Claudio Bruschini

Claudio Bruschini
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne | EPFL · School of Engineering, Institute of Microtechnology

About

166
Publications
31,774
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2,169
Citations
Citations since 2017
88 Research Items
1570 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400

Publications

Publications (166)
Preprint
Full-text available
We demonstrate an efficient and scalable compressive Raman parallelization scheme based on single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays to reach pixel dwell times of 23 $\mu$s, representing over 10$\times$ speed-up using the otherwise weak spontaneous Raman effect.
Article
Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a promising noninvasive technique for monitoring cerebral blood flow and measuring cortex functional activation tasks. Taking multiple parallel measurements has been shown to increase sensitivity, but is not easily scalable with discrete optical detectors. Here we show that with a large 500 × 500 SPAD array...
Preprint
Full-text available
The correlation properties of light provide an outstanding tool to overcome the limitations of traditional imaging techniques. A relevant case is represented by correlation plenoptic imaging (CPI), a quantum imaging protocol employing spatio-temporal correlations to address the main limitations of conventional light-field imaging, namely, the poor...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we present and discuss the use of state-of-the-art Geiger-mode APDs, also known as single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), for the detection of minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) with best-in-class timing resolution. The SPADs were implemented in standard CMOS technology and integrated with on-chip quenching and recharge circuitry. Two...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents a novel InGaAs/InP SPAD structure fabricated using a selective area growth (SAG) method. The surface topography of the selectively grown film deposited within the 70 $\mu$ m diffusion apertures is used to engineer the Zn diffusion profile to suppress premature edge breakdown. The device achieves a highly uniform active area wit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Herein, we report on the utility of a large gated SPAD camera, SwissSPAD2, for preclinical imaging. We demonstrate the ability of SwissSPAD2 to quantify FLI-FRET in tumor xenografts in vivo, in full agreement with gated-ICCD measurements.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we report on SwissSPAD3 (SS3), a 500 $\times$ 500 pixel single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array, fabricated in 0.18- $\mu \text{m}$ CMOS technology. In this sensor, we introduce a novel dual-gate architecture with two contiguous temporal windows, or gates, guaranteed by the circuit architecture to be nonoverlapping and coveri...
Article
Full-text available
Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) provides a unique contrast mechanism to monitor biological parameters and molecular events in vivo. Single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) cameras have been recently demonstrated in FLI microscopy (FLIM) applications, but their suitability for in vivo macroscopic FLI (MFLI) in deep tissues...
Article
Full-text available
Major advances in silicon pixel detectors, with outstanding timing performance, have recently attracted significant attention in the community. In this work we present and discuss the use of state-of-the-art Geiger-mode APDs, also known as single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), for the detection of minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) with best-in-cl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The performance of SwissSPAD2 (SS2), a large scale, widefield time-gated CMOS SPAD imager developed for fluorescence lifetime imaging, has recently been described in the context of visible range and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of dyes with lifetimes in the 2.5 - 4 ns range. Here, we explore its capabilities in the NIR regime rel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We demonstrate the operation and study the performance metrics of advanced CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes from 293K down to 3K. This shows their potential for close integration with quantum devices operating at cryogenic temperatures
Conference Paper
Spectrometry of a quantum state of light is a fundamental challenge with practical implications. Here, we demonstrate how such a technique can super-resolve the exciton and biexciton energies in a single quantum dot at room temperature.
Preprint
Full-text available
Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) provides a unique contrast mechanism to monitor biological parameters and molecular events in vivo. Single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) cameras have been recently demonstrated in FLI microscopy (FLIM) applications, but their suitability for in vivo macroscopic FLI (MFLI) in deep tissues...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding exciton−exciton interaction in multiply excited nanocrystals is crucial to their utilization as functional materials. Yet, for lead halide perovskite nanocrystals, which are promising candidates for nanocrystal-based technologies, numerous contradicting values have been reported for the strength and sign of their exciton−exciton inter...
Preprint
Full-text available
Major advances in silicon pixel detectors, with outstanding timing performance, have recently attracted significant attention in the community. In this work we present and discuss the use of state-of-the-art Geiger-mode APDs, also known as single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), for the detection of minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) with best-in-cl...
Article
Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays can be used for single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) because of their high frame rate and lack of readout noise. SPAD arrays have a binary frame output, which means photon arrivals should be described as a binomial process rather than a Poissonian process. Consequentially, the theoretical minimu...
