Clifton J. Holmes

Clifton J. Holmes
Washington University in St. Louis | WUSTL , Wash U · Program in Physical Therapy

PhD; CSCS*D; EP-C; NSCA-CPT*D

About

71
Publications
11,920
Reads
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168
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Clifton Holmes is a postdoctoral research scholar in the Program in Physical Therapy and Center for Human Nutrition at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, MO. His predoctoral work revolved around monitoring autonomic modulation and its relationship with exercise and sport performance. As a postdoc, Dr. Holmes studies the effects of diet and exercise interventions on body composition, physical fitness, and metabolic function in aging, obese, and special populations.
Additional affiliations
August 2016 - May 2020
University of Alabama
Position
  • Research Assistant
August 2014 - May 2016
University of Central Missouri
Position
  • Graduate Teaching Assistant
Education
August 2016 - May 2020
University of Alabama
Field of study
  • Human Performance with an emphasis in Exercise Science
August 2014 - May 2016
University of Central Missouri
Field of study
  • Exercise Science
August 2010 - May 2014
Rockhurst University
Field of study
  • Exercise and Sport Science

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Objectives: Certain occupations are associated with greater risk of triggering a sudden cardiac event because of high levels of physical exertion and extreme thermal environments in which they occur. The extent to which sports officials--particularly high school (HS) American football referees--experience these conditions is unknown. Forty-six mal...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare body composition metrics obtained by two portable bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) devices with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) among adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) before and after a resistance exercise training program. Methods: Participants with CF were assessed us...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of this study were to (1) determine the feasibility of a home-based resistance exercise training (RET) program in patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose tolerance using virtual personal training and (2) observe the effects completion of the RET program had on glucose metabolism, pulmonary function, body composition, and physica...
Preprint
Background: Prolonged sitting and reduced physical activity lead to low energy expenditures. However, little is known about the impact of daily sitting time jointly with physical activity on body fat distribution. Methods: We investigated the independent and joint associations of daily sitting time and physical activity with body fat distribution a...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was: (1) to compare body volume (BV) estimated from a 2-dimensional (2D) image analysis program (BVIMAGE), and a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) equation (BVDXA-Smith-Ryan) to an underwater weighing (UWW) criterion (BVUWW); (2) to compare relative adiposity (%Fat) derived from a 3-compartment (3C) model using BVIMAG...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The parasympathetically derived marker of heart rate variability, root mean square of successive R-R differences (RMSSD), and the daily fluctuations as measured by the coefficient of variation (RMSSDCV) may be useful for tracking training adaptations in athletic populations. These vagally derived markers of heart rate variability may...
Poster
Full-text available
With the improvement in clinical care, patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are living longer and CF related diabetes (CFRD) has emerged as a major complication, shortening survival and increasing morbidity [1,2].  Changes in body composition have been found to contribute to abnormal glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes but have not b...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the presence of symptoms and/or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in people with diabetes after the exclusion of other causes. It is associated with pain, paresthesia, sensory loss, muscle atrophy with fat infiltration, and muscular dysfunction typically starting distally in the feet and progressing proxi...
Article
Background The purpose of this study was to compare relative adiposity (%Fat) derived from a 2-dimensional image-based 3-component (3C) model (%Fat3C-IMAGE) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (%FatDXA) against a 5-component (5C) laboratory criterion (%Fat5C). Methods Fifty-seven participants were included (63.2% male, 84.2% White/Caucasian...
Article
Introduction: Anthropometric-based equations are used to estimate percent body fat (%BF) when laboratory methods are impractical or not available. However, because these equations are often derived from two-compartment models, they are prone to error due to assumptions regarding fat-free mass composition. The purpose of this study was to develop a...
Article
Full-text available
Body composition is a key component for maintaining good general health and longevity. It can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and lifestyle choices. The assessment of body composition is an essential tool for nutrition specialists to effectively evaluate nutritional status and monitor progression during dieta...
Article
Full-text available
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most prevalent hereditary life-threatening disease in the Caucasian population. With the improvement in clinical care, individuals with CF are living longer, and CF-related diabetes (CFRD) has emerged as a major complication. The diagnosis of CFRD is associated with shortening survival, increasing morbidity, worsening ph...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to determine if rowing performance was associated with fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) measured using a novel 2D digital image analysis system. Nineteen female rowers (ages = 20.3 ± 1.0 years, weight = 73.8 ± 8.3 kg, height = 172.7 ± 4.7 cm) participated in this study. FM and FFM were estimated with a smartphone a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To assess the agreement of the root mean square of successive R-R interval (RMSSD) values when recorded immediately upon waking to values recorded later in the morning prior to practice, and to determine the associations of the RMSSD recordings with performance outcomes in female rowers. Methods: A total of 31 National Collegiate Athlet...
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low ([LV]; 4 total sets), moderate ([MV]; 8 total sets), and high set volumes ([HV]; 12 total sets) in acute full-body resistance exercise sessions on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation measured using RMSSD. Methods: Ten resistance-trained participants (25.8±6.8 yr., 173.4±10.6 cm...
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low ([LV]; 4 total sets), moderate ([MV]; 8 total sets), and high set volumes ([HV]; 12 total sets) in acute full-body resistance exercise sessions on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation measured using RMSSD. Methods: Ten resistance-trained participants (25.8 ± 6.8 yr., 173.4 ± 10....
