Claudio A. Agostini

Claudio A. Agostini
Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez · Escuela de Gobierno

Ph.D. in Economics

About

147
Publications
43,393
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1,090
Citations
Citations since 2017
19 Research Items
662 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
Additional affiliations
June 2014 - present
Office of Tax Policy Research, University of Michigan
Position
  • International Affiliate
Description
  • http://www.bus.umich.edu/OTPR/whoweare.htm
January 2011 - present
Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Santiago, Chile
Position
  • Professor
January 2009 - December 2010
Universidad Alberto Hurtado
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 1997 - January 2003
University of Michigan
Field of study
  • Economics

Publications

Publications (147)
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document seeks to contribute to society and its decision-makers with the best available scientific evidence on Chile’s Renewable Energy (RE) Export Potential and the opportunities and challenges that such potential opens for Chile’s commitment to carbon neutrality. It also aims to provide a useful input for the dialogues that the country will...
Article
Renewable energies (RE) in Chile and around the world have experienced outstanding growth in recent years. However, RE technologies such as solar photovoltaic and wind generate an imbalance between generation (offer) and consumption (demand) because of their intermittent and variable nature. Moreover, RE’s natural variability makes it necessary for...
Article
Regularmente, cada nuevo gobierno asume con una reforma tributaria como parte de su programa, lo cual muchas veces tensiona el desarrollo social y político del país. La repetida modificación de las reglas del juego introduce ruido en la economía, pues el vaivén legislativo genera una indeseable incerteza jurídica y económica que no favorece las dec...
Article
During the last decade, the Chilean government introduced a corporate income tax credit for construction companies installing Solar Water Heating (SWH) systems in new housing developments. The credit aims to provide hot-water solutions to the residential sector with a cheaper and more environmentally-friendly than fossil fuels. The tax benefits wer...
Article
Chilean antitrust authorities banned termination-based price discrimination in mobile calls in 2012. This paper discusses the antitrust process that led to this prohibition and analyzes its merits. We characterize the discriminatory plans that the largest mobile company in Chile—Movistar—offered in 2010, when the legal dispute began, calibrate a co...
Article
Full-text available
Chile has become one of the first few countries where renewable sources compete directly with conventional generation in price-based auctions. Moreover, the results of energy auctions during the last few years show a remarkable transition from conventional fossil fuels to renewable energies. In fact, the energy auction in 2017, to provide energy to...
Article
The South American region has experienced a steady increase in its demand for electricity and faces several challenges in the development of the electricity sector. Among them, high fluctuations in hydro generation, high and volatile prices of fossil fuels, and environmental and social impacts associated to energy activities. Strengthening cooperat...
Article
The emergence of high penetration rates of renewable energies in power systems presents a serious challenge in energy generation and load balance maintenance to ensure power network stability and reliability. Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) could play a relevant role in facing these challenges, as the technologies have passed the demo and prototype p...
Article
Full-text available
Many countries have special tax regimes (STRs) for small businesses. Even though these regimes may reduce compliance costs, they increase the complexity of the tax system and can be used by high-income individuals to avoid taxes. This paper uses administrative data from Chile to analyze whether the use of STRs is associated with strategic tax plann...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN: Se analiza la reserva de cabotaje marítimo bajo el régimen de defensa de la libre competencia. Junto con describir sus aspectos jurídicos, se busca estimar cuantitativamente los eventuales impactos económicos para el país, o pérdidas en bienestar asociados. Complementariamente, se analiza la regulación accesoria, que consiste en un impuest...
Article
The energy demand in Chile arises mostly from mining, its largest industry that accounts for about 35% of total electricity consumption. Energy generation to satisfy this demand depends completely on imported fossil fuels. As a result, the mining industry faces several energy related challenges. In particular, the cost and environmental impact of f...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Documento que sintetiza la revisión de la evidencia internacional en la utilización de impuestos correctivos en alimentos y bebidas con alto contenido de nutrientes críticos como energía, azúcares, grasas saturadas o sodio, así como la entrega de opciones y recomendaciones en su forma de aplicación al caso chileno. Resultado del trabajo de un panel...
Article
Full-text available
Chile is undergoing a remarkable energy matrix transition to renewable energy. Renewable energies are expanding extraordinarily quickly, exceeding earlier predictions. As a result, the country is expected to meet its 2025 goal of generating 20% of its electricity from renewable energy sources quite before. Chile has become one of the first countrie...
Article
Full-text available
En general, las viviendas que por su ubicación muestran mejores accesos tienen un valor de mercado superior respecto a viviendas de características similares con peores accesos. Esta diferencia se debe a los menores costos de transporte hacia los principales mercados laborales y comerciales de una ciudad. Por esta razón, las inversiones en infraest...
