Claus-Christian Carbon

Claus-Christian Carbon
Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg · Institut für Psychologie

Full Professor, PhD, Habil, Dipl.-Psych., MA
Aesthetics, Face Perception, Visual Illusions, Cognitive Maps, InnovationLeadership, Acceptance of Innovations, Design

About

457
Publications
202,002
Reads
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5,482
Citations
Introduction
My academical work concentrates on working in the field of empirical aesthetics (plus design), face recognition/face processing/prosopagnosia (face blindness), optical illusions, cognitive maps, advancement of methods and on applied cognition (design; the role of innovation; hci and ergonomics).
Additional affiliations
October 2012 - October 2012
University of Warsaw
Position
  • (Guest) Professor
March 2011 - August 2011
University of Pavia
Position
  • (Guest) Professor
October 2008 - February 2022
Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg
Position
  • Professor (Full) -- Head of School (2014) Dean of Faculty (since 2021)

Publications

Publications (457)
Article
Full-text available
The interior soundscape of a vehicle is an essential asset for experienced comfort and feedback of a car's driver, especially in the premium automotive industry. Here we offer a literature review on the perception of acoustic characteristics of electrified vehicles (EVs) and the impressions and associations they convey to the individual-the driver,...
Poster
Full-text available
One side of the great contact equation between humans and extraterrestrials is already known: SETI is a human enterprise, so any success of a first contact depends on the compatibility between the human and extraterrestrial condition in interplay with contact parameters. Perceiving of, communicating with, and eventually understanding extraterrestri...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Vaccinations are a key measure to fight a pandemic like COVID-19. Even if widely available, some people still reject receiving them. One perspective on this reluctance is that vaccinations are a sophisticated biotechnology capable of augmenting the capacities of the human body, making it an instance of Human Enhancement (HE): Technologi...
Article
Full-text available
Since the COVID-19 crisis has caused the cancellation of a great number of travel plans in the last two years, this study examines the prospects of the post-COVID-19 era, during which we expect tourism will return strongly. The impact of the epidemic on people’s attitudes toward tourism, particularly their tourist choices, appears to be a major cha...
Article
Review of: Visualizing Taste: How Business Changed the Look of What You Eat , Ai Hisano (2019)Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 336 pp., p/bk, $39.50ISBN 978-0-67498-389-2
Article
Full-text available
Background While neighborhood safety and stranger danger have been mostly canonized to play a part in parents’ physical activity (PA) avoidance, less is known about the impact of parental stress and perceived risk on children’s PA avoidance and consequently on children’s level of PA and wellbeing. Understanding the contributors to children’s wellbe...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to read emotions in faces helps humans efficiently assess social situations. We tested how this ability is affected by aspects of familiarization with face masks and personality, with a focus on emotional intelligence (measured with an ability test, the MSCEIT, and a self-report scale, the SREIS). To address aspects of the current pande...
Article
Full-text available
Perceptual science is important to understand how humans and other animals perceive and experience scenes, objects and events. So, it is the essential science to predict how we construct reality and our Umwelt. We learn from perceptual phenomena that we only need a minimal amount of information to create rich worlds of imagination and perception. A...
Article
For a research article (RA) to be accepted, not only for publication, but also by its readers, it must display proficiency in the content, methodologies and discourse conventions of its specific discipline. While numerous studies have investigated the linguistic characteristics of different research disciplines, none have utilised Social Network An...
Article
After decades of research and development, haptic feedback is increasingly appearing in consumer products. While the prevalence of haptic feedback is increasing, the integration rarely offers increased fidelity to previous generations. We argue this is because of the tremendous complexity of successful haptic design engineering, but critically, als...
Poster
Full-text available
Our fovea centralis, the area on our retina that allows for sharp and highly accurate vision, is small: only about 1.5 mm in diameter, with an even smaller area of around 0.5 mm where no blood vessels impede the light trajectory. This approximates around 4.5-1.5 visual degrees, respectively; coarsely the area of our thumb when we extend our arm. Mu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Vaccination is an essential strategy for mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic. Besides its significance as a public health measure, vaccination is a sophisticated example of modern biotechnology. Since vaccination gives the human body an ability that it does not naturally possess, the question arises as to its classification as Human Enhance...
