Cliff Mckinney

Cliff Mckinney
Mississippi State University | MSU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D. Clinical Psychology

About

86
Publications
24,176
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1,460
Citations
Introduction
I investigate the association between parenting and psychological problems. I focus on parental psychopathology, psychological and physical maltreatment, and parent-child relationship quality. I study these processes in emerging adults in the context of parent-child gender dyads.
Education
August 2002 - May 2009
University of Central Florida
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Although most parental discipline research examines the effects of discipline in children and adolescents, recent research has demonstrated that emerging adults continue to receive parental discipline. Importantly, a newly validated instrument for assessing discipline specifically during emerging adulthood has been created. Scales from this instrum...
Article
Background: Many studies have examined the link between childhood maltreatment and outcomes, but few have focused on children who experience maltreatment from both their mothers and fathers and how they might differ from children who experience maltreatment from one parent only. Even fewer studies have used dyadic concordance types (e.g., pairs of...
Article
Emerging evidence suggests that parents engage in discipline practices during emerging adulthood, and the use of physical discipline is associated with negative mental health outcomes for emerging adults. However, it appears that no measure of discipline strategies used in emerging adulthood exists. The current study developed the Domains of Young...
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The understanding of the complex relations between parent and child psychopathology would be enhanced if common patterns of parental problem types or particular parent dyads were identified. The current study used latent profile analysis to allow for a person-centered approach to the examination of which parental psychopathology subgroups based on...
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The Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile has been utilized as a potential predictive measure of future psychopathology among children and adolescents. Previous studies have examined the differences between individuals with and without an elevated profile on variables such as parenting, temperament, parental psychopathology, personality, a...
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Cross-informant discrepancies on reports of psychopathology can have detrimental consequences on the relationship between emerging adults and their parents. The current study utilized emerging adult reports of their own psychopathology and their perspective on their parent’s psychopathology as well as their parents’ reports of parental psychopathol...
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A central requirement of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) consists of difficulties with interpersonal relationships. As emerging adults’ transition into adulthood and seek more autonomy from parents, it is important to examine how ODD problems and parent-child discord are indirectly associated through interpersonal competencies. The current stud...
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Previous research has shown that media messages affect body image in emerging adults. Furthermore, parental body image messages and parent–child relationship quality have also been shown to affect emerging adult body image. However, little research has examined the relationships among these variables collectively. Thus, the current study examined t...
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Relationships play an important role in the lives of emerging adults. Relationship qualities with parents and friends influence both psychological and physical health outcomes by providing social support. Furthermore, relationship qualities may be differentially preferred based on an individual’s race. The current study examined the role of social...
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The current study examined the interaction between race (i.e., Black and White) and gender and the perception and reception of social support from mother figures, father figures, and friends during emerging adulthood. Social support from family and friends has been associated with positive physical and psychological health outcomes. Recent studies...
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Previous research has shown the effect of both media messages and parental feedback on emerging adult body esteem. However, not much research has examined the combined effects of these types of feedback on emerging adult body esteem. Previous research has also shown that mothers and fathers can affect their children differently. Thus, the current s...
Article
Childhood maltreatment is related to a host of outcomes, many of which may be partially explained by the transdiagnostic factor of impulsivity. The research linking maltreatment to impulsivity is well supported. However, research differentiating between emotional and physical maltreatment and impulsivity is lacking, particularly with regard to face...
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The current study extended the literature on social support by examining the differences in the word content of supportive messages using a free online linguistic tool called sentiment analysis and social cognition engine (SEANCE) across multiple levels. Participants created supportive messages in response to vignettes of distressed individuals, wh...
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Although much research has investigated parenting styles, few studies have examined parenting across regions of the United States. The current study used a nationwide sample to examine perceived maternal and paternal parenting in four regions of the United States: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West. Participants included 1080 emerging adults who a...
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Current research supports that both psychological/physical maltreatment by parents and parent-child relationship quality strongly correlate with children’s psychopathology. Less research has examined the interaction effects among these variables, especially in emerging adults. The current study analyzed the association between psychological/physica...
