Claude A. Garcia

Claude A. Garcia
Bern University of Applied Sciences | BFH · Department of Agriculture Forestry, Food Science & Management

PhD
International Forest Management

About

127
Publications
72,046
Reads
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4,053
Citations
Citations since 2016
67 Research Items
3446 Citations
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Introduction
I am an ecologist, professor of International Forest Managent at BHF and leading the Forest Management and Development (ForDev) Group - ETH Zürich. The focus of my research has shifted towards the interactions between ecological dynamics, stakeholder strategies and public policies, creating bridges between disciplines using tools such as Companion Modelling (ComMod). I have 20 years experience in South and South East Asia. I am fluent in French, Spanish and English.
Additional affiliations
August 2012 - present
ETH Zurich
Position
  • Group Leader
Description
  • The Forest Management and Development (ForDev) group is a joint partnership between ETH Zurich and CIRAD. We focus on the human-forest interface, conservation, sustainable use and landscape transitions in tropical regions.
August 2012 - present
ETH Zurich
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Design and impart courses on Tropical Forestry; Conflicts in Conservation and Ecosystem Management - Bachelor and Master level
August 2010 - July 2012
Center for International Forestry Research
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Education
September 1999 - March 2003
Claude Bernard University Lyon 1
Field of study
  • Modelling Tropical Forest Ecosystems
August 1998 - June 1999
August 1996 - June 1998
AgroParisTech
Field of study
  • Forestry and Tropical Forestry

Publications

Publications (127)
Article
Full-text available
"Landscape approaches" seek to provide tools and concepts for allocating and managing land to achieve social, economic, and environmental objectives in areas where agriculture, mining, and other productive land uses compete with environmental and biodiversity goals. Here we synthesize the current consensus on landscape approaches. This is based on...
Article
Full-text available
We use games in the classroom to allow students to embrace the complexities of ecosystem management, and to foster adaptation and creativity. The experience of gaming will ensure the lessons drawn during the game and the after-action discussions will not be easily forgotten. With a skilled team of facilitators, few other approaches to teaching can...
Working Paper
Full-text available
The future of the tropical forests depends on our capacity to foster transitions in the way humans interact with these ecosystems. One of the largest challenges is to get insights in the different interests of the various stakeholders and the process by which it is possible to come to joint solutions. We have developed models that couple ecological...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The FSC Congo Basin Program organised a workshop to define rules for the integration of Intact Forest Landscapes in the management of FSC certified logging companies. The participants used MineSet, a role-playing game designed by CIRAD/ETH Zurich to explore landscape impacts of logging in the Congo Basin. The group established a joint motion with 4...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing share of Madagascar’s population is dependent on artisanal and small-scale mining (AMS) as a source of livelihood. However, this unregulated activity has numerous repercussions on the miners themselves and on neighboring communities. This study explores the perception of mining of those indirectly affected by its growing presence. Far...
Article
Der «IDANE Wald+ Science-Policy Dialogue» ist eine erweiterte Diskussionsplattform zu internationalen waldpolitischen Themen mit spezifischen Beiträgen aus der Schweizer Wissenschaft. Im Dezember 2021 organisierte die Abteilung Wald des Bundesamts für Umwelt (BAFU) die erste Sitzung des IDANE Wald+. Die zweite Sitzung findet im Oktober 2022 zum The...
Preprint
Full-text available
Integrated landscape approaches (ILA) aim to reconcile multiple, often competing, interests across agriculture, nature conservation, and other land uses. Recognized ILA design principles provide guidance for their implementation, yet application remains challenging, and a strong performance evidence-base is yet to be formed. A comprehensive literat...
Article
Full-text available
While the scientific community documents environmental degradation and develops scenarios to identify the operational margins of system Earth, less attention is given to how decisions are made that steer the system in one direction or the other. We propose to use strategy games for this purpose, increasing the representation of human agency in scen...
Preprint
Full-text available
While the scientific community has focused on documenting environmental degradation and developing scenarios that help identify the operational margins for system Earth, less attention has been given to the mental models of decision-makers that underpin environmental policies. We suggest that global efforts to stop deforestation and biodiversity lo...
