Claus Bässler

Claus Bässler
Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald · Naturschutz und Forschung

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201
Publications
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5,516
Citations
Citations since 2016
131 Research Items
4804 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (201)
Article
Full-text available
Aim Global warming is assumed to restructure mountain insect communities in space and time. Theory and observations along climate gradients predict that insect abundance and richness, especially of small‐bodied species, will increase with increasing temperature. However, the specific responses of single species to rising temperatures, such as spati...
Article
The patterns of successional change of decomposer communities is unique in that resource availability predictably decreases as decomposition proceeds. Saproxylic (i.e., deadwood‐dependent) beetles are a highly diverse and functionally important decomposer group, and their community composition is affected by both deadwood characteristics and other...
Article
Full-text available
Wood decomposition is a central process contributing to global carbon and nutrient cycling. Quantifying the role of the major biotic agents of wood decomposition, i.e. insects and fungi, is thus important for a better understanding of this process. Methods to quantify wood decomposition, such as dry mass loss, suffer from several shortcomings, such...
Article
Full-text available
Fungi are a hyper-diverse kingdom that contributes significantly to the regulation of the global carbon and nutrient cycle. However, our understanding of the distribution of fungal diversity is often hindered by a lack of data, especially on a large spatial scale. Open biodiversity data may provide a solution, but concerns about the potential spati...
Article
Full-text available
Recent global warming affects species compositions at an unprecedented rate. To predict climate-induced changes in species assemblages, a better understanding of the link between species occurrence and climate is needed. Macrofungal fruit body assemblages are correlated with the thermal environment at the European scale. However, it is still unknow...
Article
Full-text available
Recent global warming affects species compositions at an unprecedented rate. To predict climate-induced changes in species assemblages, a better understanding of the link between species occurrence and climate is needed. Macrofungal fruit body assemblages are correlated with the thermal environment at the European scale. However, it is still unknow...
Article
The response of biodiversity to natural and anthropogenic disturbances is a central topic in applied ecology. Climate change has altered forest disturbance regimes, resulting in global increases in stand-replacing disturbances, which are regularly followed by the removal of trees (salvage logging). Yet, the mid- to long-term effects of disturbances...
Article
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Climate change affects ecosystems worldwide and is threatening biodiversity. Insects, as ectotherm organisms, are strongly dependent on the thermal environment. Yet, little is known about the effects of summer heat and drought on insect diversity. In the Mediterranean climate zone, a region strongly affected by climate change, hot summers might hav...
Article
1. Conclusions reached in meta-analyses of changes in insect communities may be influenced by method-specific sampling biases, which may lead to inappropriate conservation measures. 2. We argue that the contradictory conclusions regarding terrestrial insect biomass, abundance and richness patterns are, at least partly, due to methodological limitat...
Article
Full-text available
The reduction of deadwood due to forest management threatens saproxylic diversity. Therefore, deadwood needs to be preserved and enriched. While the importance of deadwood tree identity is well investigated, the value of different object types and microclimate for diversity is insufficiently understood. Conservation-oriented forest management, ther...
Article
How many species can live in a specific habitat is a key question in conservation biology. Due to its heterogeneity, deadwood supports highly diverse communities. The total number of species related to deadwood is, however, underestimated by most empirical community studies. First, as most reports on saproxylic species richness do not relate the nu...
Article
Full-text available
Microclimate is a crucial driver of saproxylic beetle assemblages, with more species often found in sunny forests than in shady ones. Whether this pattern is caused by a higher detectability due to increased beetle activity under sunny conditions or a greater diversity of beetles emerging from sun-exposed deadwood remains unclear. This study examin...
Preprint
1.The patterns of successional change of decomposer communities is unique in that resource availability predictably decreases as decomposition proceeds. Saproxylic (i.e., deadwood-dependent) beetles are a highly diverse and functionally important decomposer group, and their community composition is affected by both deadwood characteristics and othe...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding species richness variation among local communities is one of the central topics in ecology, but the complex interplay of regional processes, environmental filtering and local processes hampers generalization on the importance of different processes. Here, we aim to unravel drivers of spider community assembly in temperate forests by a...
Article
Full-text available
Forest species are affected by macroclimate, however, the microclimatic variability can be more extreme and change through climate change. Fungal fruiting community composition was affected by microclimatic differences. Here we ask whether differences in the fruiting community can be explained by morphological traits of the fruit body, which may he...
Article
Identifying the spatial scales at which community assembly processes operate is fundamental for gaining a mechanistic understanding of the drivers shaping ecological communities. In this study, we examined whether and how traits and phylogenetic relationships structure fungal community assembly across spatial scales. We applied joint species distri...