Article
Full-text available
A number of successive energy crises over the last decade due to the lack of a balanced investment planning in the energy sector in Chile has led to a strong dependence on external sources and also doubled energy prices in the country, thus posing a significant challenge to the local economy. With the purpose of reaching long-term goals while simul...
Article
In recent years, the development of renewable energies in the electricity market in Chile has gained significant attention as a key alternative for energy sources diversification and meeting three key policy objectives: energy availability, environmental protection, and social-economic development. This study aims to assess various renewable energy...
Article
Full-text available
Chile’s economic development in recent decades has greatly impacted cities’ development and the way social inequalities are spatially reproduced in them. Therefore, an accurate measurement of urban segregation is relevant and allows designing public policies to reduce their negative effects. However, previous measurements in Chile have methodologic...
Chapter
Census data from 2002 show that 4.6 percent of the Chilean population belonged to one of the eight existing indigenous groups. Compared to nonindigenous people, indigenous people in Chile are in general poorer, have lower educational attainment, are more likely to be unemployed, and are more likely to be illiterate. Most of them do not speak or und...
Article
This paper analyzes the distributional incidence of the excise tax on gasoline in Chile using Household Budget Surveys. The incidence is calculated with respect to both income and expenditure distributions in order to consider the potential differences between transitory and permanent income. The Suits Index is estimated as a measure of the degree...
Article
Over the past decade, the promotion of renewable energy projects in Chile, especially solar energy projects, has become increasingly important, as energy dependence from foreign fossil fuels has increased and concerns regarding climate change continue to grow, posing a significant challenge to the local economy. Even though recent developments towa...
Article
Frequent flyer programs create a switching cost for the consumer and allow firms to obtain rents, for example, by exploiting the principal agent problem existing between the employee who travel and purchases the ticket and the employer paying for that ticket. In Chile LAN is the dominant airline in domestic markets and the only one that has a frequ...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, the importance of exploiting Chile’s Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) has increased significantly, as fossil fuel prices have risen and concerns regarding climate change issues grown, posing an important threat to its economy. However, to date, the advancement of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) in the country has been very l...
Article
Full-text available
No pricing system is likely to be able to do away with congestion in port cargo transfer operations at peak times, since port use is determined not so much by seasonal factors as, first and foremost, by the simultaneous arrival of vessels, which results in rationing. This article shows that rationing, to be efficient, needs to go by the value of th...
Article
Full-text available
. Fiscal mimicking and yardstick competition among neighbouring jurisdictions have been widely documented in developed countries with long histories of democracy. However, there is very little empirical evidence concerning these practices in developing countries with young democracies. Using a primary panel of 86 rural Chinese administrative villag...
Article
Full-text available
La Reforma al Mercado de Capitales de 2001 en Chile (MK I), estableció la exención del impuesto a la renta para las ganancias de capital provenientes de la enajenación de acciones con presencia bursátil. Los objetivos de la reforma eran aumentar la participación, la profundidad y la liquidez en el mercado local de acciones. Sin embargo, no es evide...
Article
Diesel in Chile receives different tax treatments depending on its use. If diesel is used in industrial activities, the diesel taxes paid can be fully used as a credit against VAT, but if it is used in freight or public transportation – basically trucks and buses – only a fraction of diesel taxes paid can be claimed as a tax credit for VAT payments...
Chapter
Full-text available
Census data in 2002 shows that 4.6% of the Chilean population belongs to one of the eight existing indigenous groups. Compared to non-indigenous people, indigenous people in Chile are in general poorer, with lower educational attainment, more likely to be unemployed, more illiterate and most of them do not speak or understand their indigenous langu...
Article
Full-text available
The reform to capital market in Chile in 2001 enacted, among other things, a capital gain tax exemption for stocks highly traded in stock markets. The goals of the reform were mainly to increase participation, depth and liquidity in the local stock market. However, it is not clear what the effect of a tax reduction is on stock prices because there...
Article
Full-text available
El sistema de precios difícilmente puede eliminar la congestión en la transferencia de carga portuaria en períodos de máxima afluencia (peak), pues el uso del puerto no depende tanto de factores estacionales como sobre todo de la llegada simultánea de barcos, situación que conduce al racionamiento de su uso. En este artículo se muestra que el racio...