Article
In order to reduce the high infection rate of COVID-19, individuals began to engage in self-isolation amid a time of uncertainty and worry. Given that social support can be protective against the negative effects of distress on mental and physical health, the lack of support may negatively impact individuals during their self-isolation. Thus, the c...
Chapter
Religiosity has been shown to be a protective factor against risky sexual behavior (RSB). The current study sought to identify which aspects of perceived significant other and personal religiosity (i.e., private, coping, conviction, social, and conservatism) predict RSB in emerging adults and how this might differ by gender. The sample ( N = 275; 7...
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Few researchers have examined how family communication patterns influence child help-seeking behaviors and child help-providing behaviors in relation to the parent-child relationship during the period of emerging adulthood. In the current study we utilized a latent profile analysis to determine family communication pattern types from two standard c...
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Previous studies have indicated that prenatal maternal depressive symptoms predicted toddler temperament, which led to childhood irritability, an important component to ODD problems. In addition, children with ODD problems continue to have difficulties as they transition into emerging adulthood. The current study examined whether present-day emergi...
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The current study examined the indirect effect of maternal and paternal emotional and physical maltreatment on affective and behavioral symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) through parent-child relationship quality; gender and overall ODD symptoms were examined as moderators. Participants included 2,362 emerging adults who completed ques...
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Although research has indicated that parent and child anxiety are connected, religiosity may serve as a protective factor and help weaken this connection. The current study asked 1,002 emerging adults (67.7% female) to report on their mothers’ and fathers’ anxiety symptoms and their own anxiety symptoms and religiosity. Structural equation modeling...
Article
Previous research has examined the factors that place an individual at a risk of using harsh discipline on children. Chief among these predictors is an individual's own experience of corporal punishment, as well as favorable attitudes toward corporal punishment as a parenting strategy. However, few studies have examined the relationships among thes...
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Current research supports the lasting effects of parenting styles on children and adolescents’ self-esteem, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Few studies have examined parenting style, self-esteem, and psychological problems together while considering gender. The current study explored the indirect effect of parenting style though self-...
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Substance use and risky sexual behavior are negative health outcomes associated with the heterogeneous construct of impulsivity and emerging adulthood. The present study appears to be the first to examine how different facets of impulsive personality may be used to depict various profiles that differentially predict engagement in substance use and...
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Recent research has indicated that ODD problems persist into emerging adulthood, although mechanisms influencing ODD during emerging adulthood remain relatively unknown. Additionally, temperament and parental psychopathology both are implicated in the development of childhood ODD. Thus, the current study examined how perceived parental (i.e., mater...
Article
Supportive systems during emerging adulthood play an important role in assisting emerging adults with emotion regulation and decision-making processes. The current study examined the influence of parent (i.e., maternal and paternal) emotional and instrumental support on different facets of impulsivity (i.e., positive urgency, negative urgency, sens...
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Recent studies have argued that Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) problems continue into emerging adulthood; however, few studies have examined ODD problems in this population. Moreover, previous studies have found that corporal punishment mediated the relationship between maternal anxiety/depression and child ODD problems in young children and t...
Article
One proposed mechanism of social support is the facilitation of primary and secondary reappraisal of stressful situations. The current study examined the expansion of the original stress‐buffering hypothesis to include primary or secondary appraisal in an emerging adult population (N = 854) on physical and psychological health outcomes. The additio...
Article
The role of parents’ social support in relation to the socialization of coping strategies in emerging adults rarely has been studied. Parental depression has been related to both internalizing and externalizing problems in children. We examined the relationships of maternal and paternal depression on emerging adult internalizing and externalizing p...
Article
Current research supports clear relationships between parental psychopathology, parental maltreatment, and emerging adult child psychopathology. Less research has examined how the role of the parent-child relationship influences these existing associations. The current study tested two models that examined the moderating effect of parent-child rela...
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Introduction: Parental socialization of coping strategies is associated with various emotion regulation difficulties and continues to impact individuals during emerging adulthood. As emerging adults’ transition into adulthood, they experience social stressors that put their emotion regulation skills to the test. Methods: The current study examined...