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare a single 2D image processing system (IMAGE) to underwater weighing (UWW) for measuring body volume (BV) and subsequently estimating body fat percentage (%Fat), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) via a 3-compartment (3C) model. Methods: A sample of participants aged 18-39 years was recruited fo...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose was to examine the association of critical power from a three-minute all-out row (CP 3-min) and peak power from a one-stroke maximum test (1-Stroke) with laboratory-based fitness assessments (peak oxygen consumption [VO 2peak ] and Wingate anaerobic test [WAnT]) and 6000 m (6K) and 2000 m (2K) rowing ergometer performance. Thirty-one fe...
Article
Full-text available
The aim was to examine the validity of heart rate variability (HRV) measurements from photoplethysmography (PPG) via a smartphone application pre-and post-resistance exercise (RE) and to examine the intraday and interday reliability of the smartphone PPG method. Thirty-one adults underwent two simultaneous ultrashort-term electrocardiograph (ECG) a...
Thesis
Heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular tool for monitoring autonomic stress responses, however, the efficacy of HRV as a valid internal training load marker for resistance exercise has not been well-established. We conducted three studies to address this gap. Study 1 compared the effects of low, moderate, and high set volumes in acute re...
Article
Full-text available
Holmes CJ, Winchester LJ, MacDonald HV, Fedewa MV, Wind SA, Esco MR. Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Fatigue Measures Following Moderate Load Resistance Exercise. JEPonline 2020;23 (5):24-36. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between changes in heart rate variability (HRV), neuromuscular performance, and fatigue biom...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation given for the NSCA Alabama State Clinic 2020 virtual conference. This research is part of a dissertation project "Monitoring the Effects of Resistance Exercise on Heart Rate Variability"
Article
Purpose With the increasing popularity of ultra-short heart rate variability (HRV) measurements being utilized with mobile devices outside of controlled, research settings, it is important to determine the proper methodology to ensure accuracy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the validity of ultra-short-term HRV metrics across t...
Article
Purpose With the continued rise of technology in sports, many innovations have been made with smartphone applications designed to measure physiological fatigue and recovery. However, the proper methodology and potential pitfalls for long-term monitoring have not been fully explored. Therefore, this study aimed to observe compliance rates of self-me...
Presentation
Full-text available
This was paper/round table presentation giving at the 2020 SUGRS conference at the University of Alabama. Abstract The sport of rowing requires a unique combination of physiological, psychological, and technical factors to compete at the elite levels. Measurements of aerobic and anaerobic power should be tracked regularly; however, traditional fi...
Poster
Full-text available
The aim was to determine the effects of BFR and ice application on peak torque production and muscle activation during sets of maximal contraction leg extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. It was hypothesized that ice application would decrease torque and muscle activation compared to control condition, while BFR application will have no effect o...
Article
Purpose: Maximal heart rate (MHR) is an important physiologic tool for prescribing and monitoring exercise in both clinical and athletic settings. However, prediction equations developed in adults may have limited accuracy in youth. The purpose of this study was to systematically review and analyze the available evidence regarding the validity of c...
Article
Full-text available
Training camps are typical in elite Canoeing preparation, during which, the care to assure adaptation to avoid undesired fatigue is not always present. This study aimed identifying a specific sex response in perceived training loads, recovery and stress balance, and cardiac autonomic responses. Twenty-one elite athletes (11 males and 10 females) of...
Article
Full-text available
Background Advancements in wearable technology have provided practitioners and researchers with the ability to conveniently measure various health and/or fitness indices. Specifically, portable devices have been devised for convenient recordings of heart rate variability (HRV). Yet, their accuracies remain questionable. Objective The aim was to qu...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the response in heart rate variability via the parasympathetically-mediated metric of the log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R interval differences (lnRMSSD) to weekly variations in total volume-load (TVL) during an 18-week periodized strength training program in a competitive collegiate...
Article
Full-text available
The primary aim of this study was to determine the association between body composition and performance outcomes in youth soccer players. Twenty-five competitive male youth soccer players (age = 13.7 ± 0.8 years, height = 167.4 ± 9.7 cm, weight = 57.6 ± 12.1 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Height and weight were used to calculate body...
Poster
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Root-mean-square difference of successive R-R intervals (RMSSD) is a common heart rate variability (HRV) marker that may be useful for tracking training and performance in athletic populations. While the measure itself reflects overall parasympathetic control, the coefficient of variation (CV) of RMSSD (RMSSDCV) throughout a week repr...
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction: Aerobic fitness is an important metric to consider regarding soccer play. Accurate assessment of aerobic fitness involves expensive equipment for profiling the metabolic response to graded exercise testing, which is typically performed in laboratory settings. The Pacer test, also referred to as the 20-meter multiple staged shuttle tes...
Poster
Full-text available
Maximal heart rate (MHR) can be an important reference for prescribing aerobic exercise intensity. In addition, monitoring heart rate allows practitioners and athletes to evaluate the physiological response of training, practice, and competition. Because obtaining an actual MHR is difficult in field settings, prediction methods are often pursued. D...
Thesis
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 1-minute versus 3-minute, between-set rest intervals on muscular hypertrophy adaptations in 12 recreationally, resistance-trained males, 18-25 years of age over a 6-week period. Week 1 consisted of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) testing in the bac...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The scientific literature has demonstrated that regular engagement in physical activity or exercise provides multiple benefits for individuals with cystic fibrosis. The goal of this project is to gain further understanding about the best strategies to employ and modalities of exercise to utilize in order to optimize lung function and overall health among those with cystic fibrosis.