Claudio Zaccone

Claudio Zaccone
University of Verona | UNIVR · Department of Biotechnology

Professor

About

168
Publications
38,121
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,373
Citations
Introduction
Claudio Zaccone is Associate Professor at the University of Verona, Italy. Main research interests: i) molecular and functional characterization of organic matter in soils and sediments, especially in relation to climate changes, ii) interactions between humic substances and organic/inorganic pollutants, iii) utilization of ombrotrophic profiles as archives of atmospheric depositions during centuries, iv) biomass utilization in agricultural soils. Main appointments: President, Soil System Sciences division, EGU; Vice Chair, Commission 4.1 "Soils and the Environments", IUSS; Associate Officer, IHSS.
Additional affiliations
November 2019 - November 2019
Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • “The soil: biotic and abiotic components” - Post-graduate Specialization in Mediterranean Organic Agriculture
November 2018 - November 2018
Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • “The soil: biotic and abiotic components” - Post-graduate Specialization in Mediterranean Organic Agriculture
October 2018 - January 2022
University of Verona
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Sustainable agriculture; Climate change and soil functions; Soil sciences

Publications

Publications (168)
Article
Full-text available
Peatland ecosystems are valued as natural archives of past climatic and vegetation changes and as such their study is essential for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions over millennia. Fires in peatlands are dominated by smouldering combustion which is the self-sustained, slow, low temperature, flameless form of burning. Most studies on peat fires t...
Article
Full-text available
Floating islands mysteriously moving around on lakes were described by several Latin authors almost two millennia ago. These fascinating ecosystems, known as free-floating mires, have been extensively investigated from ecological, hydrological and management points of view, but there have been no detailed studies of their rates of accumulation of o...
Article
The humification process is one of the least understood and most intriguing aspects of humus chemistry and vital to the global carbon (C) cycle. Peatlands represent the largest terrestrial reservoirs of organic C and support a unique biodiversity, but are also natural archives of climate and environmental changes. In fact, cores from ombrotrophic p...
Article
Full-text available
Drylands (hyperarid, arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid ecosystems) cover almost half of Earth’s land surface and are highly vulnerable to environmental pressures. Here we provide an inventory of soil properties including carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) stocks within the current boundaries of drylands, aimed at serving as a benchmark in...
Article
The role and distribution of iron (Fe) species in physical soil fractions has received remarkably little attention in field-scale systems. Here, we identify and quantify the Fe phases in two fractions (fine sand, FSa, and fine silt and clay, FSi+Cl), isolated from an agricultural soil non-amended and amended with different organic materials, by Fe...
Article
Iron (Fe) (oxyhydr)oxides represent a significant phase for the organic carbon (OC) stabilization. Due to their high surface areas, short-range-ordered Fe minerals, like ferrihydrite, show a higher ability to stabilize OC than crystalline secondary minerals, like lepidocrocite, goethite, and magnetite. However, how Fe phases and their crystallinity...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration as a function of time and depth. A chronosequence, consisting of two orders (T2 and T1) of the Adige river terraces (Veneto region, North of Italy) and 3 sites (Q2, Q3, and Q4), has been investigated. The highest and oldest terrace (T1) is located in Mo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Drought and surface water ponding (DSP) are one of the major natural hazards affecting crop production, especially in low-land irrigated areas. This work focus on an irrigated area in northeastern Italy, a territory of about 400k ha, part of the central Veneto, where water demands is met through a mechanical and well-regulated widespread distributi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The knowledge of the viscosity of magmas as a function of melt composition and temperature is central in the numerical modeling of the magmatic dynamics and eruptive scenarios. Recent studies suggest that the measure of the viscosity of volcanic melts is affected by the occurrence of nano-scale modification (i.e., crystallization) of the melt struc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this work was to understand of how parent material and plant cultivar interactively control soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and stabilization in vineyards. Three experimental vineyards located in the Valpolicella area (North of Italy) were investigated. These sites were very close each other and, consequently, characterized by the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Peatlands are a major carbon (C) sink and represent important habitats for nature conservation because of the occurrence of specifically adapted organisms. Peatlands are typically nutrient-poor environments, and thus extremely sensitive to nitrogen (N) depositions. In fact, increasing N inputs can cause a shift from a Sphagnum moss-to a vascular pl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A 3-m thick sediment was found in a limestone mine located in the Apulia region (south of Italy), at a depth of 25-30 m from the current ground level. Samples from 5 layers were investigated by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the iron (Fe) K-edge, paired with Raman spectroscopy...