Article
Research has examined the different parenting styles that are present during emerging adulthood (McKinney & Renk, 2008; Nelson, Padilla-Walker, Christensen, Evans, & Carroll, 2011); however, less is known about potential parental conflict strategies that emerging adults may be experiencing during this developmental time period. Conflict strategies...
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Parent factors such as parenting practices, parent religiosity, and the parent-child relationship all influence the religiosity of children. Specifically, several studies have indicated that a positive parent-child relationship and that parent warmth are associated with a stronger relationship between parent and child religiosity. The current study...
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Previous research has shown a strong connection between parental religiosity and parenting behaviors in the transmission of religion from parent to child. Our study expanded upon previous research by examining how perceived maternal and paternal warmth and overprotection mediated the relation between parental and personal religiosity in males and f...
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Parental control behaviors are suggested to be related to emerging adult outcomes, such as risky sexual behavior. Although parental control behaviors are more likely to be considered protective against risky sexual behavior, the relation between parental overprotection and risky sexual behavior is unclear. Furthermore, parental overprotection may i...
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Secure parental attachment improves the perception of available social support and the socialization of emotion regulation strategies. Research has suggested that both perceived social support and emotion regulation help individuals reappraise stressful situations as less stressful. Individuals under stress are at an increased risk for psychologica...
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Objectives Research has shown a link between parental and offspring internalizing problems and that parental warmth and overprotection affect these relationships. However, less research has examined how parental warmth and overprotection affect the link between parental internalizing problems and irritability in adolescents. Thus, the current study...
Article
Previous research has shown a strong connection between parental religiosity and parenting behaviors, and their interaction relates to the transmission of religion from parent to child. The current study advanced previous research by considering parent and child gender when examining how perceived parental warmth and autonomy granting moderate the...
Article
Current research supports a relationship between parenting style and children’s mental health, yet this has been understudied in emerging adults. Moreover, even less research has included the role of parent-child relationship quality on these existing relationships, which has been demonstrated to be an important moderator. Thus, the current study e...
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Objectives The impact of parental depressive problems on children’s depressive symptoms has been widely studied. The stress-buffering hypothesis states that social support acts as a protective factor between the impacts of stress from negative life events on physical and psychological health. The current study examined the stress-buffering hypothes...
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Social constructivist theory suggests that social support affects internalizing and externalizing problems by improving self-esteem. The differential impact of these variables has not been fully explored between male and female genders. The current study examined how different sources of received or perceived social support from mother, father, or...
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Many studies have indicated a relationship between parental and child religiosity, but the strength of the relationship has varied. Moreover, few studies have examined moderators of this relationship, and none have conducted a meta-analysis to determine a concise picture of the association between parent and child religiosity. The current study con...
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Research has indicated that negative parenting practices, such as physical punishment, are associated with negative outcomes in children. These negative outcomes can present during childhood and during emerging adulthood. One negative consequence can be excessive alcohol use, a problematic outcome with its own myriad consequences. The goal of the c...
Article
Risky sexual behavior is more prevalent in emerging adult populations and emerging adults engaging in risky sexual behavior also may be experiencing higher levels of internalizing problems. Parents and their relationships with their children maintain relevance in emerging adulthood and may decrease negative outcomes. Thus, the current study examine...
Article
Parental depression has been associated with psychological problems in offspring. It was hypothesized that harsh parenting would mediate this relationship and that gender differences would suggest moderated mediation. Emerging adults (N = 490) reported on their current perceptions of parental depression, harsh parenting, and their own psychological...
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Research indicates that perceptions of and regard for parents are important in the parent–child relationship of emerging adults and associated with both emotional and social adjustment and development. We examined the relationship between current regard for parents, parental involvement, and conflict tactics during emerging adulthood among White an...
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Previous literature has not examined the processes underlying the relations among parent–child relationship quality, parental psychopathology, and child psychopathology in the context of gender. Further, research examining these variables in emerging adulthood is lacking. The current study examined whether parent–child relationship quality would me...
Article
Parental antisocial problems have a strong influence upon their children's antisocial problems but studies suggest that personal religiosity can serve as a protective factor. No studies have yet examined personal religiosity in connection to parental and child antisocial problems. The current study asked 435 emerging adults aged 18 to 25 years atte...
