Claudio Gentili

Claudio Gentili
University of Padova | UNIPD · Department of General Psychology

MD. PhD

About

152
Publications
38,842
Reads
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3,873
Citations
Citations since 2017
68 Research Items
2599 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
November 2010 - present
Università di Pisa
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (152)
Article
Full-text available
Emotional styles concern the ways in which individuals adapt and respond to the world and can be defined using six dimensions: outlook, resilience, social intuition, self-awareness, sensitivity to context and attention. The Emotional Style Questionnaire (ESQ) assesses how people vary across the dimensions and gauges an individual’s overall level of...
Article
The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the experience of insomnia symptoms per se and symptoms of insomnia due to stress are associated with an increased brain response to the presentation of emotional faces. In addition, we also examined whether the effect of these sleep difficulties on emotional reactivity at the brain level depe...
Article
The widespread popularity of Machine Learning (ML) models in healthcare solutions has increased the demand for their interpretability and accountability. In this paper, we propose the Physiologically-Informed Gaussian Process ( PhGP ) classification model, an interpretable machine learning model founded on the Bayesian nature of Gaussian Process...
Conference Paper
Increasing attention has recently been devoted to the multidisciplinary investigation of functional brain-heart interplay (BHI), which has provided meaningful insights in neuroscience and clinical domains including cardiology, neurology, clinical psychology, and psychiatry. While neural (brain) and heartbeat series show high nonlinear and complex d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Human body odors (HBOs) are powerful stimuli that can affect emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. However, the characterization of the physiological response to HBOs is still to be fully investigated. Here, we analyzed the self-assessed emotion perception and the EEG event-related potentials (ERP) on 17 healthy young women during a simult...
Article
Full-text available
Mandatory quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic had substantial negative consequences on psychological health in the general population. Depression, anxiety, and insomnia were reported to increase the morbidity and mortality risk in cardiac patients after cardiac interventions. Nonetheless, a gap in the evidence appeared regarding the effects of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study assessed the effectiveness of the NEVERMIND e-health system, consisting of a smart shirt and a mobile application with lifestyle behavioural advice, mindfulness-based therapy, and cognitive behavioural therapy, in reducing depressive symptoms among patients diagnosed with severe somatic conditions. Our hypothesis was that th...
Article
Full-text available
Significance We investigate the temporal dynamics of brain and cardiac activities in healthy subjects who underwent an emotional elicitation through videos. We demonstrate that, within the first few seconds, emotional stimuli modulate heartbeat activity, which in turn stimulates an emotion intensity (arousal)–specific cortical response. The emotion...
Article
Objective: Poor vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a mechanism linking depression to coronary heart disease (CHD). Reduced vmHRV is also considered an index of emotion dysregulation - the frequent use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, one of the most important being expressive suppression - which is a key component of d...
Article
Full-text available
People tend to evaluate information from reliable sources more favourably, but it is unclear exactly how perceivers’ worldviews interact with this source credibility effect. In a large and diverse cross-cultural sample (N = 10,195 from 24 countries), we presented participants with obscure, meaningless statements attributed to either a spiritual gur...
Article
Background Diminished olfactory functioning has been reported in depression, whereas evidence in anxiety disorders is still controversial. Olfactory meta-cognitive abilities (i.e., olfactory awareness, imagery and reactivity, and the importance of odors) are essential in shaping olfaction. Few studies examined these meta-cognitive abilities in rela...
Preprint
p> This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transfered without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible. We introduce the Physiologically-informed Gaussian Process (PhGP) model, a novel Bayesian probabilistic approach to integrate and interpret prior physiological knowledge in machin...
Preprint
p> This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transfered without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible. We introduce the Physiologically-informed Gaussian Process (PhGP) model, a novel Bayesian probabilistic approach to integrate and interpret prior physiological knowledge in machin...
Article
Patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) often present symptoms of anxiety, depression and apathy. These negative affect manifestations have been recently associated with the presence of Impulsive Compulsive Behaviours (ICBs). However, their relation with the use of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT), a renewed risk factor for ICBs, is still not full...
Preprint
Full-text available
Emotional Style (ES) refers is the unique way of experiencing emotions while going through life. The Emotional Style Questionnaire (ESQ) is a 24-item self-report measure that evaluate how people vary across the six dimensions of ES, providing an overall score of healthy emotionality. The present study aimed to validate the Italian version of ESQ. I...