Article
Full-text available
We report the first example of very efficient NIR Circularly Polarized Luminescence (CPL) (around 970 nm) in water, obtained thanks to the combined use of a chiral Yb complex and of poly lactic‐co‐glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. [Yb L (tta) 2 ]CH 3 COO ( L = N, N’‐bis(2‐pyridylmethylidene)‐1,2‐( R,R + S,S ) cyclohexanediamine and tta = 2‐thenoy...
Chapter
The natural sources of soil organic matter are indigenous plant, animal, and microbial debris continuously produced during organism turnover and biological cycles occurring in the soil. This chapter provides an up‐to‐date brief review of the composting process and compost production; and the chemical, spectroscopic, thermal, biological, biochemical...
Article
Full-text available
The identification of iron (Fe) forms throughout a sediment sequence was investigated by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the Fe K-edge, paired with Raman micro-spectroscopy. The contribution of different organic and inorganic Fe-bearing compounds was quantified by Linear Combin...
Article
A 3-m thick sediment sequence, found in a limestone mine located in the south of Italy at a depth of ca. 25–30 m from the current ground level, was investigated. Samples from 5 layers were analysed by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and micromorphology. Microbial DNA was analysed by 16S rRNA gene...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Legacy data are unique occasions for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration changes and spatial variability, but their use showed limitations due to the sampling schemes adopted and improvements may be needed in the analysis methodologies. When SOC changes is estimated with legacy data, the use of soil samples collected in d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cattle grazing and trampling is a cause of peatland degradation resulting in peat compaction, shift in plant and microbial community composition, and N inputs in form of excreta. In Alpine peatlands overgrazing has been identified as a main problem for habitat integrity and biodiversity. In the present work, 50-cm deep Belarus cores were collected...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A 3-m thick sediment was found in a limestone mine located in the southern part of the Gargano Promontory, Apulia region (south of Italy), at a depth of ca. 25-30 m from the current ground level. Samples from 5 layers were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), elementar analysis (CHNS), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Micr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The application of biochar is presumed to be a climate change mitigation strategy in agriculture. However, we still need to better understand the effects of biochar application on soil properties, particularly on soil microbial activity. This is because soil microorganisms play a key role in ecosystems functioning, as they have a central role in so...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Legacy data are frequently unique sources of data for the estimation of past soil properties. With the rising concerns about greenhouse gases (GHG) emission and soil degradation due to intensive agriculture and climate change effects, soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration might change heavily over time. When SOC changes is estimated with legacy d...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of protozoan parasite, bacterial communities, organic pollutants and heavy metals was investigated in free-ranging species of fin (Balaenoptera physalus, n. 2) and sperm (Physeter macrocephalus, n. 2) whales from the Pelagos Sanctuary, Corsican-Ligurian Provencal Basin (Northern-Western Mediterranean Sea). Out of four faecal samples...
Article
Lakes and lake sediments are significant components of the global carbon (C) cycle, and may store very large amounts of organic matter. Carbon sequestration in lakes is subject to substantial temporal and spatial variation and may be strongly affected by human activities. Here, we report accumulation rates (AR) of organic C (OC), total nitrogen (TN...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Legacy data are unique occasions for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration changes and spatial variability, but their use can pose limitations due to the sampling schemes adopted and improvements may be needed in the analysis methodologies. When SOC changes is estimated with legacy data, the use of soil samples collected in...
Article
The Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of ferrihydrite into highly crystalline forms may represent an important pathway for soil organic matter (SOM) destabilization under moderately reducing conditions. However, the link between redox-driven changes in soil Fe mineral composition and crystallinity, and SOM chemical properties in the field remains elu...
