educational programs that have been shown to improve the rate of high school completion.
Article
This paper looks at health outcomes, health behaviors, and health screening with respect to participation in Early Childhood Care and Education. With information on health status at multiple periods in time, we are able to look at whether healthier children select into early childhood education (as measured by center-based preschool care and Head S...
Article
Many of America’s youth are neither enrolled in school nor participating in the labor market – they are not investing in their human capital or earning income. We calculate the economic burden of these ‘opportunity youth’ from the perspective of both the taxpayer and society. We also calculate the immediate burden – that which is incurred when a pe...
Article
This report sets out to estimate the total annual expenditures on children in New York City and to create a "fiscal map" to detail them. This fiscal map describes these expenditures according to a series of classifications, including age of child (early childhood, elementary, and high school); source of funding (public, tax-related, and philanthrop...
Article
Approximately half of all New York City public school students who live in families with incomes less than 185% of the federal poverty level (FPL) do not graduate from high school. These dropouts are much less likely to achieve economic self-sufficiency in adulthood. This creates both a fiscal and social burden. Rothstein, Wilder and Allgood (2011)...
Article
This article reviews the existing literature on the economic and other benefits of attending community college. First, the article reports on the earnings gains across all students and reviews the evidence for subgroups by gender, minority status, and credits accumulated. The article then reviews the methodological challenges associated with calcul...
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Full-text available
Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) are methods used by economists to evaluate educational programs or investments. CBA evaluates programs in monetary terms; CEA evaluates programs against specified educational objectives. Both methods allow for a ranking of programs in terms of resource use and outcomes through the ex...
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Educational privatization comprises not only private schools, but also a variety of other educational arrangements that have important elements of private finance, operations, and services. These include home schooling, charter schools, public schools with fees, and schools managed by private entities under contract. Financing arrangements entail n...
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Full-text available
The choice to breastfeed rather than formula-feed an infant as well as the duration of doing so has been scrutinized in more recent times. Yet, key identification issues remain to be resolved, including the array of possible child development benefits, the optimal intensity of breastfeeding versus formula- feeding, and the possibility of confoundin...
Article
This paper calculates the economic consequences of failing to graduate from high school for Puerto Ricans living in the U.S. Based on a range of social science evidence, we calculate the full economic consequences of high school graduation expressed in present values at age 20. In total, each new Puerto Rican high school graduate benefits the taxpa...
Article
The wage and job satisfaction impacts for over-educated workers have been well-documented; yet little attention has been paid to the consequences for firms. In this paper we examine over-education from the perspective of the workplace. Using linked employer-employee data for the United Kingdom, we derive the standard worker-level penalties on wages...
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Full-text available
Abstract California’s juvenile crime rate is high. Juveniles commit,one-in-six violent crimes,and over one-quarter of all property crimes; they also commit crimes in school, victimizing one-quarter of all students,and one-in-twelve teachers. The economic,loss from juvenile crime is substantial. In total, each juvenile cohort in California imposes a...
Article
In this report, we examine how improving mathematics performance has economic consequences through raising high school graduation rates. We investigate the link between higher mathematics achievement in school and subsequent human capital and labor market outcomes. We then predict the effect of improving math skills in grades 8 and 10 on the yield...
Article
Education is an important component of human capital. Here I draw on the wealth of literature in the economics of education to consider public policy from the perspective of the costs and benefits of incremental investments in primary and secondary education. I first identify the additional investments perceived to be socially desirable and of er a...
Article
This article offers a replication for Britain of Brown and Heywood's analysis of the determinants of performance appraisal in Australia. Although there are some important limiting differences between our two datasets - the Australia Workplace Industrial Relations Survey (AWIRS) and the Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS) - we reach one cen...
Article
Theory and evidence on performance-related pay for teaching remain inconclusive. Teachers will respond to rewards, but an appropriate reward structure may not be devised because education is a collaborative endeavor. Here we test three hypotheses: performance-related pay among teachers is more likely to be observed when there are evident indicators...