Method
Full-text available
Citation: Savilaakso, S.; Lausberg, N.; Garcia, C.A.; Grenacher, R.; Kleinschroth, F.; Waeber, P.O. Definitions of and Perspectives on Forests of High Value: A Systematic Map Protocol. Forests 2021, 12, 876.
Article
Full-text available
Africa is forecasted to experience large and rapid climate change1 and population growth2 during the twenty-first century, which threatens the world’s second largest rainforest. Protecting and sustainably managing these African forests requires an increased understanding of their compositional heterogeneity, the environmental drivers of forest comp...
Article
Full-text available
The establishment of protected areas is central to biodiversity conservation strategies. However, they often fail in meeting their expectations, especially in the tropics. One core reason for their failure is human pressure. Protected area transgression has tremendous impacts on biodiversity, but also on persecuted rule-breakers whose necessities a...
Article
Full-text available
We present a new framework that allows understanding those we deem irrational in the climate debate. Realizing if the issue is one of information, beliefs, values or means opens the door for more constructive dialogue. Decision-makers diverge in their responses to the urgent need for action on climate and biodiversity. Action gaps are fueled by the...
Article
Full-text available
A growing number of people are entering the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector worldwide. In Madagascar, millions of individuals depend on this informal activity. Through a case study in the Alaotra-Mangoro region of Mada-gascar, our research aimed to understand the "bottom-up" dynamics and ripple effects of the sector, by looking at the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Leclère et al.1 have outlined the possibility of a biodiversity transition for the 21st century, a line of thinking equivalent to the Forest Transition theory and what it says about forest cover globally2. The authors use a suite of global models to explore the impacts on global biodiversity of interventions on land-use, consumption and production...
Article
Full-text available
Forests across the world stand at a crossroads where climate and land-use changes are shaping their future. Despite demonstrations of political will and global efforts, forest loss, fragmentation, and degradation continue unabated. No clear evidence exists to suggest that these initiatives are working. A key reason for this apparent ineffectiveness...
Article
Full-text available
Deforestation and biodiversity loss in agroecosystems are generally the result of rational choices, not of a lack of awareness or knowledge. Despite both scientific evidence and traditional knowledge that supports the value of diverse production systems for ecosystem services and resilience, a trend of agroecosystem intensification is apparent acro...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding landscape change starts with understanding what motivates farmers to transition away from one system, shifting cultivation, into another, like plantation crops. Here we explored the resource allocation strategies of the farmers of the Karbi tribe in Northeast India, who practice a traditional shifting cultivation system called jhum. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
Forests across the world stand at the crossroad with climate and land use changes shaping their future. Despite the demonstration of political will and global efforts, forest loss, fragmentation and land degradation continue unabated. No clear evidence exists that these initiatives are working. Why are policies designed to halt deforestation and in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Leaders are failing to respond to the climate and environmental urgency the world is facing. A growing action gap, clearly visible during the recent CoP25, has been fueled by leaders' inability to respond efficiently to the mounting threats scientists—and increasingly society—are concerned about. Bridging this gap and tackling the growing polarizat...
Article
Our study quantified the global tree restoration potential and its associated carbon storage potential under existing climate conditions. Skidmore et al . dispute our findings, using as reference a yearly estimation of carbon storage that could be reached by 2050. We provide a detailed answer highlighting misunderstandings in their interpretation,...
Article
Our study quantified the global tree restoration potential and its associated carbon storage potential under existing climate conditions. We received multiple technical comments, both supporting and disputing our findings. We recognize that several issues raised in these comments are worthy of discussion. We therefore provide a detailed common answ...
Article
Full-text available
The potential for global forest cover The restoration of forested land at a global scale could help capture atmospheric carbon and mitigate climate change. Bastin et al. used direct measurements of forest cover to generate a model of forest restoration potential across the globe (see the Perspective by Chazdon and Brancalion). Their spatially expli...