Article
Full-text available
No pricing system is likely to be able to do away with congestion in port cargo transfer operations at peak times, since port use is determined not so much by seasonal factors as, first and foremost, by the simultaneous arrival of vessels, which results in rationing. This article shows that rationing, to be efficient, needs to go by the value of th...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last twenty years there has been a significant concentration process in the pension fund manager industry in Chile (the number of firms has dropped from 21 in 1994 to only 6 in 2012). A major concern about the concentration of this industry is that firms might be able to exercise market power. However, significant efficiency gains could re...
Article
Full-text available
En las últimas décadas se ha observado en América Latina una expansión del uso de programas de transferencias condicionadas para combatir la pobreza. Si bien estos programas pueden ser efectivos para mejorar el bienestar de los más pobres en el corto plazo y para asegurar ciertos mínimos en salud y educación, pueden también desincentivar el empleo,...
Article
Full-text available
This paper estimates the distributional effects that would result from eliminating the differential tax treatment of business and personal income in the Chilean tax system, as well as from the elimination of the main personal income tax exemption, the one for voluntary retirement savings. The results of the analysis show that, while the majority of...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen El impuesto a los combustibles generalmente representa una frac-ción importante del precio de las gasolinas. Por esta razón, cuando suben mucho los precios aumenta la presión pública para reducir o eliminar el impuesto y aliviar a los consumidores, lo cual asume que la rebaja se traspasa completamente a precios finales. Sin embargo, existen...
Article
Frequent flier programs create a switching cost for the consumer and allow firms to exercise market power. In Chile there is a dominant airline in domestic markets that has a frequent flyer program with a large number of affiliates and it faces some competition from two small carriers that do have a frequent flyer program. Using a unique dataset fo...
Article
Durante los últimos años ha aumentado en forma significativa el acceso y uso de internet en Chile, lo cual sin duda genera cambios importantes en varias dimensiones de la sociedad. Gracias a internet, hoy es posible realizar desde el hogar muchas actividades que antes requerían presencia física en otros lugares, lo cual tiene el potencial de aument...
Article
Full-text available
En un contexto de demanda creciente y oferta estocástica de energía en Chile se hace necesario conocer a cabalidad los determinantes de la demanda por energía eléctrica de los hogares - en particular su elasticidad precio - para así utilizar mecanismos de flexibilización de precios con miras a reducir posibles déficits de energía. Este trabajo esti...
Article
Full-text available
Gasoline taxes usually represent a large fraction of the final price of gasoline paid by consumers. As a result, when gasoline prices increase too much public pressure builds to reduce or even eliminate gasoline taxes, which implicitly assumes these taxes are fully passed on to final consumers. However, there exist few empirical studies about the i...
Article
Full-text available
This paper estimates the distributional effects that would result from eliminating the differential tax treatment of business and personal income in the Chilean tax system, as well as from the elimination of the main personal income tax exemption, the one for voluntary retirement savings. The results of the analysis show that, while the majority of...
Article
Diesel in Chile receives a different tax treatment depending on its use. If diesel is used in industrial activities the diesel tax paid can be used as a credit against VAT and if diesel is used in freight or public transportation (basically trucks and buses) a fraction of gasoline taxes paid can be used as a credit against VAT. As a result of this...
Article
ABSTRACT The headcount ratio in Chile has declined from 40 percent to 14 percent since 1987. However, most analysis of this reduction uses national and regional poverty statistics. In contrast, we employ poverty mapping methodologies to find heterogeneity in the effectiveness of transfers across counties. To better understand this variation, we exp...
Article
Full-text available
In September 2005, the Chilean Competition Authority filed a lawsuit against five private health insurance providers for violation of antitrust laws. They were accused of colluding to reduce the coverage levels of their plans. Between March 2002 and March 2003, they reduced the coverage offered from 100 percent for hospitalization and 80 percent fo...
Article
Many governments continue constructing new subway lines with the goal of reducing congestion and pollution in large cities. Besides the potential global effects on reducing negative externalities in the city, there are some local positive effects in terms of lower commuting time and distance for residents living close to the subway stations. These...
Article
Full-text available
Fuel taxation policy in Chile has always been to keep taxes on diesel lower than those on gasoline. The proportion of automobiles with diesel engines has grown considerably as a result. Just 20% of diesel engine emissions are equivalent to 80% of gasoline engine emissions, and this affects the level of externalities associated with automobile use,...
Article
Full-text available
Fuel taxation policy in Chile has always been to keep taxes on diesel lower than those on gasoline. The proportion of automobiles with diesel engines has grown considerably as a result. Just 20% of diesel engine emissions are equivalent to 80% of gasoline engine emissions, and this affects the level of externalities associated with automobile use,...