Article
Full-text available
The amount of carbon stored in deadwood is equivalent to about 8 per cent of the global forest carbon stocks1. The decomposition of deadwood is largely governed by climate2–5 with decomposer groups—such as microorganisms and insects—contributing to variations in the decomposition rates2,6,7. At the global scale, the contribution of insects to the d...
Article
Forests host most terrestrial biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services, including the provision of drinking water. Increasing frequency and intensity of natural disturbances and subsequent salvage logging may impact both biodiversity and drinking-water quality. However, empirical evidence and particularly that generated from long-term...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Knowledge concerning species distribution is important for biodiversity conservation and environmental management. Fungi form a large and diverse group of species and play a key role in nutrient cycling and carbon storage. However, our understanding of fungal diversity and distribution remains limited, particularly at large spatial scales. Here...
Article
Full-text available
Poroid fungi that grow on the wood are frequently associated with other basidiomycetes that are often used as a substrate, also during fungal succession. This lifestyle has differing evolutionary origins, going back at least 100 million years. The use of fungal tissue as a substrate indicates that some fungicolous taxa could benefit from the higher...
Article
Full-text available
Nematodes represent a diverse and ubiquitous group of metazoans in terrestrial environments. They feed on bacteria, fungi, plants, other nematodes or parasitize a variety of animals and hence may be considered as active members of many food webs. Deadwood is a structural component of forest ecosystems which harbors many niches for diverse biota. As...
Article
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Analyses of species functional traits are suitable to better understand the coexistence of species in a given environment. Trait information can be applied to investigate diversity patterns along environmental gradients and subsequently to predict and mitigate threats associated with climate change and land use. Species traits are used to calculate...
Article
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Climate change causes increased tree mortality leading to canopy loss and thus sun‐exposed forest floors. Sun exposure creates extreme temperatures and radiation, with potentially more drastic effects on forest organisms than the current increase in mean temperature. Such conditions might potentially negatively affect the maturation of mushrooms of...
Article
Full-text available
Previous macroecological studies have suggested that larger and darker insects are favored in cold environments and that the importance of body size and color for the absorption of solar radiation is not limited to diurnal insects. However, whether these effects hold true for local communities and are consistent across taxonomic groups and sampling...
Article
Full-text available
Although macroecology is a well-established field, much remains to be learned about the large-scale variation of fungal traits. We conducted a global analysis of mean fruit body size of 59 geographical regions worldwide, comprising 5340 fungal species exploring the response of fruit body size to latitude, resource availability and temperature. The...
Article
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Aim Despite increasing interest in β-diversity, i.e. the spatial and temporal turnover of species, the mechanisms underlying species turnover at different spatial scales are not fully understood, although they likely differ among different functional groups. We investigated the relative importance of dispersal limitations and the environmental filt...
Article
Protected areas worldwide are important to maintaining biodiversity and providing recreational opportunities to society. However, many protected areas are affected by unprecedented, large and severe natural disturbances, like bark beetle outbreaks. Due to the contrasting responses of different taxonomic groups to disturbance events and largely nega...
Article
Full-text available
Fungi and prokaryotes are dominant colonizers of wood and mediate its decomposition. Much progress has been achieved to unravel these communities and link them to specific wood properties. However, comparative studies considering both groups of organisms and assessing their relationships to wood resources are largely missing. Bipartite interaction...
Chapter
Functional traits are widely recognized as a useful framework for testing mechanisms underlying species community assemblage patterns and ecosystem processes. While botanists have developed this field during the past 20 years, mycology still needs to catch up. Only during recent years, ecological research has begun to recognize the fundamental role...
Article
The development of fungal recording in the Bohemian Forest and its periphery since 1993. The Bohemian Forest (Bavarian Forest, Upper Palatinate Forest, and Šumava) is a hotspot of fungal diversity, a fact indicating the presence of near natural habitats. In 1993, the first fungal inventory of the Bavarian Forest National Park, including a few small...
Article
The different geographic origins of Baltic, Bitterfeld and Ukrainian ambers may be reflected in differences in their encased fungal spores and plant pollen. In this study, over 573 palynomorphs were isolated through solvent extraction and the differences in their morphological characteristics examined using conventional transmitted light microscopy...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
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Forests are increasingly affected by natural disturbances. Subsequent salvage logging, a widespread management practice conducted predominantly to recover economic capital, produces further disturbance and impacts biodiversity worldwide. Hence, naturally disturbed forests are among the most threatened habitats in the world, with consequences for th...
Article
Full-text available
Forests are increasingly affected by natural disturbances. Subsequent salvage logging, a widespread management practice conducted predominantly to recover economic capital, produces further disturbance and impacts biodiversity worldwide. Hence, naturally disturbed forests are among the most threatened habitats in the world, with consequences for th...