Article
Full-text available
The hunger gap (the annual period of hardship when most crops are growing but not yet ready for harvest) remains a reality for many smallholder farmers throughout the globe. With a population largely relying on agriculture, and high poverty and malnutrition rates continuously afflicting the country, farmers in Madagascar are particularly vulnerable...
Article
Full-text available
The IUCN Red List has downgraded several species from "endangered" to "vulnerable" that still have largely unknown extinction risks. We consider one of those downgraded species, the giant panda, a bamboo specialist. Massive bamboo flowering could be a natural disaster for giant pandas. Using scenario analysis, we explored possible impacts of the ne...
Article
Full-text available
Despite growing industrialization, the shift to a cash economy and natural resource overexploitation, indigenous people of the Amazon region hunt and trade wildlife in order to meet their livelihood requirements. Individual strategies, shaped by the hunters' values and expectations, are changing in response to the region's economic development, but...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. Understanding landscape change starts with understanding what motivates farmers to transition away from one system, shifting cultivation, into another, like plantation crops, given that they often have limited labour and money available. In this study we explored the resource allocation strategies of the farmers of the Karbi tribe in Northeast I...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying drivers behind biodiversity recovery is critical to promote efficient ecological restoration. Yet to date, for secondary forests in China there is a considerable uncertainty concerning the ecological drivers that affect plant diversity recovery. Following up on a previous published meta-analysis on the patterns of species recovery acros...
Article
Companion Modelling (ComMod) is a support method for natural resource management that emerged in response to top-down approaches. Used by practitioners to support stakeholders in conflict resolution, it is also used by researchers to generate with stakeholders’ involvement, knowledge about complex socio-ecological systems (SES). The approach is wel...
Article
Full-text available
Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a widely used approach aimed at involving those utilizing resources in their management. In Madagascar, where forest decentralization has been implemented since the 1990s to spur local resource users' involvement in management processes, impacts remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate f...
Preprint
Deforestation and biodiversity loss in agroecosystems are generally the result of rational choices, not of a lack of awareness or knowledge. Despite both scientific evidence and traditional knowledge that supports the value of diverse production systems for ecosystem services and resilience, a trend of agroecosystem intensification is apparent acro...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The attribution of community forests to local populations has emerged as a new participative management system of plant biodiversity in Cameroon. Further to the intensification of anthropogenic activities in these forests, the logging impact on this biodiversity remains poorly known. This study was conducted in two different community fore...
Article
Conservation conflicts represent complex multilayered problems that are challenging to study. We explore the utility of theoretical, experimental, and constructivist approaches to games to help to understand and manage these challenges. We show how these approaches can help to develop theory, understand patterns in conflict, and highlight potential...
Article
Full-text available
In 2014, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) added a new criterion to its principles that requires protection of intact forest landscapes (IFLs). An IFL is an extensive area of forest that lacks roads and other signs of human activity as detected through remote sensing. In the Congo basin, our analysis of road networks in formally approved concess...
Article
The viability of coffee farming in East Africa is endangered by multiple factors including climate change, population pressure, low yields, and coffee price volatility. Sustainable intensification (SI) through intercropping and/or agroforestry has been suggested to improve farmers' livelihoods, facilitate adaptation of coffee production to climate...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Outcome Statement of strategic impact of MineSet “role playing game” and the role of facilitation within the Forest Stewardship Council HCV-RWG (High Conservation Value-Regional Working Group)
Article
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A growing literature on collective action focuses on exploring the conditions that might help or hinder groups to work collectively. In this paper, we focus on community-based forest management in the inner Terai region of Nepal and explore the role of community and user attributes such as group size, social heterogeneities, forest user’ perception...
Article
Full-text available
Dans une lettre cosignée par 30 chercheurs et publiquement adressée au ministère norvégien du Climat et de l’Environnement, le Pr Simon Lewis (University of Leeds) et ses collègues dénoncent l’impact potentiellement négatif de l’exploitation forestière sur les vastes marécages de la cuvette congolaise, abritant en partie des tourbières. Cette lettr...