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Little research has examined how parenting practices may differ in various regions of the United States, specifically the South. The current study used a Southern United States sample to replicate prior research done in Central Florida, a proximal yet distinct region. Participants included 4900 emerging adults attending a Southern United States uni...
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PurposeParent–child relationship quality is an important factor when examining adolescent’s risk for problem behaviors. For this reason, many researchers have explored the impacts of parent–child relationship quality on adolescent and child behavior, yet the parent–child relationship has lasting consequences into adulthood. Methods The current stud...
Article
Parents influence their children’s religiosity through many factors including parenting practices, parental religiosity, and parental psychopathology. Little research, however, has been conducted on how different parental psychopathologies, such as antisocial problems, affect the relationship between parent and child religiosity. The current study...
Article
Although parents have a strong influence on their children's religiosity, little research has been conducted on how different parental anxiety and depressive problems affect the transmission of religiosity. The current study asked emerging adults to report on the religiosity and internalizing behaviors of their mothers and fathers as well as their...
Article
Parental maltreatment is suggested to result in negative outcomes for emerging adults, including substance use. Additionally, parental emotional and physical maltreatment are associated with a number of temperament changes, as suggested by attachment theory. Prior research suggests five-factor traits such as higher neuroticism, higher extraversion,...
Article
Research suggests that child perception of parenting styles may strongly influence child outcomes and parents must balance support and structure based on their emerging adult children’s changing needs. The current study examined emerging adult perceptions of parenting style in comparison with their preferences and how these characteristics interact...
Article
Research on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) indicates these children receive parenting tailored to their condition. However, little is known about ASD in adulthood, especially in emerging adults at college, and how they are parented. The current study examined how emerging adults in a non-clinical typically-developing sample...
Article
Objective To investigate how alcohol marketing and peers may promote college students’ alcohol use through social media. Participants College students (N = 682) aged 18–22 years from a large Southern university completed paper surveys in April 2014. Methods Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships among variables as well...
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Regarding parental influences on child adjustment, research has examined parental and child gender separately more often than the interaction between them. Thus, the current study investigated the effects of parenting styles, discipline practices, and parental psychological symptoms in parent–child gender dyads. The sample consisted of 177 male and...
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Although the effects of parenting styles have received much consideration in the research literature, less attention has been given to outcomes in emerging adults. Also, regional differences among areas of the United States may influence parents to use varying degrees of parenting practices such as affection and discipline. The current study invest...
Article
Religiosity has a great effect on how individuals view and live their lives, helping to determine their actions and thoughts. Several reviews have substantiated a positive relationship between religiosity and mental health. Parental religiosity also can be beneficial, as adolescents with religious parents tended to be less likely to engage in risky...
Article
The field of research associated with this study is clinical psychology; specifically, the focus is on parenting, emerging adulthood, and disruptive behavior. Research indicates that ineffective parenting practices are associated with disruptive behavior in offspring and disruptive behavior in offspring affects parenting practices. However, this re...
Article
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to grow in prevalence each passing year. As more children are diagnosed, it makes sense that the emerging adult and adult population with ASD also will continue to grow. Although the body of research is quite large for children with ASD, the literature for emerging adults with ASD is sparse in comparison. Th...
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Purpose: A popular way to attempt to discern causality in clinical psychology is through mediation analysis. However, mediation analysis is sometimes applied to research questions in clinical psychology when inferring causality is impossible. This practice may soon increase with new, readily available, and easy-to-use statistical advances. Thus, w...
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The current study examined the impact of effective and ineffective parenting on emerging adult psychological adjustment as well as parenting characteristics associated with adjusted and maladjusted emerging adults. Participants were 175 male and 309 female emerging adults who completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of their parents' pa...
Article
Current research indicates that children tend to view parents with psychopathology more negatively and children who hold negative perceptions of parents are at a greater risk for psychopathology. Yet, less research examines how parental psychopathology influences offspring psychopathology through affect toward parents. The current study tested a mo...
Article
Recent research has suggested that religion may play an important role in determining mental health. Although research has examined the effects of religiosity on specific types of psychopathology, less research has examined psychopathology broadly in the context of particular aspects of religion. Thus, the current study examined intrinsic and extri...
