Claudio Gnoli

Claudio Gnoli
University of Pavia | UNIPV · Science and Technology Library

MS

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97
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Introduction
Researching principles of *knowledge organization* and their application in any printed, digital, or material form. For complete list of works and full texts please see http://mate.unipv.it/gnoli/worksy.php

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
has been working as a librarian since 1994, and is currently at the Mathematics depart-ment of University of Pavia, Italy. His main interest is in theory of classification and its digital applica-tions. He is chair of the ISKO Italy chapter. Roberto Poli (1955) is Assistant Professor at the University of Trento (Italy). He obtained a Ph.D. in Philo...
Article
Facets and general categories used in bibliographic classification have been based on a disciplinary organization of knowledge. However, facets and categories of phenomena independent from disciplines can be identified similarly. Phenomena can be classified according to a series of integrative levels (layers), which in turn can be grouped into the...
Article
In free classification, each concept is expressed by a constant notation, and classmarks are formed by free combinations of them, allowing the retrieval of records from a database by searching any of the component concepts. A refinement of free classification is freely faceted classification, where notation can include facets, expressing the kind o...
Article
Full-text available
Most existing knowledge organization systems (KOS) are based on disciplines. However, as research is increasingly multidisciplinary, scholars need tools allowing them to explore relations between phenomena throughout the whole spectrum of knowledge. We focus on the dependence relationship, holding between one phenomenon and those at lower integrati...
Chapter
Chapter 8 by Marcin Trzmielewski and Claudio Gnoli is a joint contribution on the evolution of medical knowledge organization systems (MKOS) for the 1960s to 2019. These researchers are both specialists in knowledge organization, a field of activity and research that focuses on the design, study and critique of methods for organizing and representi...
Chapter
The Integrative Levels Classification (ILC) lists phenomena of the real world rather than disciplines. This poses various challenges to represent in ILC fictional, hypothetical or metaphysical entities that are not listed among ordinary “phenomena”. One device to address this are ILC deictic classes for “reality/being”, “the present” and “the exist...
Article
In traditional classification, fictional works are indexed only by their form, genre, and language, while their subject content is believed to be irrelevant. However, recent research suggests that this may not be the best approach. We tested indexing of a small sample of selected fictional works by Integrative Levels Classification (ILC2), a freely...
Article
Purpose The Integrative Levels Classification (ILC) is a comprehensive “freely faceted” knowledge organization system not previously expressed as SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System). Design/methodology/approach The design of the ILC representation and the various steps in the conversion to SKOS are described and located within the context...
Article
Faceted knowledge organization systems have sophisticated logical structures, making their representation as linked data a demanding task. The term facet is often used in ambiguous ways: while in thesauri facets only work as semantic categories, in classification schemes they also have syntactic functions. The need to convert the Integrative Levels...
Book
Cambridge Core - General - Introduction to Knowledge Organization - by Claudio Gnoli
Conference Paper
The ontological approach in the development of KOS is an attempt to overcome the limitations of the traditional epistemological approach. Questions raise about the representation and organization of ontologically-oriented KO units, such as BFO universals or ILC phenomena. The study aims to compare the ontological approaches of BFO and ILC using a h...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper informs about the publication of the second edition of the Integrative Levels Classification (ILC2), a freely-faceted knowledge organization system (KOS), and reviews the main changes that have been introduced as compared to its first edition (ILC1). Design/methodology/approach The most relevant changes are illustrated, with spe...
Chapter
The ontological approach in the development of KOS is an attempt to overcome the limitations of the traditional epistemological approach. Questions raise about the representation and organization of ontologically-oriented KO units, such as BFO universals or ILC phenomena. The study aims to compare the ontological approaches of BFO and ILC using a h...
Chapter
The proceedings explore knowledge organization systems and their role in knowledge organization, knowledge sharing, and information searching. The papers cover a wide range of topics related to knowledge transfer, representation, concepts and conceptualization, social tagging, domain analysis, music classification, fiction genres, museum organizati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
[French abstract] Cette réflexion propose une évaluation de l’Integrative Levels Classification (ILC) en vue d’organiser des données ouvertes de la recherche en sciences humaines et sociales. Elle s’appuie sur une analyse des propriétés de l’ILC par rapport aux pratiques, usages et contexte de partage et de médiation des données. Les résultats obte...
