Clint D. Kelly

Clint D. Kelly
Université du Québec à Montréal | UQAM · Department of Biological Sciences

PhD

About

93
Publications
16,527
Reads
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2,593
Citations
Introduction
My lab studies sexual selection, ecological immunology (evolutionary parasitology), and sperm competition. We also enjoy meta-analyzing data and scientometrically thinking about science.
Additional affiliations
June 2017 - present
Université du Québec à Montréal
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
June 2013 - May 2017
Université du Québec à Montréal
Position
  • Professor
September 2008 - May 2013
Iowa State University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
September 1999 - May 2005
University of Toronto
Field of study
  • Zoology
September 1996 - May 1999
Mount Allison University
Field of study
  • Behavioural Ecology
September 1990 - April 1995
University of Waterloo
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
Full-text available
Nutritional condition and sex are known to influence efficacy and investment in immune function. A poor diet is costly to immune function because it limits the resources (e.g., protein) available to effector systems (e.g., melanotic encapsulation), whereas males and females are expected to differ in how they allocate resources to fitness-related tr...
Chapter
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This article is online only. The authors do not have pdf copies. https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1941-1
Article
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Sperm production is costly and so males are expected to prudently allocate sperm to matings in a manner that maximizes their fitness. Sperm competition hypotheses predict that when facing increased sperm competition risk males should increase their investment in ejaculates. In contrast, when facing high future mating opportunities, males are expect...
Article
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The recent replication crisis has caused several scientific disciplines to self-reflect on the frequency with which they replicate previously published studies and to assess their success in such endeavours. The rate of replication, however, has yet to be assessed for ecology and evolution. Here, I survey the open-access ecology and evolution liter...
Article
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Predator–prey interactions are important drivers of community and ecosystem dynamics. With an online multiplayer videogame, we propose a novel system to explore within population variation in predator hunting mode, and how predator–prey behavioral interactions affect predator hunting success. We empirically examined how four predator foraging behav...
Article
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Unreliable research programmes waste funds, time, and even the lives of the organisms we seek to help and understand. Reducing this waste and increasing the value of scientific evidence require changing the actions of both individual researchers and the institutions they depend on for employment and promotion. While ecologists and evolutionary biol...
Article
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Animal movement modeling and animal personality frameworks are both useful approaches to identify patterns of behavioral variation. Yet these approaches are seldom applied jointly, especially in the context of a controlled laboratory experiment. In this study, we combine these approaches to identify patterns in the behavior of neonate snakes at dif...
Article
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Familiarity between members of the same group is predicted to play a role in many biological processes. Familiarity can facilitate recognition, aggregation, communication, coordination and cooperation between group members. We tested a path of interrelated hypotheses on the effect of familiarity on survival, resource acquisition, predator avoidance...
Article
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The ability to win fights is expected to be influenced by the rearing and nutritional conditions experienced by individuals. We hypothesized that crowded rearing conditions would foreshadow intense competition for resources in adult male Gryllus firmus (Scudder) field crickets and thus favour greater investment in mandibular weaponry. In line with...
Article
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Male genitalia present an extraordinary pattern of rapid divergence in animals with internal fertilization, which is usually attributed to sexual selection. However, the effect of ecological factors on genitalia divergence could also be important, especially so in animals with nonretractable genitalia because of their stronger interaction with the...
Article
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Systematic literature reviews are frequently used in biodiversity conservation to identify knowledge gaps and strategies for improvement. Despite their important role, systematic reviews are not standardized and often use different methods, standards for success, and data sources. We compared two systematic reviews on terrestrial arthropod conserva...
Poster
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An infographic explaining the methods and main findings of our paper comparing two systematic literature reviews on arthropod conservation translocations
Article
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1. Sex differences in immune investment and infection rate are predicted due to the divergent life histories of males and females, where females invest more toward immunity due to the fitness consequences of a reduced lifespan and males allocate less toward immunity due to increased resource investment in traits critical to sexual selection. Conseq...
Article
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Assortative mating is hypothesized to be a product of sexual selection, mating constraints, or temporal autocorrelation. I test these hypotheses in the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman 1841), a sexually size dimorphic invasive insect pest in North America, by measuring the size and shape of bodies and wings of pair members in a wild popula...
Article
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Alternative mating strategies are widespread among animal taxa, with strategies controlled by a genetic polymorphism (Mendelian strategy) being rarer in nature than condition-dependent developmental strategies. Mendelian strategies are predicted to have equal average fitnesses and the proportion of offspring produced by a strategy should equal the...
Article
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The mobility hypothesis argues that species in which males compete for mates in scrambles often exhibit female-biased size dimorphism because smaller male body size should increase male mobility and success in searching for mates. Sexual dimorphism can be further exaggerated if fecundity or sexual selection concurrently selects for larger female si...