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Recent research suggests that little is known about how parental religiosity influences child development, in particular the development of religiosity in children. Although research posits that direct communication of parental religiosity and authoritative parenting practices facilitate the transmission of parental religiosity to children, more wo...
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Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers' behaviors...
Article
Behavior modification with children has been popularized through television shows such as Super Nanny and Nanny 911. The popularity of these shows may be related to the demand parents have for improving their children's behavior. Interestingly, an approach adopted by The Dog Whisperer may prove effective when used with children. The purpose of this...
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Distinguishing between disruptive and normative behavior is a challenging task. How to best assess for disruptive behavior in children and adolescents is a significant question encountered by many professionals. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing research regarding reliable and valid tools for assessing disruptive behavior diso...
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Research links decreased playtime during early education and rigid parenting to poorer outcomes in children. However, it is not known how the effects of playtime extend into emerging adulthood. Thus, the current study examines perceived parenting, perceived childhood playtime, and psychopathology as reported by 328 emerging adults ranging in age fr...
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Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation...
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Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in...
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Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11-14-year-olds who were attending a middle sc...
Article
Use of atypical antipsychotic medications (AAMs) in the treatment of disruptive behavior (DB) in children and adolescents has increased dramatically worldwide. However, with exception of using risperidone (i.e., for the management of irritability associated with autism, manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, and schizophrenia)...
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Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample fo...
Article
Although the relationship between parenting and outcomes for children and adolescents has been examined, differences between maternal and paternal parenting styles have received less attention, particularly in the case of late adolescents. As a result, this article examines the relationship between late adolescents’ perceptions of their mothers’ an...
Article
Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the nee...
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Many studies have established that warm, authoritative parenting is associated with positive adjustment in children and adolescents. Fewer studies, however, have examined the potential mechanisms driving this relationship. The current study explores the effects of late adolescents’ positive and negative perceptions of their parents in the associati...
Article
Despite a general consensus in the United States that overtly racist acts are unacceptable, many ambiguous situations in everyday life raise questions of whether racism has influenced a person's behavior in an interracial encounter. The authors of the present study sought to (a) examine simultaneously an array of variables thought to be related to...
Article
Schacter (2001) proposes that there are seven memory malfunctions that occur in everyday life and that affect individuals’ ability to recall occurrences in their lives. Given that these sins affect other areas of memory, it is likely that they may affect the ratings that informants provide when they are recalling characteristics of the emotional an...
Article
A large amount of research has been done on Disruptive Behavior Disorders in general and on Oppositional Defiant Disorder in particular. Although research has examined many facets of Oppositional Defiant Disorder, many questions remain. Further, inconsistencies in terminology and methodological concerns across research studies have made it difficul...
Article
Lesbian and gay (LG) parents face common and unique challenges compared to heterosexual parents. In addition to the typical challenges that all parents encounter while rearing children, LG parents often face myriad obstacles to having and rearing children in a society that struggles to accept alternative family structures. In this paper, we provide...
Article
The frequency with which children are exposed to domestic violence is unsettling. Children's exposure to domestic violence can have adverse effects on their functioning, including the promotion of emotional and behavioral difficulties as well as other difficulties. A number of factors, such as the age of the children when they are exposed and the p...
Article
Oppositional defiant disorder is an individual diagnosis given commonly to children and adolescents who exhibit a pattern of noncompliant and defiant behaviors. Some children’s temperament, behaviors, and interpersonal style merit this diagnosis. Other children, however, exhibit behaviors consistent with this diagnosis within the context of their f...
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This study examined the relationships among the childhood discipline styles experienced by 116 female college students, their perceptions of their parents, and their current functioning. Results of this study indicated that female college students' report of childhood discipline, their perceptions of their parents, and their outcomes were related u...
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The amount of community violence that children and adolescents are exposed to is unsettling. Intensifying the issue, the amount of community violence that is wit-nessed or experienced directly by children and adolescents is increasing with time. It has been documented that children and adolescents who are exposed to community violence display a wid...

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Projects (10)
Project
Examine how parenting differs across regions with a focus on the Southern United States.