Article
Full-text available
The degree of attention individuals pay to olfactory cues (called odor awareness) influences the role of odors in everyday life. Particularly, odors produced by the human body (i.e., social odors) are able to carry a wide variety of information and to elicit a broad spectrum of emotional reactions, making them essential in interpersonal relationshi...
Article
The COVID-19 outbreak is having a profound impact on individuals' psychological and physical wellbeing. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of this impact and its mechanisms on a sample of adults living in Italy during the first lockdown (April–May 2020). Two hundred ninety-two individuals (67.1% females) were recruited from the communit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Olfaction and emotions share common networks in the brain. However, little is known on how the emotional content of odors modulate dynamically the cortico-cortical interactions within these networks. In this preliminary study, we investigated the effect of odor valence on effective connectivity through the use of Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM). We r...
Conference Paper
Detecting depression on its early stages helps preventing the onset of severe depressive episodes. In this study, we propose an automatic classification pipeline to detect subclinical depression (i.e., dysphoria) through the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. To this aim, we recorded the EEG signals in resting condition from 26 female participant...
Article
In our previous work [8], we have shown that resting state (RS) functional connectivity metrics are significantly related with behavioural performance at Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). In the present study we investigated the hypothesis of an association between RS metrics and neural activity evoked by BART execution. A group-level whole-brain...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological problems like procrastination, perfectionism, low self-esteem, test anxiety and stress are common among college students. There are evidence-based interventions available for these problems that not only have direct effects on these problems, but also indirect effects on mental disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders. Targe...
Preprint
Full-text available
A century-long debate on bodily states and emotions persists. While the involvement of bodily activity in emotion physiology is widely recognized, the specificity and causal role of such activity related to brain dynamics has not yet been demonstrated. We hypothesize that the peripheral neural monitoring and control of cardiovascular activity promp...
Article
Full-text available
Though a plethora of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies explored the neurobiological underpinnings of borderline personality disorder (BPD), findings across different tasks were divergent. We conducted a systematic review and activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on the fMRI studies conducted in BPD patients compare...
Article
Full-text available
Subclinical depression (dysphoria) is a common condition that may increase the risk of major depression and leads to impaired quality of life and severe comorbid somatic diseases. Despite its prevalence, specific biological markers are unknown; consequently, the identification of dysphoria currently relies exclusively on subjective clinical scores...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Though aberrant face processing is a hallmark of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), findings on accompanying brain activity are divergent. Therefore, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of studies examining brain activity during face processing. Methods: We searched PubMed and PsycINFO using combinatio...
Article
Full-text available
Following the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries worldwide have put lockdowns in place to prevent the virus from spreading. Evidence shows that lockdown measures can affect mental health; it is, therefore, important to identify the psychological characteristics making individuals more vulnerable. The present study aimed, first, to identify, through...
Article
Background: The understanding of neurophysiological correlates underlying the risk of developing depression may have a significant impact on its early and objective identification. Research has identified abnormal resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) power and functional connectivity patterns in major depression. However, the entity of dysfun...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Subthreshold depression has been found to be associated with considerable impairment and an increased risk of developing major depression. Although several randomized trials have examined the effects of psychological interventions for subthreshold depression in children and adolescents, no meta-analysis has integrated the results of these...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the spread of COVID 2019, the Italian government imposed a lockdown on the national territory. Initially, citizens were required to stay at home and not to mix with others outside of their household (Phase 1); eventually, some of these restrictions were lifted (Phase 2). To investigate the impact of lockdown on emotional and binge eating, an...
Preprint
The degree of attention individuals pay to olfactory cues (called odor awareness) influence the role of odors in everyday life. Particularly, odors produced by the human body (i.e., social odors) are able to carry a wide variety of information and to elicit a broad spectrum of emotional reactions, making them essential in interpersonal relationship...
Preprint
Due to the spread of COVID 2019, the Italian government imposed a lockdown on the national territory. Initially, citizens were required to stay at home and not to mix with others outside of their household (Phase 1); eventually, some of these restrictions were lifted (Phase 2). To investigate the impact of lockdown on emotional and binge eating, an...
Preprint
Full-text available
People tend to evaluate information from reliable sources more favourably, but it is unclear exactly how perceivers' worldviews interact with this source credibility effect. Here, we present data from a cross-cultural study in which individuals (N = 10,195) from a religiously and culturally diverse sample of 24 countries were presented with obscure...