Article
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Females choose to mate with certain males to accrue either genetic or direct benefits, and male sexual attractiveness evolved to advertise those benefits to potential mates. Sexually attractive males are expected to be of higher genetic quality and thus possess greater body condition and perhaps greater disease resistance. Positive covariance betwe...
Article
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Mating with multiple partners is common across animal taxa. Males mate multiply because reproductive success positively correlates with mating success. In contrast, multiple mating is expected to increase the direct (material) or indirect (genetic) benefits accrued by females but not necessarily increase their reproductive success. Cases in which f...
Article
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Sickness behavior is a taxonomically widespread coordinated set of behavioral changes that increases shelter‐seeking while reducing levels of general activity, as well as food (anorexia) and water (adipsia) consumption, when fighting infection by pathogens and disease. The leading hypothesis explaining such sickness‐related shifts in behavior is th...
Data
A graphical abstract briefly explaining the context, methods and results of our study Nason and Kelly (2020) on multiple mating in Wellington tree weta.
Article
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In many animal species, variation in reproductive success among individuals has led to the evolution of alternative mating strategies, which in the case of insects can often be correlated with developmental trajectories. In the Wellington tree weta, Hemideina crassidens, males can mature at the 8th, 9th or 10th instar, while females mature at the 1...
Article
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A fundamental goal of evolutionary ecology is to identify the sources underlying trait variation on which selection can act. Phenotypic variation will be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and adaptive phenotypic plasticity is expected when organisms can adjust their phenotypes to match environmental cues. Much recent research in...
Article
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Radiotransmitters have been used successfully to track and recapture giant wētā (Deinacrida species) in part to assess mating success. We report the successful use of very light transmitters (0.2 g) to track male Wellington tree wētā, Hemideina crassidens, over several nights to daytime refuges in burrows and tree galleries. Male Hemideina species...
Article
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Ecological variation in resources can influence the distribution and encounter rates of potential mates and competitors and, consequently, the opportunity for sexual selection. Factors that influence the likelihood that females mate multiply could also affect the potential for sperm competition. In Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens, plural...
Article
Sexual selection generally involves males evolving secondary sexual characters that satisfy the mating preferences of females. Behavioral ecologists have spent considerable research effort on identifying how variation in sexually-selected traits in insects is maintained among males at the expense of investigating the proximate and ultimate causes o...
Article
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Reproductive activities are generally costly to immune responsiveness because limited resources required by reproduction are diverted away from immunity (and vice versa). Reproduction, however, is not expected to affect the immune response in males and females similarly as mating is expected to negatively affect male immunity more so than female im...
Article
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Periods of poor nutrition during an organism's development can negatively impact its adult fitness. If conditions improve, an organism may increase its growth rate (compensatory growth) or delay maturity to increase body size (catch-up growth). Heightened resource allocation to growth, however, could impair resource availability for other fitness-r...
Article
We welcome the comment from Clark et al. [1xSee all References][1] and are gratified that they found value in our article. In response, we would like to state that our paper was devoted to exploring relatively well-developed empirical evidence of insufficient transparency in ecology and evolution. We did not review fraud because there is an absence...
Article
The first five chapters of this edited volume describe the physiological and genomic basis for social behavior in honey bees, bumble bees, vespid wasps, termites, and aphids. The following two chapters review specific potential mechanisms underlying insect social behavior—neural processing of reward and epigenetics. The final three chapters place t...
Article
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Nutritional condition is important to the function and performance of several facets of male reproduction such as searching for mates and producing ejaculates. Nutritional status should be important to male success in the Cook Strait giant weta (Deinacrida rugosa), a flightless orthopteran insect, in which males invest considerable effort in mate s...
Article
To make progress scientists need to know what other researchers have found and how they found it. However, transparency is often insufficient across much of ecology and evolution. Researchers often fail to report results and methods in detail sufficient to permit interpretation and meta-analysis, and many results go entirely unreported. Further, th...
Article
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Females in many animal taxa incur significant costs from mating in the form of injury or infection, which can drastically reduce survival. Therefore, immune function during reproduction can be important in determining lifetime fitness. Trade-offs between reproduction and immunity have been extensively studied, yet a growing number of studies demons...
Article
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Reproduction and immunity are fitness-related traits that trade-off with each other. Parasite-mediated theories of sexual selection suggest, however, that higher-quality males should suffer smaller costs to reproduction-related traits and behaviours (e.g., sexual display) from an immune challenge because these males possess more resources with whic...
Data
Calling data for sexually attractive and unattractive males that were injected with either saline of LPS Raw data of calling effort for sexually attractive and unattractive males that were injected with either saline of LPS.