Article
Full-text available
En las últimas décadas la aceleración del desarrollo de las tecnologías de información y comunicación –en particular de Internet y el acceso a través de conexiones de banda ancha– ha generado transformaciones importantes en las sociedades. Sin embargo, especialmente en los países subdesarrollados y en desarrollo, el acceso a estas tecnologías y a s...
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¿Por qué gran cantidad de recursos públicos destinados a la Educación Superior se entregan a un organismo que existe sobre la base de la historia y privilegios, y no de los méritos de sus integrantes?. El gobierno anunció reformas en la educación superior. Si bien aún no se conoce el detalle de las propuestas, el Ministro de Educación y el jefe de...
Article
Despite rapid economic growth and poverty reduction, inequality in Chile has remained high and remarkably constant over the last 20 years, prompting academic and public interest in the subject. Due to data limitations, however, research on inequality in Chile has concentrated on the national and regional levels. The impact of cash subsidies to poor...
Article
Full-text available
As the Chilean government seeks to reduce poverty and inequality through cash transfers to poor households, local governments are responsible for both identifying the poor and allocating transfers. Until recently, however, evaluating the effectiveness of local governments in enacting these policies has been restricted by data limitations. This pape...
Article
In chile, as in many other countries, cigarettes are among the goods most heavily taxed with a tax rate of. Such a high tax rate might have significant effects on tax revenue, cigarette consumption, the health effects related to its consumption, the size of the informal cigarette market, and even the degree of competition in the industry. The magni...
Article
Full-text available
While indigenous Chileans are believed to experience higher poverty rates than non-indigenous Chileans, evidence is typically based on surveys that are not representative by ethnicity. We adapt poverty mapping methodologies to estimate poverty and poverty gaps for eight indigenous groups more precisely. We find that indigenous people experience hig...
Article
The gasoline tax policy in Chile has always kept lower tax rates for gasoline relative to diesel. As a result, the share of diesel cars has been systematically growing, especially over the last 5 years. Given that, on average, 20% of diesel engine emissions are equivalent to 80% of gasoline engine emissions, the increase in diesel cars has impacts...
Article
Full-text available
En general, hay consenso respecto a cómo medir pobreza y desigualdad. Es por ello que existe un grado importante de acuerdo sobre su evolución en el tiempo, tanto en Chile como en la Región Metropolitana. Sin embargo, no existe igual grado de acuerdo respecto a la segregación. No hay una definición clara de qué es segregación ni cómo medirla, ni ha...
Article
In general, there seems to be a basic consensus on how to measure poverty and inequality. For this reason there is a general agreement with respect to their levels and evolution over time, with respect to Chile and also to the city of Santiago. However, there is no such agreement with respect to segregation. There are several definitions and indica...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze in this paper the TDLC’s ruling in an antitrust case against five health insurance providers (“Isapres”) in Chile, accused of colluding to reduce the coverage on the health insurance plans they offer. The TDLC is a court of appeals specialized in free competition and composed of a combination of economists and lawyers. We considers the f...
Article
Full-text available
La política tributaria sobre los combustibles en Chile siempre ha mantenido impuestos menores para las gasolinas que para el diésel. Como resultado, la fracción de automóviles con motor diésel ha crecido considerablemente. Un 20% de las emisiones de motores diésel equivalen al 80% de las de motores a gasolinas, lo que incide en la magnitud de las e...
Article
Full-text available
La pol�tica tributaria respecto a los combustibles en Chile ha mantenido desde sus inicios impuestos menores para las gasolinas respecto al diesel. Como resultado la fracci�n de autom�viles con motor diesel en el parque automotor ha crecido fuertemente, en especial durante los �ltimos cinco a�os. Dado que en promedio 20% de las emisiones de los mot...
Article
Full-text available
En Chile, al igual qiue en muchos pa�ses, los cigarrillos se encuentran entre los bienes con impuestos m�s altos, lo cual afecta significativamente el grado de competencia en la industria, la recaudaci�n tributaria y tambi�n el consumo de cigarrillos y los efectos en la salud asociados a su consumo. Estos efectos dependen en forma importante del ni...
Article
Full-text available
While indigenous Chileans are believed to experience higher poverty rates than non-indigenous Chileans, evidence is typically based on surveys that are not representative by ethnicity. We adapt poverty mapping methodologies to estimate poverty and poverty
Article
The Capital Markets reform of 2001 in Chile (MK I) established a tax exemption for income from capital gains from the sale of stocks with high trading volume. the goals of the reform were to increase participation, size, and liquidity in the local stock market. However, it is not clear how a tax reduction affects stock prices because there are two...