Article
Across phyla, chemosignals are a widely used form of social communication and increasing evidence suggests that chemosensory communication is present also in humans. Chemosignals can transfer, via body odors, socially relevant information, such as specific information about identity or emotional states. However, findings on neural correlates of pro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The understanding of neurophysiological correlates underlying the risk of developing depression may have a significant impact on its early and objective identification. Research has identified abnormal resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) power and functional connectivity patterns in major depression. However, the entity of dysfun...
Article
Aims The exercise stress test is commonly used to assess physical capacity and recovery in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Despite depressive symptoms have been consistently associated with adverse outcomes in CAD patients, they are rarely considered as risk factors of poor exercis...
Article
Full-text available
In neuroimaging studies, small sample sizes and the resultant reduced statistical power to detect effects that are not large, combined with inadequate analytic choices, concur to produce inflated or false-positive findings. To mitigate these issues, researchers often restrict analyses to specific brain areas, using the region of interest (ROI) appr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Though aberrant face processing is a hallmark of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), findings on accompanying brain activity are divergent. Therefore, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of studies examining brain activity during face processing. Methods: We searched PubMed and PsycINFO using combinations...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Depressive symptoms are common in individuals suffering from severe somatic conditions. There is a lack of interventions and evidence-based interventions aiming to reduce depressive symptoms in patients with severe somatic conditions. The aim of the NEVERMIND project is to address these issues and provide evidence by testing the NEVERM...
Article
Objective: Impulsivity is a key, trait-like feature of the decision-making process. As personality traits are stable over time, we hypothesized that resting-state (RS) neural activity would predict individual impulsivity. Methods: Thirty-five healthy individuals underwent fMRI scan during RS and subsequently performed the Balloon Analogue Risk T...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual reality is a powerful tool in human behaviour research. However, few studies compare its capacity to evoke the same emotional responses as in real scenarios. This study investigates psycho-physiological patterns evoked during the free exploration of an art museum and the museum virtualized through a 3D immersive virtual environment (IVE). A...
Article
To the Editor Dr Murray and colleagues¹ reported that randomized clinical trials (RCTs) supportive of the authors’ main hypotheses were no more likely to be cited, viewed, or discussed than those not supportive of main hypotheses, ostensibly providing reassurance that null findings are of equal public and scientific interest as positive findings.¹...
Article
We conducted an audit of 60 clinical psychology journals, covering the first 2 quartiles by impact factor on Web of Science. We evaluated editorial policies in 5 domains crucial to reproducibility and transparency (prospective registration, data sharing, preprints, endorsement of reporting guidelines and conflict of interest [COI] disclosure). We e...
Article
Though it is widely believed that psychotherapy changes biology, this contention is largely based on observational data, subject to confounding. We report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of biological variables assessed, as outcomes or predictors of response, in randomized controlled trials of psychotherapy for adult depression. Fifty...
Article
Voice signal has been widely investigated to characterize mood and emotional states. A further interesting dimension could regard the personality traits. The relationship between personality traits and specific speech features is known, however this topic requires further investigation. Specifically, most studies are focused on perceived personalit...
Preprint
Though it is widely believed that psychotherapy changes biology, this contention is largely based on observational data, subject to confounding. We report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of biological variables assessed, as outcomes or predictors of response, in randomized controlled trials of psychotherapy for adult depression. Fifty...
Article
Full-text available
Aims The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale. Methods We obtained individual p...
Article
Full-text available
About 90% of fMRI findings on specific phobias (SP) include analysis of region of interest (ROI). This approach characterized by higher sensitivity may produce inflated results, particularly when findings are aggregated in meta‐analytic maps. Here, we conducted a systematic review and activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta‐analysis on SP, test...
Preprint
This study examined if the most influential journals in clinical psychology have editorial policies implementing open science practices, such registration of the study before it was conducted, data sharing or disclosure of competing interests. Our findings suggest great heterogeneity in journal policies and scarce enforcement.
Article
Objective: Depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Most previous studies have focused on major depression, and studies on subclinical depression, such as those on so-called dysphoria, have been overlooked. Indeed, dysphoria is associated with a high prevalence of somatic disorders, and a reduction of quality of life and li...
Article
Full-text available
Despite major depression is a raising and wide spread health problem, the knowledge about its biological bases is limited. This not only has consequences epistemologically speaking, but also has clinical implications. However, considering the whole literature on biological bases of depression, it seems that a precise or unique biological marker eno...