Article
Full-text available
Northern peatlands sequester carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) over millennia, at variable rates that depend on climate, environmental variables and anthropogenic activity. The ombrotrophic peatlands of central and northern Alberta (Canada) have developed under variable climate conditions during the last hundreds to thousands of years, while in the cours...
Article
A recent paper by Miszczak et al. (2020) examines metal contamination in mires in Poland and Norway. The authors conclude that lead (Pb) records in ombrotrophic peatlands cannot be used to reconstruct the chronological history of anthropogenic activities due to post-depositional mobility of the metal. We contest this general conclusion which stands...
Article
Full-text available
Background: An insight into the molecular composition of ombrotrophic peats of different geographical origin and collected at different depths was achieved by the humeomics method. The humeomic fractionation allowed the separation of molecular components in either organic solvents or water on the basis of their progressive binding strength to the h...
Article
Full-text available
The First Joint Meeting on Soil and Plant System Sciences (SPSS 2019), titled “Natural and Human-Induced Impacts on the Critical Zone and Food Production”, aimed at integrating different scientific backgrounds and topics flowing into the Critical Zone, where chemical, biological, physical, and geological processes work together to support life on t...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to reconstruct vegetation development, climate changes and human impact using an ombrotrophic peat core from the Coltrondo bog in the eastern Italian Alps. Evidence from pollen, micro-charcoal, major and trace elements , and lead isotopes from this 7,900 years old peat deposit has been combined, and several climatic oscillati...
Article
Iron (Fe) speciation in soils is highly dependent on environmental conditions, mineralogy, and chemical interactions with soil organic matter (SOM). The fine silt and clay (FSi + Cl) particle size fraction of soils constitutes a primary organo-mineral fraction and contains SOM with long turnover time. In this study, the FSi + Cl particle size fract...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In a previous study (Zaccone et al., 2018. Appl. Soil Ecol. 130, 134-142), we evaluated the potential ecological partition of microbial and plant DNA across soil organic matter (SOM) fractions linked to conceptual stabilization mechanisms. We found that different microbial taxa (bacterial and fungal) seem to be specifically associated to SOM fracti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Biochar application is now considered to be one of the most promising agricultural practices to mitigate climate change. However, to fully assess the benefits of biochar, we still need to better understand its effects on soil properties, and particularly on native soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics. In this work, we investigated soil respiration an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Redox-driven changes in Fe crystallinity and speciation may affect soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization and carbon (C) turnover, with consequent influence on global terrestrial soil organic carbon (SOC) cycling. Under reducing conditions, increasing concentrations of Fe(II) released in solution from the reductive dissolution of Fe (hydr)oxides m...
Article
Full-text available
A natural Mn mineral, i.e., todorokite [(Ca,Na,K)X(Mn4+,Mn3+)6O12•3.5H2O], has been collected in the Apulia region, south of Italy, and evaluated as oxidation catalyst for degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye. This Mn-todorokite mineral has been firstly characterised by X-ray diffraction, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence, BET, scanning ele...
Article
Elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been observed with rapid agricultural and industrial development in the Songnen Plain, Northeast China, but the prospective sources have not been yet apportioned. The concentration of PAHs was measured in 31 sediment samples from 11 Songnen Plain lakes in 2015. The background f...
Conference Paper
Fin and sperm whale Mediterranean populations are classified respectively as vulnerable and endangered in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List and potentially threatened by both infectious diseases and anthropogenic factors. Parasites, bacteria, as well as organic and inorganic pollutants, are considered among the main causes...
Article
Full-text available
Physical fractionation methods used in soil organic matter (SOM) research commonly include density-based procedures with heavy liquids to separate SOM pools with varying turnover rates and functions. Once separated, the heavy SOM pools are often thoroughly rinsed with water to wash off any residues of the heavy liquids. Using four soils with contra...
