• Home
  • Clifton Forlines
Clifton Forlines

Clifton Forlines
Tactual Labs

PhD Computer Science

About

99
Publications
23,086
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,013
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
937 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
Introduction
Additional affiliations
February 2010 - September 2013
Draper Laboratory
Position
  • Group Leader Human Centered Engineering & Principal Engineer
January 2007 - December 2009
University of Toronto
January 2003 - December 2010

Publications

Publications (99)
Conference Paper
Current touch devices are adept at tracking finger touches, but cannot distinguish if multiple touches are caused by different fingers on a single hand, by fingers from both hands of a single user, or by different users. This limitation significantly reduces the possibilities for interaction techniques in touch interfaces. We present GhostID, a cap...
Conference Paper
We report on the Latency Hammer, a low-cost yet highaccuracy and high-precision automated tool that measures the interface latency of touchscreen devices. The Hammer directly measures latency by triggering a capacitive touch event on a device using an electrically actuated touch simulator, and a photo sensor to monitor the screen for a visual respo...
Conference Paper
This paper reports on two experiments designed to further our understanding of users' perception of latency in touch- based systems. The first experiment extends previous efforts to measure latency perception by reporting on a unified study in which direct and indirect form-factors are compared for both tapping and dragging tasks. Our results show...
Article
Full-text available
The decision sciences are increasingly challenged to advance methods for modeling analysts—accounting for both analytic strengths and weaknesses—to improve inferences taken from increasingly large and complex sources of data. We examine whether psychometric measures—personality, cognitive style, motivated cognition—predict analytic performance and...
Article
Full-text available
A method of reducing the perceived latency of touch input by employing a model to predict touch events before the finger reaches the touch surface is proposed. A corpus of 3D finger movement data was collected, and used to develop a model capable of three granularities at different phases of movement: initial direction, final touch location, time o...
Conference Paper
We present "Fast Multi-Touch" (FMT), an extremely high frame rate and low-latency multi-touch sensor based on a novel projected capacitive architecture that employs simultaneous orthogonal signals. The sensor has a frame rate of 4000 Hz and a touch-to-data output latency of only 40 microseconds, providing unprecedented responsiveness. FMT is demons...
Article
Researchers have long known that aggregate estimations built from the collected opinions of a large group of people often outperform the estimations of individual experts. This phenomenon is generally described as the "Wisdom of Crowds". This approach has shown promise with respect to the task of accurately forecasting future events. Previous resea...
Article
Collaboration and information sharing is becoming an increasingly important tool in improving forecasting socio-political events. How can we harness the power of crowds for forecasting without its associated limitations? In this paper, we explore how different types and amounts of information sharing affect forecast quality. The results of the expe...
Article
The Intelligence Community (IC) is often asked to make predictions about future world events. One aspect of predicting the quality of forecasts and forecasters is the knowledge that the forecaster has about the question to be forecast. This paper explores the relationship between factual knowledge about a forecast event and eventual performance on...
Conference Paper
Leveraging data from over 1,000 users in the System for Prediction, Aggregation, Display and Elicitation (SPADE) research program, we present preliminary data on the factor structure of individual variation in decision making ability and the associations of this variance with errors in cognitive reasoning and accuracy in making socio-political fore...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As our ability to measure the world around us improves, we are quickly generating massive quantities of high-dimensional, spatial-temporal data. In this paper, we concern ourselves with datasets in which the spatial characteristics are relatively static but many dimensions prevail and data is sampled over different time periods. Example application...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a driving simulator-based evaluation of a new technique for simplifying in-vehicle device interactions and thereby improving driver safety. We show that the use of multiple, contextually linked push-to-talk buttons (Multi-PTT) shortens voice dialog duration versus the use of a conventional, single push-to-talk button (Single-PTT). This b...
Chapter
Full-text available
While the last decade has seen massive improvements in not only the rendering quality, but also the overall performance of console and desktop video games, these improvements have not necessarily led to a greater population of video game players. In addition to continuing these improvements, the video game industry is also constantly searching for...
Article
Tables provide a large and natural interface for supporting direct manipulation of visual content, for human-to-human interactions and for collaboration, coordination, and parallel problem solving. However, the direct-touch table metaphor also presents considerable challenges, including the need for input methods that transcend traditional mouse- a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
People's ability to accurately locate target objects in images is severely affected by the prevalence of the sought objects. This negative effect greatly impacts critical real world tasks, such as baggage screening and cell slide pathology, in which target objects are rare. We present three novel image presentation techniques that are designed to i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present WeSpace - a collaborative work space that integrates a large data wall with a multi-user multi-touch table. WeSpace has been developed for a population of scientists who frequently meet in small groups for data exploration and visualization. It provides a low overhead walk-up and share environment for users with their own personal applic...
Article
Full-text available