Presentation
Full-text available
Allergy is a major health issue in our society in terms of care and prevention. Several actors play a role in dealing with such condition, including health professionals, public authorities, and patients. The information that is useful to them is abundant and heterogeneous. Healthcare providers from the Allergy Unit of the University Hospital of Mo...
Article
Purpose The current debate between two theoretical approaches in library and information science and knowledge organization (KO), the cognitive one and the sociological one, is addressed in view of their possible integration in a more general model. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach Personal knowledge of individ...
Article
This is the fourth in a series of papers on classification based on phenomena instead of disciplines. Together with types, levels and facets that have been discussed in the previous parts, themes and rhemes are further structural components of such a classification. In a statement or in a longer document, a base theme and several particular themes...
Article
Notations are systems of symbols that can be combined according to syntactical rules to represent meanings in a specialized domain. In knowledge organization, they are systems of numerals, letters and punctuation marks associated to a concept that mechanically produce helpful sequences of them for arranging books on shelves, browsing subjects in di...
Article
Among many clever innovations, the pioneer of faceted classifications, S.R. Ranganathan, introduced a structural model called APUPA (Alien-Penumbral-Umbral-Penumbral-Alien). This model can be visualized in the form of a bell curve. APUPA is commonly cited as an ideal shape resulting from the arrangement of works according to the principles of facet...
Article
The gradual adoption by the University of Pavia libraries of the classified shelving based on the Dewey Decimal Classification is presented. This has allowed developing the browsing interface SciGator, which offers the possibility to browse through the subjects in the libraries and launch searches in the OPAC catalogue for documents shelved by thei...
Article
Full-text available
During the nineties of the last Century, under the inspiration of Luigi Cagnolaro, it had been founded a “Sciurus group”, within the Research Centres of the Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali. Aim of the group was to start a campaign of researches on red squirrel populations in Lombardy, Italy promoting field master thesis on various topics: colo...
Chapter
Existing classification systems such as the Library of Congress (LCC) or Dewey Decimal (DDC) benefit from over a century of refinement. It is thus no simple task to develop a novel classification that might supersede (or simply complement) these. Knapp (2012) is one scholar who applauds the sort of classification being urged in this book, but worri...
Chapter
Chapter 2 closed with a list of the desired attributes of knowledge organization systems (KOSs) for interdisciplinarity. This chapter opens with a brief survey of KOSs, and then asks what sort of KOS could provide these desired attributes. In particular, it provides arguments for the theses that:
Chapter
We have already in preceding chapters addressed some of the critiques that might be lodged against the project of a comprehensive classification grounded in phenomena rather than disciplines. The purpose of this chapter is to bring together in one place our responses to these critiques.
Chapter
Previous chapters have developed an argument that interdisciplinary scholarship (in particular) would benefit from an approach to classification grounded in phenomena rather than disciplines. It might seem that such a recommendation represents a strong break with traditions in the field of classification research. Yet this is not the case. This cha...
Chapter
We open this chapter by summarizing the conclusions reached in the preceding nine chapters. We then discuss avenues for further research, and also for public policy. We close with some reflections on the place of knowledge organization in the world.
Chapter
We have often in preceding chapters stressed the complementarity of domain analysis with the sort of comprehensive classification advocated in this book. A classification such as we have proposed will work for scholars from different domains only if the terminology of those domains has been accurately translated into the terminology employed within...
Chapter
This chapter begins with several strategies for developing the sort of general classification urged in preceding chapters. It first discusses strategies for reducing ambiguity. It then addresses how to structure a phenomenon-based KOS. Integrative levels, dependence relationships, and general systems theory are explored. The chapter then looks in s...
Chapter
We begin this chapter by outlining a set of interdisciplinary information needs derived from our discussion in Chap. 1. We then discuss each of these in turn. We close the chapter by discussing how disciplinary scholars would be affected by the adoption of KOSs that met interdisciplinary needs.