Article
Advancements in user interface technologies and demands of design engineering led to increasing implementation of large and mostly flat interactive surfaces in automotive. Recent discussions in the context of in-vehicle usage of touchscreens advocate for the use of haptic feedback to restore the explore- and feel-qualities typically experienced in...
Article
Full-text available
When several multistable displays are viewed simultaneously, their perception is synchronized, as they tend to be in the same perceptual state. Here, we investigated the possibility that perception may reflect embedded statistical knowledge of physical interaction between objects for specific combinations of displays and layouts. We used a novel di...
Article
Full-text available
Recognizing familiar faces requires a comparison of the incoming perceptual information with mental face representations stored in memory. Mounting evidence indicates that these representations adapt quickly to recently perceived facial changes. This becomes apparent in face adaptation studies where exposure to a strongly manipulated face alters th...
Code
Fits 2D and 3D geometric transformations via 'Stan' probabilistic programming engine. Returns posterior distribution for individual parameters of the fitted distribution. Allows for computation of LOO and WAIC information criteria (Vehtari A, Gelman A, Gabry J (2017) <doi:10.1007/s11222-016-9696-4>) as well as Bayesian R-squared (Gelman A, Goodrich...
Article
Full-text available
The technical specifications of electrified vehicles (xEVs) will drastically change the way future vehicles might sound compared to conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICEVs). The electrified powertrain is responsible for a profoundly different profile in vibro-acoustical characteristics (NVH: noise, vibration, and harshness) an...
Article
Full-text available
Faces undergo massive changes over time and life events. We need a mental representation which is flexible enough to cope with the existing visual varieties, but which is also stable enough to be the basis for valid recognition. Two main theoretical frameworks exist to describe facial representations: prototype models assuming one central item comp...
Poster
Full-text available
Seeing Earth from outer space has been described as a trigger for transforming effects accompanied by intense cognitive and affective experience. In this study, we followed an exploratory approach to investigate which factors shape the aesthetics of outer space. N = 67 participants rated 42 space pictures on eight scales: Awe, loneliness, danger, l...
Poster
Full-text available
Today, reproductions of Van Gogh’s sunflower paintings adorn smartphone covers and paper napkins, while his potato eaters still go widely unnoticed. Can we estimate which artworks will eventually end up as kitsch? We used 19 relatively unknown paintings by distinguished artists of the 19th and 20th century to test the predictive validity of five mu...
Poster
Full-text available
Although enjoying a painting is mainly a visual experience, some visual features such as textures, brushstrokes, glossiness, or color might invite the viewer to touch it. For preservation reasons, people are not allowed to touch paintings in museums, often limiting the aesthetic appreciation to vision only. We investigated how tactile inputs affect...
Poster
Advertisers often neglect cognito-perceptual factors, especially the power of associations, even though such factors make advertising what it wants to be: an incentive to buy. Knowing how to influence the viewer’s perception of the product, namely by evoking associations, is the key to successful advertising. Fechner’s Aesthetic Association Princip...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated how changes in dynamic spatial context influence visual perception. Specifically, we reexamined the perceptual coupling phenomenon when two multistable displays viewed simultaneously tend to be in the same dominant state and switch in accord. Current models assume this interaction reflecting mutual bias produced by a dominant percep...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To date, the process of adaptation in the setting of aesthetic medicine has not been investigated. The combination of complex advanced feedback in the current intense social media milieu, in conjunction with easily accessible and effective aesthetic treatments, has produced pockets of overtreated patients and over-zealous practitioners...
Article
Full-text available
Novel tangible user interface technologies facilitate current trends toward seamless user interfaces. They enable the design of yet unseen interfaces and thus the creation of a new kind of haptic language. In order to use the benefits of a touch-and-feel design for a positive user experience, carefully designed haptic feedback plays an important ro...
Article
Full-text available
Wearing face masks has become a usual practice in acute infection events inducing the problem of misinterpreting the emotions of others. Empirical evidence about face masks mainly relies on adult data, neglecting, for example, school kids who firmly are dependent on effective nonverbal communication. Here we offer insights from a joint school–unive...