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Introduction Among all of the major demographic groups in the United States, African American (Black) males experience the poorest educational outcomes. Whether we measure such outcomes in terms of test scores, high school graduation, postsecondary attendance, or college graduation, African American males lag substantially behind other groups. It i...
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This paper explores alternatives for improving education in Minnesota using benefit-cost criteria. Benefits of better education include higher productivity and income, health status, and avoidance of the criminal justice system. Benefits to the taxpayer include higher tax revenues and lower costs for public services.
Article
This paper calculates the public savings (financial benefits) from greater public investments in the education of African-American males. Over one-fifth of each age cohort of black males in US is not a high school graduate. We identify five interventions that would—based on credible research—increase the graduation rate; we also report the public c...
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"This paper uses data from two British workplace surveys to examine the impact of unions on several training measures. It also evaluates the impact of unions and training on earnings and two measures of firm performance. Union effects on training emerge as fairly subtle, and are more positive when using individual rather than plant-wide training da...
Article
One of the most difficult obstacles to the adoption of social policies is the idea that governmental action is destined to fail. Because fallible individuals create and run governmental institutions, institu- tional action is bound to be fallible as well. Those who follow this logic tell us that, at best, public policy can ameliorate social problem...
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Abstract We review a large range of educational investments that might ensure more students graduate from high school in California. We identify educational interventions for which there is reasonably solid evidence of their efficacy to raise the rate of high school graduation, those for which there is promise,and those for which we have no relevan...
Technical Report
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This report calculates the full cost of providing well-planned, high quality pre-school for children in New Jersey, as required under Abbott vs. Burke (153 NJ 480 1998).
Article
We find that an investment of $82,000 in powerful educational interventions and additional years of schooling would yield a public benefit of $209,000 in higher government revenues and lower government spending. The net economic benefit to the public purse is therefore $127,000 per student and the benefits are 2.5 times greater than the costs.
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Full-text available
This paper presents an updated cost-benefit analysis of the High/Scope Perry preschool Program, using data on individuals aged 40. Children were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Program costs are compared against treatment impacts on educational resources, earnings, criminal activity, and welfare receipt. Net present values are ca...
Article
This report reviews the literature on cost–benefit analysis of elementary and secondary school investments. A range of investments are considered: policies such as improving teacher quality, reducing class and school size; programs such as pre-school, Head Start, grade retention, and other specific interventions; and reforms, such as school choice,...
Article
The extent of non‐retention on post compulsory full‐time education courses mainly undertaken by students in the 16‐19 age group has become recognised as relatively large. Not the least of the concerns surrounding this is the amount of resources devoted to enrolling on courses people who ultimately do not achieve any level of certificated outcome. I...
Article
This paper examines the academic achievement effects of the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program (CSTP), within the context of existing research on education vouchers. Extant evidence on the demand for private schooling shows religion, race, and family education levels are the most important factors. Extant evidence on school supply shows rea...
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Steven Barnett and Clive Belfield examine the effects of preschool education on social mobility in the United States. They note that under current policy three- and four-year-old children from economically and educationally disadvantaged families have higher preschool attendance rates than other children. But current programs fail to enroll even ha...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper presents research on the economic impacts of preschool on school systems using data from the national Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey - Kindergarten (1998) and the Schools and Staffing Survey (2000). Noting budgetary savings for school systems on items such as special education expenditures and teacher pay, the authors estimate cost...
Article
This paper presents an updated cost-benefit analysis of the High/Scope Perry preschool Program, using data on individuals aged 40. Children were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Program costs are compared against treatment impacts on educational resources, earnings, criminal activity, and welfare receipt. Net present values are ca...
Article
Voucher programs are intended to raise the academic achievement of students, but, unfortunately, so far the evidence suggests that Cleveland’s voucher students perform no better than their counterparts in public schools.
