Claude Miller

Claude Miller
University of Oklahoma | ou · Department of Communication

Ph.D. Communication, Arizona

About

58
Publications
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Introduction
Claude Miller is Professor in the Department of Communication, University of Oklahoma. Claude is a Quantitative Social Research worker. His current projects are 'Game-Based Learning, Intergroup Conflict, Disaster & Risk Communication, and Social Influence Message Design.
Additional affiliations
January 2002 - June 2019
University of Oklahoma
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (58)
Chapter
This chapter considers how communication theory may relate to and inform our understanding of various terror management processes, particularly as they concern the meaning-making systems we use to face, understand, and cope with our everyday world. In addressing a range of domains and situations relevant to communication theory—including interperso...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a chapter on psychological reactance theory (PRT) and persuasive message design in applied communication research. A discussion of PRT’s use as a framework for creating effective persuasive message designs targeting reactant populations is discussed, and suggestions are offered for how the theory may be applied by social and interpersonal i...
Article
Extant research indicates that professional law enforcement officers (LEOs) are generally no better than untrained novices at detecting deception. Moreover, traditional training methods are often less effective than no training at all at improving successful detection. Compared to the traditional training, interactive digital games can provide an i...
Chapter
From the perspective of terror management theory (TMT; Greenberg et al., 1986), this chapter focuses on how existential anxiety following death thought awareness (DTA) can influence a myriad of communication behavior designed to cope with the fear and dread aroused by the deadly COVID-19 global pandemic. After first briefly introducing the theory,...
Article
Psychological reactance theory (PRT) posits that when individuals' perceived freedoms are threatened or restricted, they become aversively aroused and are motivated to reestablish those freedoms, leading to a state of psychological reactance. Applying PRT, this study examined the effects of controlling language, fear, and disgust appeals on respons...
Article
This study examined the effects of agency assignment on response to messages advocating threat preparedness, highlighting interactions between agency assignment and threat type. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions crossing human agency vs. threat agency with human ascribed threats vs. threats not ascribed to humans. Two me...
Article
As the COVID-19 pandemic poses severe threats to human life around the globe, effective risk messages are needed to warn the public and encourage recommended actions for avoiding infection, especially as steps are taken to ease physical restrictions and restart economies. The present study examines the effects of agency assignment and reference poi...
Article
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), the COVID-19 disease cases stemming from it, and the resulting pandemic have imposed severe, distressing, physical, and psychological challenges on communities worldwide. The stressful situation faced by Chinese overseas students (COSs) has been particularly acute. With this populati...
Article
Psychological reactance theory (PRT) provides a framework for understanding what not to do when seeking to motivate, influence, and persuade people. As a theory of resistance, PRT can be used to explain and predict a range of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes associated with frustrating or affirming the human need for autonomy and self‐...
Article
Existential anxiety is a primary and powerful force driving human behavior. Terror management theory (TMT), an overarching framework for understanding the role existential anxiety plays in human motivation, can be used to explain and predict many of the cognitive, affective, and conative aspects of human action. This chapter begins with a general o...
Article
Many new HIV infections occur through individuals who are unaware of their HIV status. HIV disparities are more prevalent among underserved populations, and the number of new cases in the U.S. is highest in the Southern region. Using the Social Network Intervention, 63 undergraduate students delivered a face-to-face, communication-centered, peer ed...
Article
This experiment explores the effects of agency assignment and self-construal on responses to tornado preparedness messages. Participants (N = 276) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions crossing agency assignment and self-construal. Results found threat agency associated with greater perceived susceptibility and tornado threat, whereas se...
Preprint
Full-text available
VERITAS—an interactive digital game—was designed and developed to train LEOs to better detect reliable deception cues when questioning suspects and determining the veracity of their answers. LEOs playing VERITAS showed significant improvement in deception detection. Relative to a student population, LEOs perceived VERITAS to be significantly more i...
Article
The present research analyzes qualitative case studies to provide holistic insights into the phenomenon of interethnic conflict. Kim’s (2005) contextual theory of interethnic communication (CTIC) is used as an etic, broad-systems theoretical framework for analyzing a wide range of interdisciplinary case studies focusing on interethnic conflict. The...
Article
Well-designed video games can teach people to decrease their reliance on heuristics and biases, especially in deception detection, where people might be resistant to training or unaware that training is needed. We created the serious game VERITAS in which users ask questions of pre-recorded actors and attempt to determine the veracity of the answer...
Article
One of the benefits of using digital games for education is that games can provide feedback for learners to assess their situation and correct their mistakes. We conducted two studies to examine the effectiveness of different feedback design (timing, duration, repeats, and feedback source) in a serious game designed to teach learners about cognitiv...
Article