Article
Full-text available
Pilze sind weit artenreicher als Pflanzen. Sie spielen eine zentrale Rolle im Stoffhaushalt unserer Waldökosysteme, worüber wir aber noch sehr wenig wissen. Hier setzt die Pilzforschung im Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald seit 15 Jahren an.
Article
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The habitat heterogeneity hypothesis predicts that biodiversity increases with increasing habitat heterogeneity due to greater niche dimensionality. However, recent studies have reported that richness can decrease with high heterogeneity due to stochastic extinctions, creating trade-offs between area and heterogeneity. This suggests that greater co...
Article
The spores of most coprophilous mushrooms require passage through a mammalian gut. Guts and faeces constitute a chemically and microbially aggressive environment. Hence, the spores need to be armed, e.g. by melanisation and thick walls, possibly leading to large spores due to volume constraints. Conversely, litter is a less stressful substrate that...
Article
Full-text available
1. Land‐use intensification leads to loss and degradation of habitats and is thus a major driver of biodiversity loss. Restoration strategies typically focus on promoting biodiversity but often neglect that land‐use intensification could have changed the underlying mechanisms of community assembly. Since assembly mechanisms determine the diversity...
Article
Full-text available
The evolutionary split between gymnosperms and angiosperms has far‐reaching implications for the current communities colonizing trees. The inherent characteristics of dead wood include its role as a spatially scattered habitat of plant tissue, transient in time. Thus, local assemblages in deadwood forming a food web in a necrobiome should be affect...
Preprint
The spores of most coprophilous mushrooms require a passage through a mammalian gut. Guts and faeces constitute a chemically and microbially aggressive environment. Hence, the spores need to be armed, e.g. by melanisation and thick walls, possibly leading to large spores due to volume constraints. Fruiting takes place under fierce competition by mi...
Article
Unlike for many other organism groups, conservation translocations of fungi are still rare. Encouraged by recent successful translocations, there is a growing interest in applying this conservation tool to threatened wood-inhabiting fungi. When combined with other conservation or restoration measures, translocation can be an effective measure for p...
Article
Full-text available
Following natural disturbances, additional anthropogenic disturbance may alter community recovery by affecting the occurrences of species, functional groups and evolutionary lineages. However, our understanding is limited of whether rare, common, or dominant species, functional groups, or evolutionary lineages are most strongly affected by an addit...
Article
Full-text available
Recent progress in remote sensing provides much-needed, large-scale spatio-temporal information on habitat structures important for biodiversity conservation. Here we examine the potential of a newly launched satellite-borne radar system (Sentinel-1) to map the biodiversity of twelve taxa across five temperate forest regions in central Europe. We s...
Article
Bark protects living trees against environmental influences but may promote wood decomposition by fungi and bacteria after tree death. However, the mechanisms by which bark determines the assembly process and biodiversity of decomposers remain unknown. Therefore, we partially or completely removed bark from experimentally felled trees and tested wi...
Article
Humans have widely extirpated large carnivores and simultaneously promoted overabundance of deer. The intense pressure imposed by these herbivores in forests has led to extremely low rates of natural forest regeneration. In natural old-growth forests, deadwood functions as a key driver of biodiversity and promotes ecosystem functioning, such as wat...
Article
Full-text available
p>Thermal melanism theory states that dark-colored ectotherm organisms are at an advantage at low temperature due to increased warming. This theory is generally supported for ectotherm animals, however, the function of colors in the fungal kingdom is largely unknown. Here, we test whether the color lightness of mushroom assemblages is related to cl...
Article
Full-text available
Tree-killing bark beetles are the most economically important insects in conifer forests worldwide. However, despite >200 years of research, the drivers of population eruptions and crashes are still not fully understood and the existing knowledge is thus insufficient to face the challenges posed by the Anthropocene. We critically analyze potential...
Article
Full-text available
Aim The tinder fungus Fomes fomentarius is a pivotal wood decomposer in European beech Fagus sylvatica forests. The fungus, however, has regionally declined due to centuries of logging. To unravel biogeographical drivers of arthropod communities associated with this fungus, we investigated how space, climate and habitat amount structure alpha and b...
Article
Aim Beech forests comprise a globally unique temperate forest type in Europe. The dominance of beech in these forests developed during the ongoing post‐glacial northward re‐colonization, concurrently with intensified forest use by humans. We investigated how these two processes together with climate shaped the patterns of functional diversity of tw...
Article
Full-text available
Premise of the Study Fungal diversity (richness) trends at large scales are in urgent need of investigation, especially through novel situations that combine long‐term observational with environmental and remotely sensed open‐source data. Methods We modeled fungal richness, with collections‐based records of saprotrophic (decaying) and ectomycorrhi...