Article
Soil organic matter (SOM) protection, stability and long-term accumulation are controlled by several factors, including sorption onto mineral surfaces. Iron (Fe) has been suggested as a key regulator of SOM stability, both in acidic conditions, where Fe(III) is soluble, and in near-neutral pH environments, where it precipitates as Fe(III) (hydr)oxi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The humification process is one of the most intriguing aspects of humus chemistry, especially in waterlogged areas such as peatlands. Structural changes of organic matter occurring in peat during humification have been often evaluated by indirect measurements of the degree of humification. Several methods have been published and a wide variety of t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Restoring humus in soil represents a key factor for improving soil quality. Digestates from anaerobic digestion (AD) can be successfully applied as soil amendments. Here, we investigated changes of the organic matter (OM) composition of digestates from solid-state anaerobic digestion (AD) of straw and pig slurry at different percolate recirculation...
Article
The persistence of soil organic matter (SOM) constituents as a function of their recalcitrance has been recently questioned, with several papers showing the influence of the combined action of physical protection and chemical stabilization mechanisms as the main factors affecting SOM mean residence time. Using a physical fractionation method, SOM l...
Article
A safe and functional application of digestate in agriculture requires an in-depth scientific knowledge of its nature in order to speculate about possible impacts on the soil-plant system, as well as on the surrounding environment. As all soil amendments, digestate should consist of stabilized organic matter (OM) in order to avoid phenomena includi...
Article
High-resolution studies of peat profiles are frequently undertaken to investigate natural and anthropogenic disturbances over time. However, overlapping profiles of the most commonly applied age-dating techniques, including 14C and 210Pb, often show significant offsets (>decadal) and biases that can be difficult to resolve. Here we investigate vari...
Article
Full-text available
Wood-tar is a liquid material obtained by wood gasification process, and comprises several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Tar biodegradation is a very challenging task, due to its toxicity and to its complex chemistry. The 'microbial resource management' concerns the use of environmental microbial communities potentially able to provide us...
Article
Testate amoebae are abundant in the surface layers of northern peatlands. Analysis of their fossilized shell (test) assemblages allows for reconstructions of local water‐table depths (WTD). We have reconstructed WTD dynamics for five peat cores from peatlands ranging in distance from the Athabasca bituminous sands (ABS) region in western Canada. Am...
Article
Full-text available
Accrual of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil is a significant and realizable management option to mitigate climate change; thus, a clear understanding of the mechanisms controlling the persistence of C and N in soil organic matter (SOM) across different ecosystems has never been more needed. Here we investigated SOM distribution between physicall...
Article
Arsenic (As) occurs in soils mostly in inorganic forms, whereas the organic forms usually occur only in trace amounts. Peatlands are waterlogged, generally anoxic, organic soils representing the first step in coal formation; the contribution of organic vs. inorganic As species in this environment has received little research attention. Here, 57 pea...
Chapter
Drylands are regions with low rainfall, high temperatures and very high evapotranspiration, as well as limited plant biomass production. Covering more than 45% of the Earth’s land surface and being inhabited by more than 35% of the world population, drylands are of paramount importance for global sustainability. Among the many factors that influenc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soil organic matter (SOM) protection, stability, and long-term accumulation are controlled by several factors, including adsorption onto mineral surfaces and pedo-climatic conditions. Iron (Fe) oxides have been suggested as a key regulator in the soil organic carbon (SOC) cycle; however, Fe speciation in soils is highly dependent on environmental c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soil organic carbon dynamics are affected by climate change and are important for the buildup of soil organic matter (SOM) pools with long residence time in soils. Additionally, iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide minerals also influence SOM dynamics and have been suggested as an important phase for the stabilization of SOM. Using state-of-the-art synchrotron-ba...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is released into the soil by excretion from microorganisms, plants and animals or by lysis of dying cells. So that, it is likely that extracellular free DNA in soil is rapidly digested by soil nuclease activity if soil conditions are suitable. At the same time, DNA is also capable of being incorporated in humic molecules...
Article
Sphagnum mosses were collected from four ombrotrophic bogs in two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and, one year later, plant matter was harvested and productivity determined. Major and trace element concentrat...
Article
In his Letter to Editor, Delarue (2016) suggests that our observation of increased microbial activity cannot adequately explain the observed changes in peat chemistry (Bragazza et al., 2016). Shortly, he argues that our interpretation of the results does not account for the plant cover dynamics, and/or the preferential decomposition of labile polys...