This study examined the effectiveness of restoration of freedom postscripts at mitigating psychological reactance following recycling messages. Results of a 2 (freedom threat: high, low) × 2 (postscript: restoration, filler) plus 1 (offset no-message control) independent group experiment (N = 134) replicated prior findings demonstrating how freedom...
Article
Objective. Humans systematically make poor decisions because of cognitive biases. Can digital games train people to avoid cognitive biases? The goal of this study is to investigate the affordance of different educational media in training people about cognitive biases and to mitigate cognitive biases within their decision-making processes. Method....
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report research testing scales developed from a combination of vested interest (VI) theory and the extended parallel process model of fear appeals. The scales were created to measure variables specified by an expanded model of VI: certainty, salience, immediacy, self-efficacy, response-efficacy, and suscept...
Article
Full-text available
Digital games are ideal for training complex decision making skills because they allow players to experience decision making processes and consequences. However, training complex skills often results in failure, which may undermine learning engagement. Traditional training methods employing observational learning (e.g., training videos) do not caus...
Chapter
Communicating unambiguous commands using controlling language tends to alienate young audiences, which often results in message rejection, boomerang effects and source derogation. Psychological Reactance Theory (Brehm 1966) accounts for how individuals become aversively aroused when perceived freedoms are threatened by overtly persuasive messages....
Article
Full-text available
For much of inoculation theory's 50-year history, research has focused on intrapersonal processes of resistance such as threat and subvocal counterarguing. More recently, attention has shifted to interpersonal processes of inoculation-conferred resistance, specifically, postinoculation talk (PIT). This study examined the substance of PIT, and how p...
Article
Objective This study sought to examine the efficacy of inoculation message treatments to facilitate resistance to health nutrition–related (HNR) commercial food advertising claims. Design Data were collected across three phases extending across a 5-week period conducted over two semesters at a Midwest US university. A 2 × 3 between-subjects factor...
Chapter
Full-text available
Communicating unambiguous commands using controlling language tends to alienate young audiences, which often results in message rejection, boomerang effects, and source derogation. Psychological reactance theory (PRT, Brehm, 1966) accounts for how individuals become aversively aroused when perceived freedoms are threatened by overtly persuasive mes...
Article
Heuristics can interfere with information processing and hinder decision-making when more systematic processes that might lead to better decisions are ignored. Based on the heuristic-systematic model (HSM) of information processing, a serious training game (called MACBETH) was designed to address and mitigate cognitive biases that interfere with th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A serious video game was created to teach players about cognitive bias and encourage mitigation of both confirmation bias and the fundamental attribution error. Multiplayer and single-player versions of the game were created to test the effect of different feedback sources on bias mitigation performance. A total of 626 participants were randomly as...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the United States has recognized an increasing need for individual-level disaster preparedness, with federal, state, and local government agencies finding only limited success in instituting campaign-based disaster preparedness programs. Extant research indicates Americans generally remain poorly informed and badly unprepared for i...
Article
Full-text available
Intelligence analysts gather information from a variety of sources, process the information incrementally as it is received, and are under constant pressure for quick and accurate judgments. A serious training game called MACBETH was designed to address and mitigate cognitive biases undermining analysts' accurate collection and interpretation of in...
Article
Full-text available
This research uses language expectancy theory (LET; Burgoon, Jones, & Stewart, 197513. Burgoon , M. , Jones , S. B. , & Stewart , D. ( 1975 ). Toward a message-centered theory of persuasion: Three empirical investigations of language intensity . Human Communication Research , 1 , 240 – 256 . [CrossRef]View all references; Miller & Burgoon, 19792...
Article
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Although there is general agreement the causes and consequences of jealousy bear on self-esteem, research on the experience and expression of jealousy has produced conflicting results regarding gender differences. From the perspective of terror management theory TMT; 1], individuals adopt meaningful cultural worldviews—including culturally derived...
Article
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This paper describes the process of rapid iterative prototyping used by a research team developing a training video game for the Sirius program funded by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). Described are three stages of development, including a paper prototype, and builds for alpha and beta testing. Game development is doc...
Article
Full-text available
Hedonic relevance constitutes one of the most fundamental bases for guiding nearly all human activity, with an especially powerful impact on communication; yet, with few exceptions, the construct has been virtually ignored by communication scientists. In advocating for the inclusion of a measure of hedonic relevance (HR) within the broader construc...
Article
To study the effect of various types of inoculation message treatments on resistance to persuasive and potentially deceptive health- and nutrition-related (HNR) content claims of commercial food advertisers. A three-phase experiment was conducted among 145 students from a Midwestern U.S. university. Quantitative statistical analyses were used to in...
Article