Data
APPENDIX S3. Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) for multiple comparisons in the types of dynamic land‐cover (ISAM‐HYDE), and whether there is a significant difference in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity. The significant differences are shaded by values less than 0.05 (orange) or 0.01 (red).
Data
APPENDIX S6. The full, initial model output during backward selection processing to predict species richness of saprotrophic fungi.
Data
APPENDIX S4. Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) for multiple comparisons in the types of dynamic land‐cover, and whether there is a significant difference in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity. The significant differences are shaded by values less than 0.05 (orange) or 0.01 (red).
Data
APPENDIX S10. The intermediate model output, with one covariate for each environmental group, for backward selection predicting species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi.
Data
APPENDIX S12. The patterns of the environmental covariate gradients of the data (shaded) are visible as used to predict richness (isolines) of saprotrophic fungi in central to northern Europe. All values are scaled. Lower values are lighter, grading to higher values that are darker.
Data
APPENDIX S13. The patterns of the environmental covariate gradients of the data (shaded) are visible as used to predict richness (isolines) of ectomycorrhizal fungi in central to northern Europe. All values are scaled. Lower values are lighter, grading to higher values that are darker.
Data
APPENDIX S1. Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) for multiple comparisons in the types of dynamic land‐cover (ISAM‐HYDE), and whether there is a significant difference in saprotrophic fungal diversity. The significant differences are shaded by values less than 0.05 (orange) or 0.01 (red).
Data
APPENDIX S5. Model specifications, as R script, used for model selection, for both forward and backward procedures. See Methods section for further information and details.
Data
APPENDIX S8. Collinearity correlations, here including easting and northing, between the remaining covariates selected for the final consensus regression model, for saprotrophic fungi. See Methods for further details.
Data
APPENDIX S2. Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) for multiple comparisons in the types of static land‐cover (CLC3), and whether there is a significant difference in saprotrophic fungal diversity. The significant differences are shaded by values less than 0.05 (orange) or 0.01 (red).
Data
APPENDIX S7. The intermediate model output, with one covariate for each environmental group, for backward selection predicting species richness of saprotrophic fungi.
Data
APPENDIX S11. Collinearity correlations, here including easting and northing, between the remaining covariates selected for the final consensus regression model, for ectomycorrhizal fungi. See Methods for further details.
Data
APPENDIX S14. The mean and range in each of the explanatory variables connected to the fruiting records, for the final consensus model for saprotrophic fungi, between each of the land‐use types of the dynamic (ISAM‐HYDE) variable. All variables are scaled.
Data
APPENDIX S9. The full, initial model output for backward selection predicting species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi.
Data
APPENDIX S15. The mean and range in each of the explanatory variables connected to the fruiting records, for the final consensus model for ectomycorrhizal fungi, between each of the land‐use types of the dynamic (ISAM‐HYDE) variable. All variables are scaled.
Article
Full-text available
Deadwood is an important structural component in forest ecosystems and plays a significant role in global carbon and nutrient cycling. Relatively little is known about the formation and decomposition of CWD by microbial communities in situ and about the factors controlling the associated processes. In this study, we intensively analyzed the molecul...
Data
3D non-metric multidimensional scaling (3D-NMDS). NMDS ordination of the most abundant fungal families colonizing 13 temperate European tree species. (TIFF)
Data
Overview of measured enzyme activities. The activities are given for samples from 13 temperate European tree species. (TIFF)
Data
Sequences of the primers used in this study. (PDF)
Data
Result of the goodness-of-fit-statistic (R2). The results are given for the abundant fungal families against the 3D-NMDS ordination of the fungal OTUs for all samples as well as for sapwood and heartwood. Shaded in grey: significance (uncorrected) p <0.05. (PDF)
Data
Spearman rank correlations (p-value and Rho (ϱ)) of fungal species richness with enzyme activities and wood parameters. Comparing all samples or sapwood and heartwood separately; Significance p <0.05 (uncorrected) is indicated by grey-shading. (PDF)
Data
Goodness-of-fit-statistic (R2). The results are given for enzyme activities and wood parameters against the 3D-NMDS ordination of the fungal OTUs for all samples as well as for sapwood and heartwood. Shaded in grey: significance (uncorrected) p <0.05. (PDF)
Data
Spearman rank correlations. Results are given for the most abundant fungal families and ecotypes to the measured extracellular enzymes. Shaded, significance p < 0.05 (uncorrected). (PDF)
Article
Wood-inhabiting fungi are one of the most important groups of organisms as they contribute substantially to carbon and nutrient cycles by decomposing dead wood. Current knowledge of their occurrence, distribution, and drivers of their diversity derives almost exclusively from temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. We sampled wood-inhabiting fungi...