Article
Full-text available
Inspecting new visual information in a face can affect the perception of subsequently seen faces. In experimental settings for example, previously seen manipulated versions of a face can lead to a clear bias of the participant’s perception of subsequent images: Original images are then perceived as manipulated in the opposite direction of the adapt...
Article
Full-text available
Many aspects of handling the COVID-19 pandemic bear a resemblance to patterns found in games. We observe point displays and leader boards, the visible assumption of roles, classic archetypes, the collection of resources, and spatial awareness. We argue that these patterns manifest spontaneously as a form of analogical reasoning, because people lack...
Article
Full-text available
Wearing face masks in times of COVID-19 is one of the essential keystones for effectively decreasing the rate of new infections and thus for mitigating the negative consequences for individuals as well as for society. Acceptance of wearing masks is still low in many countries, making it extremely difficult to keep the pandemic at bay. In an experim...
Article
Full-text available
Our words shape our thinking, our thinking creates action. Scientific terms can be particularly influential when used in everyday language in terms of allegedly scientific arguments that back certain views or actions. Such use can be especially toxic when the terms refer to concepts that are ill-defined, outdated or questionable themselves. The ter...
Article
Full-text available
Sometimes, we do not notice big changes in our environment, if these changes occur while we perform eye movements or external events interrupt our perception. This striking phenomenon is known as "change blindness." Research on chimpanzees, macaques, and pigeons suggests that change blindness may not be unique to humans, but our understanding is li...
Article
Full-text available
Faces provide not only cues to an individual's identity, age, gender, and ethnicity but also insight into their mental states. The aim was to investigate the temporal aspects of processing of facial expressions of complex mental states for very short presentation times ranging from 12.5 to 100 ms in a four-alternative forced choice paradigm based o...
Article
Full-text available
Wearing face masks is one of the essential means to prevent the transmission of certain respiratory diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although acceptance of such masks is increasing in the Western hemisphere, many people feel that social interaction is affected by wearing a mask. In the present experiment, we tested the impact o...
Preprint
Many aspects of handling the COVID-19 pandemic in Western countries bear resemblance to game-design patterns like point displays and leader boards, the visible assumption of roles, classic archetypes, collection and hoarding of resources, and spatial awareness. We argue that these patterns emerge as people lack cultural and individual norms and cog...
Poster
Full-text available
Electrostatic friction modulation can be used to augment virtual user interface elements via haptic feedback, for example to highlight interactive elements like a button. This might be especially useful in a seamless user interface, such as a display or control panel, that requires both high aesthetic quality and safe-to-use interactions. However,...
Poster
Full-text available
Electrostatic friction display are becoming publicly available and accessible for a wide variety of practitioners. Psychophysical studies on electrostatic haptics deliver insights into the opportunities such devices can offer. But because most studies focus on tasks with low ecological validity, the important facet of actual user experience of elec...
Poster
Full-text available
In recent years, there is a staggering demand for haptic devices embedded in seamless surfaces of high aesthetic quality. This is particularly the case for industries which ask for innovative yet safe-to-use and aesthetically pleasing interfaces, such as premium automotive brands. Variable friction displays enable haptic augmentation of virtual UI-...
Poster
Full-text available
Haptic feedback is an inherent part of future, seamless user interfaces. From the ever-growing list of companies and startups to the thriving and diverse community of engineers, psychologists, and designers, the moment for haptics and touch-based feedback has arrived. Yet, the abundance of review papers on haptic feedback fail to give an applicatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multistable perception – spontaneous switches of perception when viewing a stimulus compatible with several distinct interpretations – is often characterized by the distribution of durations of individual dominance phases. For continuous viewing conditions, these distributions look remarkably similar for various multistable displays and are typical...
Article
During the recognition of faces, the incoming perceptual information is matched against mental representations of familiar faces stored in memory. Face space models describe an abstract concept of face representations and their mental organization, in which facial representations are located on various characteristic dimensions, depending on their...