Article
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Direct benefits are considered to be the driving force of high female mating rates, yet species in which females do not receive material resources from males still experience increased fitness from mating frequently. One hypothesis suggests that substances within the ejaculate may boost survival or offspring production. If these materials are limit...
Article
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The duration of mate guarding by males is predicted to vary in accordance with the risk of sperm competition or mate encounter rate. Mate guarding is predicted to be prolonged under a male-biased sex ratio because the risk of sperm competition is high or the mate encounter rate is low. A consistently male-biased sex ratio should thus select for gre...
Article
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Body mass components (dry mass, lean dry mass, water mass, fat mass) in each sex correlate strongly with body mass and pronotum length in Gryllus texensis and Acheta domesticus. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression underestimates the scaling relationship between body mass and structural size (i.e., pronotum length) in both cricket species compar...
Article
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The mobility hypothesis could explain the evolution of female-biased size dimorphism if males with a smaller body size and longer legs have an advantage in scramble competition for mates. This hypothesis is tested by performing a selection analysis in the wild on Micrarchus hystriculeus (Westwood) (Phasmatodea), a sexually size dimorphic stick inse...
Article
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Individual fitness is expected to benefit from earlier maturation at a larger body size and higher body condition. However, poor nutritional quality or high prevalence of disease make this difficult because individuals either cannot acquire sufficient resources or must divert resources to other fitness-related traits such as immunity. Under such co...
Article
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Sperm competition theory predicts that males should strategically adjust sperm ejaculate expenditure according to the number of competing ejaculates, because sperm production is costly. That is, males should provide females with larger or higher-quality ejaculates when one rival male is present, but decrease ejaculate size or quality as the number...
Article
Investment into reproduction is influenced by multiple factors and varies substantially between males and females. Theory predicts that males should adjust their ejaculate size or quality in response to variation in female experience or phenotypic quality. In addition, sperm investment by males may also be influenced by their own status and experie...
Article
Full-text available
Food limitation is expected to reduce an individual’s body condition (body mass scaled to body size) and cause a trade-off between growth and other fitness-related traits, such as immunity. We tested the condition-dependence of growth and disease resistance in male and female Gryllus texensis field crickets by manipulating diet quality via nutrient...
Data
Summary statistics (mean ±1 standard deviation) for effect of sex and diet on life history and phenotypic variables. (DOC)
Article
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Geographically structured variation in morphol-ogy is a common phenomenon in animals with environmental factors covarying with both latitude and biogeographic bar-riers having profound impacts on body size and shape. The Pacific blue-eye (Pseudomugil signifer) is a freshwater fish that lives along Australia's east coast and occurs on either side of...
Article
The action of sexual selection is highly variable among taxa. This creates challenges when trying to generalize (e.g. determine if a particular relationship exists based on its average strength, or if it varies in response to theoretically relevant factors). Con-sequently, accounting for moderating factors is likely to be crucial to explain differe...
Article
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L’évaluation de la viabilité des spermatozoïdes est une méthode courante de tester les hypothèses reliées à la qualité de l’éjaculat. Cette technique a produit des résultats intéressants; il se peut, cependant, que le test d’évaluation des spermatozoïdes tue lui-même les spermatozoïdes. C’est là un sérieux écueil puisque la mortalité reliée au test...
Article
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Fitness-related traits, such as immunity and reproduction, are typically condition dependent, and are predicted to trade off against each other because they share a pool of energy and resources. It is generally assumed that the resources and energy required for immune processes and reproduction is contained in the body fat; however, few studies qua...
Article
Multiple mating or group spawning leads to post-copulatory sexual selection, which generally favours ejaculates that are more competitive under sperm competition. In four meta-analyses we quantify the evidence that sperm competition (SC) favours greater sperm number using data from studies of strategic ejaculation. Differential investment into each...
Article
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... All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org. This Article. Integr. Comp. Biol. (2010) doi: 10.1093 / icb / icq137 First published online: September 16, 2010. ExtractFree; » Full Text (HTML)Free; Full Text (PDF)Free. Classifications. ...
Article
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Positive size assortative mating can arise if either one or both sexes prefer bigger mates or if the success of larger males in contests for larger females leaves smaller males to mate with smaller females. Moreover, body size could not only influence pairing patterns before copulation but also the covariance between female size and size of ejacula...
Article
Arising from: K. A. Paczolt & A. G. Jones Nature 464, 401-404 (2010); Paczolt & Jones reply Sexual differences in the extent and type of parental care lie at the heart of sexual selection theory, and evolution resulting from parental conflict has produced some striking behavioural and morphological adaptations. In a study of male pregnancy in Gulf...
Article
The propagation of misconceptions about the theory of biological evolution must be addressed whenever and wherever they are encountered. The recent article by Paz-y-Mino and Espinoza in this journal contained several such misconceptions, including: that biological evolution explains the origin of life, confusion between biological and cosmological...