1 Abstract Tables are a familiar piece of furniture commonly found in homes, offices, cafés, design cen-ters, show rooms, waiting areas, and entertainment centers. Tables provide a familiar and con-venient physical setting for people to meet, chat, look over documents, and carry out tasks that require face-to-face collaboration. Digital documents,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The WeSpace is a long-term project dedicated to the creation of environments supporting walk- up and share collaboration among small groups. The focus of our system design has been to provide 1) groups with mechanisms to easily share their own data and 2) necessary native visual applications suitable on large display environments. Our current proto...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we discuss the adaptation of an open-source single-user, single-display molecular visualization application for use in a multi-display, multi-user environment. Jmol, a popular, open-source Java applet for viewing PDB files, is modified in such a manner that allows syn- chronized coordinated views of the same molecule to be displayed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many research projects have demonstrated the benefits of bimanual interaction for a variety of tasks. When choosing bimanual input, system designers must select the input device that each hand will control. In this paper, we argue for the use of pen and touch two-handed input, and describe an experiment in which users were faster and committed fewe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Figure 1: A display that reveals both the marked-up (left) and final (right) versions of a document to different POVs. ABSTRACT Automultiscopic displays show 3D stereoscopic images that can be viewed from any viewpoint without special glasses. These displays are becoming widely available and affordable. In this paper, we describe how an automultisc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe a prototype video presentation system that presents a video in a manner consistent with the video's content. Our prototype takes advantage of the physically large display and pixel space that current high-definition displays and multi-monitor systems offer by rendering the frames of the video into various regions of the display surface....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
True multi-user, multimodal interaction over a digital table lets co-located people simultaneously gesture and speak commands to control an application. We explore this design space through a case study, where we implemented an application that supports the KJ creativity method as used by industrial designers. Four key design issues emerged that ha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a pair of experiments that explore the effects of tactile-feedback and direct vs. indirect pen input on point- ing and crossing selection tasks. While previous work has demonstrated the validity of crossing as a useful selection mechanism for pen-based computing, those experiments were conducted using an indirect input device - one in wh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The interoperability of disparate data types and sources has been a long standing problem and a hindering factor for the efficacy and efficiency in visual exploration applications. In this pa- per, we present a solution, called LivOlay, which enables the rapid visual overlay of live data rendered in different applications. Our tool addresses datase...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Multi-view 3D displays are preferable to other stereoscopic display technologies because they provide autostereoscopic viewing from any viewpoint without special glasses. However, they require a large number of pixels to achieve high image quality. Therefore, data compression is a major issue for this approach. In this paper, we describe a framewor...
Article
Full-text available
There is a large disparity between the rich physical interfaces of co-located arcade games and the generic input devices seen in most home console systems. In this article we argue that a digital table is a conducive form factor for general co-located home gaming as it affords: (a) seating in collaboratively relevant positions that give all equal o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Touch is a compelling input modality for interactive devices; however, touch input on the small screen of a mobile device is problematic because a user's fingers occlude the graphical elements he wishes to work with. In this paper, we present LucidTouch, a mobile device that addresses this limitation by allowing the user to control the application...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent research on handheld projector interaction has expanded the display and interaction space of handheld devices by projecting information onto the physical environment around the user, but has mainly focused on single-user scenarios. We extend this prior single-user research to co-located multi-user interaction using multiple handheld projecto...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Information shown on a tabletop display can appear distorted when viewed by a seated user. Even worse, the impact of this distortion is different depending on the location of the information on the display. In this paper, we examine how this distortion affects the perception of the basic graphical elements of information visualization shown on disp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We investigate the differences - in terms of both quantitative performance and subjective pref- erence - between direct-touch and mouse input for unimanual and bimanual tasks on tabletop displays. The results of two experiments show that for bimanual tasks performed on tabletops, users benefit from direct-touch input. However, our results also indi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Co-located collaborators often work over physical tabletops using combinations of expressive hand gestures and verbal utterances. This paper provides the first observations of how pairs of people communicated and interacted in a multimodal digital table environment built atop existing single user applications. We contribute to the understanding of...
Article
Full-text available
Engineering and Applied Sciences Multi-view 3D displays are preferable to other stereoscopic display technologies because they provide autostereoscopic viewing from any viewpoint without special glasses. However, they require a large number of pixels to achieve high image quality. Therefore, data compression is a major issue for this approach. In t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present HybridPointing, a technique that lets users eas- ily switch between absolute and relative pointing with a direct input device such as a pen. Our design includes a new graphical element, the Trailing Widget, which remains "close at hand" but does not interfere with normal cursor operation. The use of visual feedback to aid the user's un-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we discuss our adaptation of a single-displ ay, single-user commercial application for use in a multi- device, multi-user environment. We wrap Google Earth, a popular geospatial application, in a manner that allows for synchronized coordinated views among multiple instances running on different machines in the same co-located envi- r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We explore the design space of a two-sided interactive touch table, designed to receive touch input from both the top and bottom surfaces of the table. By combining two registered touch surfaces, we are able to offer a new dimension of input for co-located collaborative groupware. This design accomplishes the goal of increasing the relative size of...
Article
Full-text available
Tables provide a large and natural interface for supporting direct manipulation of visual content for human-to-human interactions. Such surfaces also support collaboration, coordination, and parallel problem solving. However, the direct-touch table metaphor also presents considerable challenges, including the need for input methods that transcend t...
Article
Full-text available