Article
Full-text available
van Lier and Koning introduced the more-or-less morphing face illusion: The detection of changes in a constantly morphing face-sequence is strongly suppressed by fast eye saccades triggered by a moving fixation dot. Modulators of this intriguing effect were investigated with systematically varied facial stimuli (e.g., human faces from varying morph...
Preprint
Wearing face masks is one of the essential means to prevent the transmission of certain respiratory diseases such as COVID-19. Although acceptance of such masks increases in the Western hemisphere, many people feel that social interaction is affected by wearing a mask. In the present experiment, we tested the impact of face masks on the readability...
Article
To create art means to be creative, but how creativity is gained, how we can induce and train creativity and how we can validly measure creative potential is a matter of still unsolved research. In our exploratory study, 49 participants had to create figures by using a double set of Tangram puzzles — so to say: to create something with an infinite...
Preprint
Wearing face masks is one of the essential means to prevent the transmission of certain respiratory diseases such as COVID-19. Although acceptance of such masks increases in the Western hemisphere, many people feel that social interaction is affected by wearing a mask. In the present experiment, we tested the impact of face masks on the readability...
Article
Full-text available
One point that definitions of art experience disagree about is whether this kind of experience is qualitatively different from experiences relating to ordinary objects and everyday contexts. Here, we follow an ecological approach that assumes art experience has its own specific quality, which is, not least, determined by typical contexts of art pre...
Article
Full-text available
Most of the groundbreaking works of Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801–1887), who paved the way for modern experimental psychology, psychophysics, and empirical aesthetics, are so far only available in German. With the first full text translation of Fechner’s article on The Aesthetic Association Principle ( Das Associationsprincip in der Aesthetik), we w...
Article
Full-text available
During the recognition of faces, the incoming perceptual information is matched against mental representations of familiar faces stored in memory. Face space models describe an abstract concept of face representations and their mental organization, in which facial representations are located on various characteristic dimensions, depending on their...
Article
Full-text available
When multistable displays—stimuli that are compatible with several comparably likely perceptual interpretations—are presented intermittently, the perceptual state at the stimulus onset shows a complex dependence on the duration of the preceding blank interval. Specifically, perception is maximally destabilized for interruptions that are approximate...
Article
Full-text available
Talking about design, most discussions circulate around physical objects or products, around their invention, development, production and marketing. While most modern design approaches do also cover questions pertaining to human interaction, e.g. within user- or human-centred design philosophies, a systematic and fundamental conception of the role...
Article
It seems straightforward that humans seek stability while shifting in and out of it, be it the constant effort to stay in balance on our feet, to keep viable by homeostasis, or to make sense by actively predicting and constructing semantic stability. We suggest a dynamic view on the process of shifting in and out of semantic stability, especially i...
Article
Statements such as “X is beautiful but I don’t like how it looks” or “I like how X looks but it is not beautiful” sound contradictory. How contradictory they sound might however depend on the object X and on the aesthetic adjective being used (“beautiful”, “elegant”, “dynamic”, etc.). In our study, the first sentence was estimated to be more contra...
Poster
Full-text available
Background Officials, and medical stakeholders assessing or treating patients with a history of conflict with the law need valid parameters for transparent and reliable health status evaluation and clinical assessment. Structured observation of movement behavior is currently excluded in commonplace clinical practice although movement therapy is par...
Poster
Full-text available
“Don’t we all have an itch for kitsch?” (p. 234), philosopher Cǎlinescu (1987) once asked. Drawing on the Zurich Model of Social Motivation (Bischof, 1985, 1993), Ortlieb and Carbon (2019) have made a case that appreciation of kitsch is a function of basic needs for security and arousal: Individuals with a high need for security should rate familia...
Poster
Is dominance in face rivalry driven by low level image properties (contour, contrast, local features , etc.) or by high level face properties (gender, age, emotions, etc.)? Perceptual dominance in face rivalry mostly reflects low level image features, rather than high level face properties.
Poster
Full-text available
The Functional Model of Kitsch and Art by Ortlieb and Carbon (2019) predicts that whatever affects one’s sense of security and self-efficacy will also modulate one’s appreciation of familiar, perfectly unambiguous stimuli with a positive emotional charge. We thus expect people with different anxiety-related coping styles to show different reactions...