Article
Full-text available
CMOS Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) have broken into the mainstream by enabling the adoption of imaging, timing, and security technologies in a variety of applications within the consumer, medical and industrial domains. The continued scaling of technology nodes creates many benefits but also obstacles for SPAD-based systems. Maintaining an...
Article
Full-text available
Multiply excited states in semiconductor quantum dots feature intriguing physics and play a crucial role in nanocrystal-based technologies. While photoluminescence provides a natural probe to investigate these states, room-temperature single-particle spectroscopy of their emission has proved elusive due to the temporal and spectral overlap with emi...
Preprint
Understanding exciton-exciton interaction in multiply-excited nanocrystals is crucial to their utilization as functional materials. Yet, for lead halide perovskite nanocrystals, which are promising candidates for nanocrystal-based technologies, numerous contradicting values have been reported for the strength and sign of their exciton-exciton inter...
Preprint
Multiply-excited states in semiconductor quantum dots feature intriguing physics and play a crucial role in nanocrystal-based technologies. While photoluminescence provides a natural probe to investigate these states, room temperature single-particle spectroscopy of their emission has so far proved elusive due to the temporal and spectral overlap w...
Article
We realized subsurface fluorescence LiDAR with a large format single-photon avalanche diode array capable of localizing and quantifying concentration of fluorescent molecules in heavily scattering media, such as tissue, with submillimeter depth accuracy.
Article
Full-text available
We review the advancement of the research toward the design and implementation of quantum plenoptic cameras, radically novel 3D imaging devices that exploit both momentum–position entanglement and photon–number correlations to provide the typical refocusing and ultra-fast, scanning-free, 3D imaging capability of plenoptic devices, along with dramat...
Preprint
We review the advancement of the research toward the design and implementation of quantum plenoptic cameras, radically novel 3D imaging devices that exploit both momentum-position entanglement and photon-number correlations to provide the typical refocusing and ultra-fast, scanning-free, 3D imaging capability of plenoptic devices, along with dramat...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present the first CMOS SPAD with performance comparable or better than that of the best custom SPADs, to date. The SPAD-based design, fully integrated in 180 nm CMOS technology, achieves a peak PDP of 55% at 480nm with a very broad spectrum spanning from NUV to NIF and a normalized DCR of 0.2cps/m2, both at 6V of excess bias. Than...
Article
Full-text available
Scintillators play a key role in the detection chain of several applications which rely on the use of ionizing radiation, and it is often mandatory to extract and detect the generated scintillation light as efficiently as possible. Typical inorganic scintillators do however feature a high index of refraction, which impacts light extraction efficien...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scintillators play a key role in the detection chain of several applications which rely on the use of ionizing radiation, and it is often mandatory to extract and detect the generated scintillation light as efficiently as possible. In positron emission tomography (PET), for example, both energy resolution and coincidence resolving time, two of the...
Preprint
Full-text available
For globally connected devices like smart phones, personal computers and Internet-of-things devices, the ability to generate random numbers is essential for execution of cryptographic protocols responsible for information security. Generally, a random number generator should be small, robust, utilize as few hardware and energy resources as possible...
Article
Full-text available
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a key technology that provides direct insight into cell metabolism, cell dynamics and protein activity. However, determining the lifetimes of different fluorescent proteins requires the detection of a relatively large number of photons, hence slowing down total acquisition times. Moreover, there ar...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are an emerging sensor technology capable of detecting individual incident photons, and capturing their time-of-arrival with high timing precision. While these sensors were limited to singlepixel or low-resolution devices in the past, recently, large (up to 1 MPixel) SPAD arrays have been developed. These sing...
Preprint
Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are an emerging sensor technology capable of detecting individual incident photons, and capturing their time-of-arrival with high timing precision. While these sensors were limited to single-pixel or low-resolution devices in the past, recently, large (up to 1 MPixel) SPAD arrays have been developed. These sin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a key technology that provides direct insight into cell metabolism, cell dynamics and protein activity. However, determining the lifetimes of different fluorescent proteins requires the detection of a relatively large number of photons, hence slowing down total acquisition times. Moreover, there ar...
Article
We present a 1 Mpixel single-photon avalanche diode camera featuring 3.8 ns time gating and 24 kfps frame rate, fabricated in 180 nm CMOS image sensor technology. We designed two pixels with a pitch of 9.4 µm in 7 T and 5.75 T configurations respectively, achieving a maximum fill factor of 13.4%. The maximum photon detection probability is 27%, med...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the performance of a new wide area time-gated single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array for phasor-FLIM, exploring the effect of gate length, gate number and signal intensity on the measured lifetime accuracy and precision. We conclude that the detector functions essentially as an ideal shot noise limited sensor and is capable of video...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the first 1Mpixel SPAD camera ever reported. The camera features 3.8ns time gating and 24kfps frame rate; it was fabricated in 180nm CIS technology. Two pixels have been designed with a pitch of 9.4$\mu$m in 7T and 5.75T configurations, respectively, achieving a maximum fill factor of 13.4%. The maximum PDP is 27%, median DCR 2.0cps, var...