Widgets - standard reusable GUI elements - are a staple of user-interface development. The use of widget toolkits, such as Java's Swing, X Window System's Motif, or Microsoft's MFC, allows programmers to quickly incorporate a number of standard interactions (such as clicking buttons, selecting check boxes, or scrolling through lists) into their sof...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although electronic media has changed how people interact with documents, today's electronic documents and the environments in which they are used are still impoverished relative to traditional paper documents when used by groups of people and across multiple computing devices. Vertical interfaces (e.g., walls and monitors) afford a less democratic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The design of multitouch multiuser tabletop user interfaces is still in its infancy and is not yet well understood. To date, published experimental results have primarily focused on controlled user studies. In this paper, we present observations of user experience "in the wild" on interactive tables in four different real world contexts - all nonco...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Freehand gestural interaction with direct-touch computation surfaces has been the focus of significant research activity. While many interesting gestural interaction techniques have been proposed, their design has been mostly ad-hoc and has not been presented within a constructive design framework. In this paper, we develop and articulate a set of...
Article
Full-text available
The immediate availability of a vast amount of multimedia content has created a growing need for improvements in the field of content analysis and summarization. While researchers have been rapidly making contributions and improvements to the field, we must never forget that content analysis and summarization themselves are not the user's goals. Us...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Visual search is the subject of countless psychology studies in which people search for target items within a scene. The bulk of this literature focuses on the individual with the goal of understanding the human perceptual system. In life, visual search is performed not only by individuals, but also by groups - a team of doctors may study an x-ray...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Co-located collaborators often work over physical tabletops with rich geospatial information. Previous research shows that people use gestures and speech as they interact with artefacts on the table and communicate with one another. With the advent of large multi-touch surfaces, developers are now applying this knowledge to create appropriate techn...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tables have historically played a key role in many real-time collaborative environments, often referred to as "war rooms". Today, these environments have been transformed by computational technology into spaces with large vertical displays surrounded by numerous desktop computers. However, despite significant research activity in the area of tablet...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on a study of human participants with a robot designed to participate in a collaborative conversation with a human. The purpose of the study was to investigate a particular kind of gestural feedback from human to the robot in these conversations: head nods. During these conversations, the robot recognized head nods from the human...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In many environments, it is often the case that input is made to displays that are positioned non-traditionally relative to one or more users. This typically requires users to perform interaction tasks under transformed input-display spatial mappings, and the literature is unclear as to how such transformations affect performance. We present two ex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We introduce the concept of identity-differentiating widgets (iDwidgets), widgets parameterized by the identity of their user. Although multi-user applications have become more common, most support only traditional “single-user” widgets. By adding user-identity information we allow interactions with today’s widgets to be dynamically customized on a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Distracted driving is a significant issue for our society today, and yet information technologies, including growing digital music collections, continue to be introduced into the automobile. This paper describes work concerning methods designed to lessen cognitive load and distracting visual demands on drivers as they go about the task of searching...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A key challenge in supporting face-to-face collaborative work is e- document micro-mobility: supporting movement of digital content amongst shared display surfaces and personal devices at arbitrary levels of document granularity. Micro-mobility is a dexterity that physical paper artifacts afford - the ability to be handled with any position and pla...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When passing a document to someone across a table, the person passing the document often rotates it to face the receiver. In this paper, we present the results of a user evaluation of three Push-and-Rotate schemes that offer different underlying control semantics for how an electronic document can automatically rotate as it is pushed across an inte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Handheld projectors offer a new type of display modality, not tied to a physical screen or to a fixed projection area, yet providing a larger display than is available from a handheld device with fixed screen. This paper begins with a review of our prototype handheld projector, and describes our work on interaction using a cursor that can be tracke...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work describes a set of interfaces for augmenting fast-forward and rewind on consumer digital video recorders. Our method overlays a series of images sampled from the video over top of the traditional full screen accelerated playback. This sequence creates a trail that provides contextual information and highlights upcoming scene changes in th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Supporting groups of individuals exploring large maps and design diagrams on interactive tabletops is still an open research problem. Today's geospatial, mechanical engineering and CAD design applications are mostly single-user, keyboard and mouse-based desktop applications. In this paper, we present the design of and experience with DTLens, a new...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Designing interfaces for interactive handheld projectors is an exiting new area of research that is currently limited by two problems: hand jitter resulting in poor input control, and possible reduction of image resolution due to the needs of image stabilization and warping algorithms. We present the design and evaluation of a new interaction techn...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we show how traditional physical interface components such as switches, levers, knobs and touch screens can be easily modified to identify who is activating each control. This allows us to change the function per-formed by the control, and the sensory feedback provided by the control itself, dependent upon the user. An auditing funct...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present two experiments on the use of non-speech audio at an interactive multi-touch, multi-user tabletop display. We first investigate the use of two categories of reactive auditory feedback: affirmative sounds that confirm user actions and negative sounds that indicate errors. Our results show that affirmative auditory feedback may improve one...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe a technique that supports the previewing of navigation, exploration, and editing operations by providing convenient Undo for unsuccessful and/or undesirable actions on multi-level input devices such as touch screens and pen-based computers. By adding a Glimpse state to traditional three-state pressure sensitive input devices, users are...