Article
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Strong sex-specific selection on traits common to both sexes typically results in sexual dimorphism. Here we find that Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens) are sexually dimorphic in both head shape and size due to differential selection pressures on the sexes: males use their heads in male-male combat and feeding whereas females use theirs f...
Article
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Adult males are often less immunocompetent than females. One explana- tion for this is that intense sexual selection causes males to trade-off investment in immunity with traits that increase mating success. This hypothesis is tested in the Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens), a large, sexually dimorphic orthop- teran insect in which males...
Article
Full-text available
Female-biased size dimorphism, in which females are larger than males, is prevalent in many animals. Several hypotheses have been developed to explain this pattern of dimorphism. One of these hypotheses, the mobility hypothesis, suggests that female-biased size dimorphism arises because smaller males are favored in scramble competition for mates. U...
Article
In the harem polygynous Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens), early maturation at the eighth instar by males is associated with smaller mandibular weaponry. Because these males, compared with larger males (i.e., matured at 10th instar), are less successful at holding harems, they appear to have decreased mating success. Therefore, smaller ma...
Article
Full-text available
A long-standing hypothesis in behavioural ecology posits that males with greater resource-holding potential (RHP) control resource sites deemed more valuable by sexually-receptive females and, thereby, males controlling such sites accrue greater reproductive success (RS). This hypothesis has historically been investigated using three separate but n...
Article
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The sexually dimorphic Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens Blanchard) (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) is a harem-defending polygynous insect in which males use their enormous mandibles to fight conspecifics for access to harems residing in tree cavities (gallery). Tree weta ejaculates (spermatophores) do not include a nuptial meal (spermatoph...
Article
In many animal species, males do not seek females directly but instead locate and defend sites that contain spatially or temporally limited resources essential to female survival and reproduction. Resident males that successfully repel conspecific rivals can mate with females attracted to these resources. In theory, increasing resource value increa...
Article
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That empirical evidence is replicable is the foundation of science. Ronald Fisher a founding father of biostatistics, recommended that a null hypothesis be rejected more than once because "no isolated experiment, however significant in itself can suffice for the experimental demonstration of any natural phenomenon" (Fisher 1974:14). Despite this de...
Article
Females often aggregate at particular sites for feeding or shelter, thus giving adult males the opportunity to defend harems and increase male reproductive success. Rival males compete for control of harems via ritualized displays or direct combat using weaponry. Contests for harems or the resources required by females can be settled based on asymm...
Article
Rather than seeking females directly, males in many animal species locate and defend sites that contain spatially limited resources essential for female survival and reproduction. In these cases, resident males successfully repelling conspecific rivals will mate with sexually receptive females that seek to use the resident’s resources. Theory predi...
Article
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Growing demand to quantify the research output from public funding has tempted funding agencies, promotion committees and employers to treat numerical indices of research output more seriously. So many assessment exercises are now conducted worldwide that traditional peer assessment is threatened. Here, we describe a new citation-based index (Hirsh...
Article
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In species with a resource-defence (male dominance) mating system, males are expected to maximize fitness by controlling resources deemed more valuable by sexually receptive females because these sites attract more mates. Furthermore, males, which control more valuable resources should themselves be of high quality. I experimentally tested these pr...
Article
Estimates of abundance, age structure and sex ratio are essential for monitoring the status of populations. We report the first attempt to reliably estimate these parameters in a population of the recently discovered Raukumara tusked weta (Motuweta riparia), which is found almost entirely near streams. On two occasions we searched a 211-m section o...
Article
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The Wellington tree weta, Hemideina crassidens, is a harem-polygynous nocturnal insect whose males defend and mate groups of females residing in cavities in trees. In this study I examined sexual differences in gallery use (number of galleries occupied per unit time), distance travelled per night and activity patterns after sunset. In addition, I i...
Article
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Sexual selection can affect the prevalence and intensity of infection of individuals by ectoparasitic mites. According to this theory, males should exhibit greater infection by parasites than females and juveniles should be less infected than adults. In the wild, I investigated whether prevalence and intensity of the chyzeriid mite, Nothotrombicula...
Article
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Toronto, 2005. Includes bibliographical references.
Article
1. Phylogenetic trees are critical in addressing evolutionary hypotheses; however, the reconstruction of a phylogeny is no easy task. This process has recently been made less arduous by using a Bayesian statistical approach. This method offers the advantage that one can determine the probability of some hypothesis (i.e. a phylogeny), conditional on...
Article
Full-text available
Both male and female Wellington tree weta, Hemideina crassidens, use cavities in trees as diurnal shelters. That these galleries are often limiting in nature offers males the opportunity to increase their reproductive success by monopolizing galleries and the females residing in them. Male H. crassidens, can mature at either the 8th, 9th, or 10th i...