Article
Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool for biochemical and cellular investigations, including in vivo applications. Fluorescence lifetime is an intrinsic characteristic of any fluorescent dye which, to a large extent, does not depend on excitation intensity and signal level. In particular, it allows distin...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial improvements have been made in the past 15 years to imagers based on a device that acts like a 3-in-1 light particle detector, counter and stopwatch, furthering their potential use in biological imaging technologies. Claudio Bruschini of Switzerland’s École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne and colleagues reviewed the developments in t...
Article
Temporal photon correlation measurement, instrumental to probing the quantum properties of light, typically requires multiple single photon detectors. Progress in single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array technology highlights their potential as high-performance detector arrays for quantum imaging and photon number–resolving (PNR) experiments. Her...
Preprint
Full-text available
Temporal photon correlation measurement, instrumental to probing the quantum properties of light, typically requires multiple single photon detectors. Progress in single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array technology highlights their potential as high performance detector arrays for quantum imaging and photon number resolving (PNR) experiments. Her...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe the performance of a new wide area time-gated single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array for phasor-FLIM, exploring the effect of gate length, gate number and signal intensity on the measured lifetime accuracy and precision. We conclude that the detector functions essentially as an ideal shot noise limited sensor and is capable of video...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) is a powerful tool for in vitro and non-invasive in vivo biomolecular and cellular investigations. Fluorescence lifetime is an intrinsic characteristic of any fluorescent dye which, to some extent, does not depend on excitation intensity and signal level. However, when used in vivo with visible wavelength emittin...
Article
We present the world's first backside-illuminated (BSI) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) based on standard silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology. This SPAD achieves a good dark count rate (DCR) after backside etching, comparable to DCRs of BSI SPADs fabricated on bulk wafers. Unlike bulk-wafer-based BSI SPADs, which typically suffer from p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays are solid-state detectors offering imaging capabilities at the level of individual photons, with unparalleled photon counting and time-resolved performance. This fascinating technology has progressed at very high pace in the past 15~years, since its inception in standard CMOS technology in 2003. A host of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Developing large arrays of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) with on-chip time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) capabilities continues to be a difficult task due to stringent silicon real estate constraints, high data rates and system complexity. As an alternative to TCSPC, time-gated architectures have been proposed, where the number...
Conference Paper
Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imagers can perform fast time-resolved imaging in a compact form factor, by exploiting the processing capability and speed of integrated CMOS electronics. Developments in SPAD imagers have recently made them compatible with widefield microscopy, thanks to array formats approaching one megapixel and sensitivity a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent advances in photographic sensing technologies have made it possible to achieve light detection in terms of a single photon. Photon counting sensors are being increasingly used in many diverse applications. We address the problem of jointly recovering spatial and temporal scene radiance from very few photon counts. Our ConvNet-based scheme ef...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The coincidence time resolution (CTR) of a time-offlight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) scanner is an essential parameter, which determines signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in image reconstruction algorithms. CTR has an important impact on scintillation-based detectors used in TOFPET. Cherenkov PET has emerged as a prompt-photon based radiation...
Article
We report on SwissSPAD2, an image sensor with 512-512 photon-counting pixels, each comprising a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD), a 1-bit memory, and a gating mechanism capable of turning the SPAD on and off, with a skew of 250ps and 344ps, respectively, for a minimum duration of 5.75ns. The sensor is designed to achieve a frame rate of up to 9...
Article
Full-text available
Digital SiPMs have emerged in the recent past as a viable low cost alternative to PMTs in PET systems, providing multiple timestamps, energy and scintillation coordinates at high spatial granularity as well as MRI compatibility. The rich but large datasets generated by digital SiPM sensors have posed a data pre-processing and acquisition challenge,...
Article
Confocal microscopes use photomultiplier tubes and hybrid detectors due to their large dynamic range, which typically exceeds the one of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). The latter, due to their photon counting operation, are usually limited to an output count rate to 1/Tdead. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis, which can actually...