Chapter
Nonlinear digital signal processing methods addressing system complexity have provided useful computational tools for helping in the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of a wide range of pathologies. In particular, heartbeat complexity measures have been successful in characterizing patients with mental disorders such as Major Depression and Bipola...
Article
Background: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is reduced both in depression and in coronary heart disease (CHD) suggesting common pathophysiological mechanisms for the two disorders. Within CHD, cardiac surgery patients (CSP) with postoperative depression are at greater risk of adverse cardiac events. Therefore, CSP would especially benefit from depres...
Conference Paper
Dysphoric patients show symptoms associated with Major Depression, although within a narrowed symptomatology spectrum. In prevailing practice, clinicians assess Dysphoria through psychological scores and questionnaires exclusively, therefore without taking into account objective biomarkers. In this study, we investigated heartbeat linear and nonlin...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a debilitating condition, but several psychotherapies are considered effective. Objective: To conduct an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials to assess the efficacy of psychotherapies for BPD populations. Data sources: Search terms were combined for borde...
Article
Introduction: Neuroticism is a complex personality trait encompassing diverse aspects. Notably, high levels of neuroticism are related to the onset of psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and mood disorders. Personality traits are stable individual features; therefore, they can be expected to be associated with stable neurobiological features...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The influence of factors related to the background of investigators conducting trials comparing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy has remained largely unstudied. Specializations emphasizing biological determinants of mental disorders, like psychiatry, might favor pharmacotherapy, while others stressing psychosocial factors, like psycho...
Data
Search string and list of included studies. (DOCX)
Data
List of studies included in the meta-analysis. (DOCX)
Article
Mental diseases are increasingly common. Among these, bipolar disorders heavily affect patients’ lives given the mood swings ranging from mania to depression. Voice has been shown to be an important cue to be investigated in relation with this kind of disease. In fact, several speech-related features have been used to characterize voice in depresse...
Article
Full-text available
Brain connectivity is associated to behavioral states (e.g. wake, sleep) and modified by physical activity although, to date, it is not clear which components (e.g. hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones, cytokines) associated to the exercise are involved. In this pilot study, we used extreme exercise (UltraTriathlon) as a model to investigat...
Article
Background: Sponsorship bias has never been investigated for non-pharmacological treatments like psychotherapy. Aims: We examined industry funding and author financial conflict of interest (COI) in randomised controlled trials directly comparing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in depression. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis with subgroup...
Article
Objectives: Recent research indicates that Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is affected in Bipolar Disorders (BD) patients. To determine whether such alterations are a mere expression of the current mood state or rather contain longitudinal information on BD course, we examined the potential influence of states adjacent in time upon HRV features measu...
Article
Although cognitive and behavioral therapies are effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, it is not clear what the relative effects of these treatments are. We conducted a meta-analysis of trials comparing cognitive and behavioral therapies with a control condition, in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder...
Article
Background The effects of cognitive behavioural therapy of anxiety disorders on depression has been examined in previous meta-analyses, suggesting that these treatments have considerable effects on depression. In the current meta-analysis we examined whether the effects of treatments of anxiety disorders on depression differ across generalized anxi...
Conference Paper
This study investigates brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects through linear and nonlinear coupling measures of EEG spectrogram and instantaneous heart rate estimates. To this extent, affective pictures including different combinations of arousal and valence levels, gathered from the International Affective Pi...
Article
Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by an alternation of mood states from depression to (hypo)mania. Mixed states, i.e., a combination of depression and mania symptoms at the same time, can also be present. The diagnosis of this disorder in the current clinical practice is based only on subjective interviews and questionnaires, while no reliable...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion perception, occurring in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, involves autonomic responses affecting cardiovascular dynamics. However, how such brain-heart dynamics is further modulated by emotional valence (pleasantness/unpleasantness), also considering different arousing levels (the intensity of the emotional stimuli),...
Article
Full-text available
Bipolar disorder is one of the most common mood disorders characterized by large and invalidating mood swings. Several projects focus on the development of decision support systems that monitor and advise patients, as well as clinicians. Voice monitoring and speech signal analysis can be exploited to reach this goal. In this study, an Android appli...
Conference Paper
Emotion regulation involves several brain areas such as prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insular cortex. However, how such a brain dynamics is further modulated by emotional valence (pleasantness /unpleasantness), considering also different arousing levels, i.e., the intensity of the emotional stimuli, is still unknown. To this extent, we here stud...