Chapter
This book will investigate the possibility that a new approach to knowledge organization is better suited to a contemporary academy characterized by an increased emphasis on interdisciplinarity. The knowledge organization systems (KOSs) that are most widely used in the world were developed when a discipline-based view of the universe of knowledge w...
Chapter
With the broad outlines of a novel classification sketched in previous chapters, it is useful to note in this chapter that—while this approach to classification has its challenges—such a classification would have many advantages for classificationist, classifier, and user. We review first the advantages for scholarly users, and then for general use...
Book
This book proposes a novel approach to classification, discusses its myriad advantages, and outlines how such an approach to classification can best be pursued. It encourages a collaborative effort toward the detailed development of such a classification. This book is motivated by the increased importance of interdisciplinary scholarship in the aca...
Article
This is the first part of a study on the classification of phenomena. It starts by addressing the status of classification schemes among knowledge organization systems (KOSs), as some features of them have been overlooked in recent reviews of KOS types. It then considers the different dimensions implied in a KOS, which include: the observed phenome...
Chapter
Die 14. Internationale Konferenz der International Society for Knowledge Organization fand vom 27. bis 29. September 2016 in Rio de Janeiro statt. Der vorliegende Tagungsband untersucht in über siebzig Beiträgen von Wissenschaftlern aus aller Welt die Perspektiven und Herausforderungen der Wissensorganisation in einer und für eine nachhaltige Welt.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The subject proposed for discussion during this panel consisted in evaluating the role of digital humanities from the point of view of specific disciplinary research practices. The first analyzed discipline, involved in the digital humanities practices and theories, is Knowledge Organization (section 2); the second is Archaeological Computing (sect...
Article
Full-text available
The principal aim of this research was to study coarsescale habitat selection and distribution of main setts of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles L., 1758). The study area extends for 161 Km2 in the hilly territory of southern Lombardy (Italy). The positions of 23 main setts (SP) and 28 random points (RP) were mapped into a GIS. For each point, seve...
Article
Purpose – The different senses of the term information in physical, biological and social interpretations, and the possibility of connections between them, are addressed. Special attention is paid to Hofkirchner's Unified Theory of Information (UTI), proposing an integrated view in which the notion of information gets additional properties as one m...
Article
Marc Bloch's famous methodological essay, The Historian's Craft, contains many relevant considerations on knowledge organization. These have been selected and grouped into four main themes: terminology problems in history; principles for the organization of historical knowledge, with special reference to the genetic principle; sources of historical...
Article
The spread of many new media and formats is changing the scenario faced by knowledge organizers: as printed monographs are not the only standard form of knowledge carrier anymore, the traditional kind of knowledge organization (KO) systems based on academic disciplines is put into question. A sounder foundation can be provided by an analysis of the...
Article
The field of knowledge organization (KO) can be described as composed of the four distinct but connected layers of theory, systems, representation, and application. This paper focuses on the relations between KO theory and KO systems. It is acknowledged how the structure of KO systems is the product of a mixture of ontological, epistemological, and...
Article
Three major principles in the structure of knowledge organization systems are identified and discussed: hierarchical trees of types, sets of facets conforming to general categories, and series of levels of reality. Each principle can be present at various degrees in different systems. The three principles can interact between them in various ways,...
Article
Although bibliographic classifications usually adopt a perspective different from that of object classifications, the two have obvious relationships. These become especially relevant when users are looking for knowledge scattered in a wide variety of forms and media. This is an increasingly common situation, as library catalogues now coexist in the...
Article
Full-text available
Most scholarship, and almost all interdisciplinary scholarship, involves the investigation of causal relationships among phenomena. Yet existing classification systems in widespread use have not focused on classifying works in terms of causal relationships. In order to allow all users interested in a particular causal link to readily find (only) al...
Article
Full-text available
The Integrative Level Classification (ILC) research project is experimenting with a knowledge organization system based on phenomena rather than disciplines. Each phenomenon has a constant notation, which can be combined with that of any other phenomenon in a freely faceted structure. Citation order can express differential focality of the facets....