The efficacy of inoculation theory has been confirmed by decades of empirical research, yet optimizing its effectiveness remains a vibrant line of investigation. The present research turns to psychological reactance theory for a means of enhancing the core mechanisms of inoculation—threat and refutational preemption. Findings from a multisite study...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies were designed to extend a combination of vested interest theory (VI) and the extended parallel process model of fear appeals (EPPM) to provide formative research for creating more effective disaster preparedness social action campaigns. The aim was to develop an effective VI scale for assessing individual awareness and 'vestedness' re...
Article
This investigation tested the effectiveness of inoculation messages designed for a mainstream American audience but incongruent with the message processing patterns of the recipient’s subculture. A three-phase experiment was conducted involving 178 participants to assess the efficacy of reason-based (cognitive) and emotion-based (affective) inocula...
Article
Contemporary inoculation scholarship has focused on the process of resistance to persuasion, and recently begun to examine various incidental effects that may accompany inoculation treatments. This study considers how talk fits within both of these areas, not only as a byproduct of inoculation, but also as a potentially important contributor to the...
Article
Full-text available
This article reports two studies designed to develop and test a weak-tie/strong-tie support network preference scale. A theoretical framework for developing the measure and empirical tests of the underlying dimensions in two distinct populations is presented along with an assessment of the scale's validity and reliability, and hypotheses are tested...
Article
Two personality traits, sensation seeking (SS) and psychological reactance (PR), were examined as predictors of health risk behaviors within an emerging adult population. Results using items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS) survey developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate both personality trai...
Article
Full-text available
Implicit theories of moral character (ITM) was manipulated in an experiment examining the association between individuals' implicit attribution position and their responses to various social transgressions. As hypothesized, entity theorists, who tend to base their attributions on internal dispositional information, responded with significantly high...
Article
Les récents travaux de recherche sur l'influence sociale qui s'appuient sur la théorie de la réactance psychologique (Brehm, 1966) mettent l'accent sur la façon dont la réactance motive le rejet du message en raison de menaces provenant du langage contrôlant et affectant certaines libertés perçues. Bien qu'il ait été montré que la réactance accroît...
Article
Resumen Las investigaciones recientes sobre la influencia social utilizando la teoría de reactancia psicológica (Brehm, 1966) se han concentrado en cómo la reactancia motiva el rechazo de mensajes debido a las amenazas a las libertades percibidas planteadas por un lenguaje controlador. Aún cuando se ha demostrado que la reactancia incrementa el rec...
Article
Neuere Forschungsarbeiten zu sozialem Einfluss fokussieren im Rahmen der psychologischen Reaktanztheorie (Brehm, 1966) auf die Frage, wie Reaktanz die Zurückweisung einer Botschaft motivieren kann und welche Rolle dabei die Abhängigkeit von einer durch Sprachkontrolle ausgelösten Bedrohung der Verhaltensfreiheit hat. Obwohl gezeigt werden konnte, d...
Article
Recent social influence research utilizing psychological reactance theory (J. W. Brehm, 1966) has focused on how reactance motivates message rejection due to threats to perceived freedoms posed by controlling language. Although reactance has been shown to increase message rejection and source derogation, persuasive appeals employing alternative for...
Article
Full-text available
An in-school youth survey for a major state anti-tobacco media campaign was conducted with 1,831 students (Grades 6-12) from 70 randomly selected classrooms throughout the state. Tobacco users accounted for nearly 25% of the sample. Pretest questionnaires assessed demographic variables, tobacco use, and various other risk factors. Several predictor...
Article
Full-text available
As terrorism continues to raise the specter of death to levels of salience best measured on a global scale, terror management theory (TMT) offers valuable insights for communication theorists regarding the nature and psychology of terrorism. TMT provides a metatheoretic framework, which can help to unify a diverse range of communication theory pers...
Article
Full-text available
According to terror management theory, heightened concerns about mortality should intensify the appeal of charismatic leaders. To assess this idea, we investigated how thoughts about death and the 9/11 terrorist attacks influence Americans' attitudes toward current U.S. President George W. Bush. Study 1 found that reminding people of their own mort...
Article
Full-text available
Children between the ages of 9 and 15 are a high-risk group for tobacco use. The Centers for Disease Control estimates that first use of cigarettes among adolescents has risen 30% over the past decade, and that more than 1.2 million people age <18 became daily smokers in 1996 alone. Moreover, research indicating that awareness and liking of cigaret...
Article
Full-text available
Health campaigns utilizing traditional media and in formation technologies are generally limited to accommodating only a broadly defined target population. While demanding little i f any active participation from subjects, such media produce no more than passive learning at best. In contrast, multimedia systems a re adept at encouraging the continu...

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Projects (5)
Project
The current project focuses on designing effective messages to increase compliance with official recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also revolves around issues related to the COVID vaccine.
Project
Applying social influence and persuasion theory to health communication.
Project
Explore communication and conflict (a component of health research), especially in interpersonal, intercultural, international contexts related to diversity, identity, and discrimination.