Poster
Full-text available
When Gustav Theodor Fechner (1876) devised the research agenda of “empirical aesthetics,” he envisioned an experimental down-to-earth complement (“aesthetic from below”) to highbrowed philosophical speculation with its predilection for the arts and its disregard for everyday phenomena (“aesthetic from above”). Although Fechner’s experimental approa...
Poster
Full-text available
“There is a crack in everything. That’s how the light gets in.” These lines from Leonard Cohen’s ‘Anthem’ remind us that insight, the glimpse of ideal concepts, can be evoked by imperfection. Art has, over the centuries, incorporated ‘cracks’ to open our eyes for invisible ideas: deliberate imperfections in Gothic cathedrals, the concept of Baroque...
Article
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People often draw trait assessments of unfamiliar persons on the basis of minimal visual information like facial features. Most studies focus on explicit person evaluations, even though automatic processes of perception are the underlying basis. Furthermore, previous experiments on automatic processes only address very general levels of association...
Article
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Driving a car is a highly visual task. Despite the trend towards increased driver assistance and autonomous vehicles, drivers still need to interact with the car for both driving and non-driving relevant tasks, at times simultaneously. The often-resulting high cognitive load is a safety issue, which can be addressed by providing the driver with alt...
Conference Paper
Haptic feedback is a crucial part of secure and easy to operate automotive user interfaces. These interfaces are changing through surface-integrated buttons and switches, allowing higher degrees of freedom in haptic design. Passive haptic shapes not only enable the ease of finding control elements without looking, but also aid in the identification...
Conference Paper
Active haptic feedback technologies are increasingly used in user interface. However, the relation between technical haptic parameters and the corresponding haptic experience is unclear. This initial study attempts to better understand how active haptic feedback is characterized to aid in user interface development. 26 Participants have each descri...
Article
Full-text available
When continuously viewing multistable displays, which are compatible with several comparably likely interpretations, perception perpetually switches between available alternatives. Prior studies typically report the lack of consistent individual switch rates across different displays. However, this comparison is based on an assumption that neural r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Faces provide not only cues to an individual's identity, age, gender and ethnicity, but also insight into their mental states. The ability to identify the mental states of others is known as Theory of Mind. Here we present results from a study aimed at extending our understanding of differences in the temporal dynamics of the recognition of express...
Article
Full-text available
With the advent of modernity, change and novelty have become the core values of artistic production. At the same time the derogatory term "kitsch" was coined to contrast truly groundbreaking artistic achievements. In this article, we argue that kitsch and avant-garde art ideally represent two complementary types of aesthetic experience: a fluent on...
Article
Art experience means the rich experience of artistic objects that are mostly embedded in situational, social, and cultural contexts: for instance when encountering art in art galleries or museums. Art experience lets us reflect on the content, the style, and the artist behind the artwork—moreover, it lets us reflect about the percept, perception, t...
Article
Perceptual insight, like recognizing hidden figures, increases the appreciation of visually perceived objects.We examined this Aesthetic Aha paradigm in the haptic domain. Participants were thinking aloud during haptic exploration of 11 visually nonaccessible panels. They explored them again evaluating them on liking, pleasingness, complexity, and...
Article
Although kitsch is one of the most important concepts of twentieth-century art theory, it has gone widely unnoticed by empirical aesthetics. In this article we make a case that the study of kitsch is of considerable heuristic value for both empirical aesthetics and art perception. As a descriptive term, kitsch appears like a perfect example of hedo...
Chapter
In seiner Abhandlung Vom Erhabenen und Schönen verknüpft der Philosoph Edmund Burke (1757) die Begriffe des Schönen und des Erhabenen mit gängigen Vorstellungen von einem „schönen“ und einem „starken“ Geschlecht. Indem er das Schöne auf ein Bindungsbedürfnis und das Erhabene auf ein Bedürfnis nach Selbstbehauptung zurückführt, stellt er einen Zusam...
Article
The variety of fruits and vegetables in today's supermarkets is enormous. We investigated how color may lead consumers to anticipate differences in product properties. Forty volunteers rated the expected properties for carrots with different colors presented in pictures, together with their familiarity, purchase intention, and intended preparation...