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Full-text available
This article derives an updated cost-benefit ratio for the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, an intensive preschool intervention delivered during the 1960s to at-risk children in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Because children were randomly assigned to the program or a control group, differences in outcomes are probably attributable to program status. Data...
Article
This article describes the teaching profession and teacher labour market in the US. Over the period since 1966, the profession has become 80% female, highly credentialled, considerably more senior, and increasingly unionized. In contrast, formal working conditions have changed relatively little, although class sizes are now approximately 30% smalle...
Article
A growing body of evidence shows that quality preschooling is associated with a host of benefits to students, schools, and society at large. These benefits can have a positive impact on a state’s budget, too: Children who attend preschool are not only more successful throughout their school careers, they also graduate and go on to college more ofte...
Article
Using linked workplace-worker data for the UK, a number of hypotheses are tested related to individual gender and the gender composition of the workforce. The proportion of female workers per establishment is strongly negatively associated with median workplace pay. There is some evidence that workplace performance (but not employment size or growt...
Article
Controversies over the merits of public and private education have never been more prominent than today. This book evaluates public and private schooling, especially in regard to choices families must make for their children. While choice among public schools is widely advocated today by families and states, public support for private education--in...
Article
History of Political Economy 36.4 (2004) 761-762 In Economic Institutions of Higher Education, J. Patrick Raines and Charles G. Leathers survey the contributions of a number of key writers, from the eighteenth century onward, on the behaviors and operations of universities. Undoubtedly, this is an important area of inquiry for economists: higher ed...
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This paper reviews the research on school supply and reports on recent data from the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP), to inform debates about school choice. The MPCP data indicate that about 30% of participating schools are secular, with the remainder religiously affiliated (although most of these religious schools are Catholic, this numbe...
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This paper uses a combination of workplace and matched-employee workplace data from the British 1998 Workplace Employee Relations Survey to examine the impact of unions and firm-provided training (incidence, intensity/coverage, and duration) on establishment performance. The performance effects of training are indexed not just by individual and med...
Article
This paper estimates the effect of a state-imposed curriculum mandate on the academic achievement of US public school students. By 1998, 14 states across the US had mandates that high school students should take an economics course. For these states, the proportions of public schools students taking high school economics was around twice that of st...
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Full-text available
The economic model of education policy assumes that there is a substantial consensus on educational goals among constituencies and that the major challenge is to determine the most effective strategies for reaching those goals. Unfortunately, the debate over educational vouchers is complicated by the presence of multiple and competing goals, and mi...
Article
This paper reviews recent evidence on home-schooling and home-based education in the US. Using various sources including state-level information and data on home-schoolers who took the SAT in 2001, we describe the characteristics of home-schoolers and analyze the motivation to home-school. We then evaluate home-schooling in terms of freedom of choi...
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This paper employs a random sample of matched employer-employee data from the UK to test seven possible explanations for the positive relationship between employer size and pay. Individual wage equations show a large employer size-wage premium. We then control for a range of establishment-level variables, based on seven hypotheses typically advance...
Article
We investigate the desire of nonunion workers in Great Britain to become represented by unions. Comparing our results to those from the United States, we find that workers in Great Britain are less likely to desire unionization and express lower dissatisfaction with their influence at work. The determinants of the desire for unionization are estima...
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This paper offers a critical evaluation of the notion of collective voice, advanced by Freeman and Medoff (1984) in their pioneering contribution What Do Unions Do? It takes note of theoretical and empirical work supportive of/consistent with the collective voice/institutional response model, and tracks some development of the model. Equally, altho...
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Full-text available
U.S. students now have four choices of schooling: public schooling, private–religious schooling, private–independent schooling, and home-schooling. Of these, home-schooling is the most novel: since legalization across the states in the last few decades, it has grown in importance and legitimacy as an alternative choice. Thus, it is now possible to...