Article
Research can benefit by periodical consideration of its status in a long-term perspective. In knowledge organization (KO), a number of basic questions remain to be addressed in the 21st century. Ten of them are identified and synthetically discussed: (1) Can KO principles be extended to a broader scope, including hypertexts, multimedia, museum obje...
Article
Full-text available
Trends in Italian opacs seen through the MAI. This paper focuses on the recent evolution of Italian online catalogues, analyzed through statistical data from the Italian Azalai Metaopac (MAI), born in 1999 as an evolution of Riccardo Ridi’s Italian opac directory http://www.aib.it/aib/opac/opac1.htm. Indeed, MAI is based on a database where Italian...
Article
Full-text available
The present article suggests a comparison between the Ranganathan's PMEST categories and the categories of Vaisesika - one of the six orthodox schools of Indian philosophy - which is devoted to the analysis of the basic components of perceptible reality. Similar categories are present within the Indo-European linguistic and cultural context in diff...
Article
One general principle in the construction of classification schemes is that of grouping phenomena to be classified according to their shared origin in evolution or history (phylogenesis). In general schemes, this idea has been applied by several classificationists in identifying a series of integrative levels, each originated from the previous ones...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Many people are quite dissatisfied with existing online search systems, especially since they don't give the feeling of "browsing the shelves" that one gets in a library (Flamenco Group 2002). In particular, recent usability tests with users ([Postai 2004]) show that people cannot find all the information they need in Italian public ad...
Article
Full-text available
Mathematical tools such as graph theory and coding theory ca be useful in modeling knowledge for classification schemes and taxonomies. Especially relevant is the possibility of reaching the same node through different paths (absorption), which happens in faceted classifications but at a limited extent also in enumerative schemes through various ki...
Article
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Il presente studio è parte di una ricerca promossa dal Centro Studi Faunistica dei Vertebrati della SISN. Il progetto è iniziato nel 1999 ed è ancora in corso. L'area di studio (161 Km²) si trova nella zona collinare dell'Oltrepò ed è compresa, sul reticolato cartografico UTM, tra i Km 4972 e 4960 Nord, e i Km 1505 e 1520 Est. Lo scopo pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Il Tasso è presente nell'Oltrepò Pavese sia nell'area collinare che in quella montana. Sono state avviate ricerche sulla specie nella media valle Staffora e nelle valli affluenti, in un territorio dalla superficie di 180 Km2, compreso fra 300 e 800 m di altitudine s.l.m., caratterizzato da un uso del suolo principalmente agricolo e boschivo e da un...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Sciurus Group was formed in 1992 by members of thè Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali and collaborators of thè Naturai History Museum of Milan. The aim of thè research group was to increase thè knowledge about thè ecology of thè red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), a species threatened by thè expansion of thè introduced grey squirrel (Sciurus car...
Article
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Abstract The study was conducted on captive otters (Lutra lutra) in a large enclosure (1.64 ha in area). Data on different kind of sounds related to specific behaviours were recorded by videocamera. Furthermore, sounds were collected by tape recorder, analysed by spectrograph and represented by spectrograms. A general pattern of the vocalizations o...
Article
The author explains some general principles in structuring classifications, in particular the facet as a basic building element of the scheme. The paper provides an overview of structural and presentational elements of facets and how these can be expressed through notational system. The author also analyses the way some broad fundamental facets of...
Article
Many information seekers -- and sometimes librarians themselves -- abandoned card catalogs and rushed to embrace the reach and simplicity of full-text search when Altavista, Google, and other search engines burst onto the scene. But the value of library classification systems and indexing of content by subjects did not suddenly expire. In fact, dev...
Article
Full-text available
During the 1960s the Classification Research Group explored the possibility of a general "freely faceted" classification scheme, based on the theory of integrative levels. We have experimented the application of such kind of scheme to a bibliography of local culture. Its notation, designed in order to allow efficient machine retrieval of bibliograp...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The goal of this project is to develop SciGator, a DDC-based browsing library interface.
Project
The projet aims to assess informational practices and needs of physicians specialized in allergy and to develop a knowledge organization model in this medical field.
Project
Exploring classification by phenomena instead of disciplines