Article
Gasoline taxes usually represent a large fraction of gasoline prices. For this reason, when prices hike public pressure increases to either reduce or eliminate the tax to provide relief to consumers, which implicitly assumes that a tax reduction would be passed on completely to consumers. However, there are few studies on tax incidence for gasoline...
Article
This paper estimates the distributional incidence of gasoline taxes in Chile, using the V and VI Family Budget Surveys for this purpose. Tax incidence is estimated based on income and expenditures distribution to consider potential differences between transitory and permanent income. As a measure of tax progressivity the Suits Index is estimated an...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes and characterizes the oil markets and liquid by-products in Chile from the viewpoint of industrial organization. With that objective in mind, first a systematic description is provided of each of the markets comprising this industry, taking into account the vertical structure of the industry by which this basic natural input...
Article
Dos pistas: ni la clase media ni la clase baja. ¿Por qué, entonces, algunos parlamentarios insisten con tanto ahínco en rebajarlo?. Hasta marzo del año pasado, el impuesto a los combustibles –en rigor, el impuesto a las gasolinas– era de 6 UTM por cada metro cúbico. En ese mes, el gobierno lo rebajó transitoriamente por dos años, primero a 4,5 UTM...
Article
La acusación de colusión que el Fiscal Nacional Económico realizó contra las tres más grandes cadenas de farmacias generó un escándalo. Pero tal vez más controversia ha causado el hecho de que Fasa –la cadena que denunció y reconoció el ilícito–, colabore con las autoridades a cambio de una reducción en la multa que le corresponde. Es la figura de...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past few years, some Latin American countries have decreased their corporate income tax rates to attract foreign direct investment. However, such a policy will have a significant impact only if foreign investment is highly sensitive to tax rates. Otherwise, the main impact of a lower tax rate would be a decrease in tax revenue. Unfortunate...
Article
Full-text available
A partir de un marco tributario que considera tanto los objetivos de la política tributaria de un país como sus efectos, en este trabajo se analizan los distintos impuestos que afectan al mercado de capitales en Chile. Dicho análisis, junto a una exhaustiva revisión de la literatura económica en este tema, tanto teórica como empírica, dan lugar a u...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo cumple con dos objetivos principales. En primer lugar, se estima la funci�n de costos de las administradoras de fondos de pensiones en Chile usando datos de panel desde 2000 a 2007. Se encuentran importantes econom�as de escala en la provisi�n de los servicios financieros, resultado que es consistente con otros estudios para este mismo...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo realiza un an�lisis econ�mico del caso conocido como La Guerra del Plasma, en el cual la reacci�n de las multitiendas Falabella y Par�s S.A. frente a sus proveedores impidi� la realizaci�n del Banco de Chile de una feria tecnol�gica para sus clientes en Abril de 2006. M�s all� de la conducta de colusi�n, acreditada en el juicio, este t...
Article
Full-text available
En un contexto de demanda creciente y oferta estoc�stica de energ�a en Chile se hace necesario conocer a cabalidad los determinantes de la demanda por energ�a el�ctrica de los hogares - en particular su elasticidad precio - para as� utilizar mecanismos de flexibilizaci�n de precios con miras a reducir posibles d�ficits de energ�a. Este trabajo esti...
Article
This paper both theoretically and empirically addresses how a vertical structure in the motion-pictures industry determines the number of prints a distributor releases of a new film. A simple theoretical model shows that the optimal number of copies is increasing on the expected demand for the film and the revenue share of the distributor, and decr...
Article
Full-text available
Y vaya que importan. No serán el mecanismo de financiamiento del Estado que más feliz hace a sus ciudadanos, ni el Servicio que los recauda una repartición que gana concursos de popularidad, pero en una economía de mercado abierta, como se supone que es la chilena, cumplen un rol fundamental. Sí, hacen posible en parte la existencia del gasto públi...
Article
It is widely held that indigenous Chileans experience greater rates of poverty and indigence than non-indigenous Chileans, yet the evidence to date has been based on surveys that are not representative by ethnicity. In this paper, we use poverty mapping methodologies that are typically applied to geography to develop statistically precise estimates...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely held that indigenous Chileans experience greater rates of poverty and indigence than non-indigenousChileans, yet the evidence to date has been based on surveys that are not representative by ethnicity. In this paper,we use poverty mapping methodologies that are typically applied to geography to develop statistically preciseestimates of...
Article
Despite two decades of rapid growth, indigenous Chileans are disproportionately poor. However, income data obtained from non-representative surveys yield imprecise estimates of poverty and inequality. This paper therefore estimates poverty and inequality using poverty mapping methods. In contrast to previous studies, however, we use ethnicity rathe...