Method
The Supplementary Material S1–8 contains all necessary files to be able to play the Alaotra Wetland Game after printing the game components. The game is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License, i.e., you can use, share and adapt the material under the condition that you indicate changes and give appropriate credit; we rec...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper presents how we combined the MineSet role-playing game with facilitation techniques to support the negotiations of the Regional Working Group on High Conservation Values of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Congo Basin Program, creating a shared understanding of the system and facilitating their decision-making process thanks to the e...
Article
Full-text available
There is considerable uncertainty concerning changes in plant diversity of Chinese secondary forests, particularly with respect to diversity recovery following anthropogenic disturbance. Here we present a meta-analysis of the recovery of woody plant species richness in secondary forests in China, with nearby primary forests as a reference. A total...
Article
Full-text available
The composition of agro-ecological landscapes is thought to have important implications for the production of major crops through its effects on pollinator abundance and behaviour. 2.We explored the roles of land cover and land cover heterogeneity on bee nest distribution for the giant honeybee Apis dorsata, a key species for coffee pollination, in...
Article
Full-text available
A majority of Madagascar's rural people depend on the primary sector. The country's agricultural hub, the Alaotra-Mangoro region, is mainly tied to fisheries and rice production. Increasing human population and decreasing output from fisheries and agriculture are pushing the rural resource users further into the protected marshlands. Understanding...
Article
Highlights • Reactive adaptation measures are largely adopted as opposed to proactive ones. • The great majority of changes affecting farmers are stresses as opposed to shocks. • Close to a quarter of participants have no contingency plan should a shock occur. • Five attitudes towards coping with change were identified. • Farmers place most importa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We propose to create the conditions for a meaningful discussion between key agencies engaged in forest smart policies, the "no net loss" agenda, including the zero deforestation debates, the implementation of jurisdictional approaches to deforestation, and the use of financing schemes to steer economies in tropical landscapes towards more sustainab...
Article
Increased demand for agricultural products, the aspirations of rural communities and a growing recognition of planetary boundaries outline the complex trade-offs resource users are facing on a daily basis. Management problems typically involve multiple stakeholders with diverse and often conflicting worldviews, needs and agendas, in an environment...
Article
Full-text available
This study of values placed on wildlife by Bantu and Yaka Pygmy forest dwellers (n = 200) in Northern Congo identified and analyzed two wildlife value orientations - “anthropocentric” and “biocentric.” The former, strongly displayed across all segments of both societies, was likely motivated by heavy reliance on bushmeat and human–wildlife conflict...
Method
Full-text available
Description du jeu de rôles Water Distribution Game” (WaDiGa) pour la simulaiton des effets de différentes modalités de gestion collective de l’eau sur la transition horticole marchande dans un petit sous-bassin versant d’Asie du Sud-Est montagnarde.
Article
Full-text available
In a letter jointly signed by 30 researchers and addressed publically to the Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment, Professor Simon Lewis (University of Leeds) and his colleagues denounced the potentially negative impact of logging in the vast swamplands of the Congolese Cuvette, which partly comprises peatlands. The letter requested that N...
Article
Full-text available
Against the backdrop of the competing demands of agricultural productivity and biodiversity conservation, understanding land-use changes is critical. We studied the past, current and future landscape–dynamic scenarios for coffee and rice-coupled crops at a village scale in the Western Ghats (southern India) by integrating three levels of organizati...
Article
Full-text available
Agroforestry systems usually include a high density and diversity of shade trees. Such systems often have a large diversity of fauna and flora and provide local and regional ecosystem services. Shade trees are, however, being removed to increase crop production in many tropical regions. There is little knowledge on the effect of shade trees on crop...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation initiatives are designed to address threats to forests and biodiversity, often through partnerships with natural-resource users who are incentivized to change their land-use and livelihood practices to avoid further biodiversity loss. In particular, direct incentives programmes that provide monetary benefits are commended for being eff...
Article
Full-text available
Drivers of deforestation in the Congo basin tropical forest. A review. Description of the subject. The forests of the Congo Basin are among the best preserved areas on Earth. Nevertheless, the factors causing deforestation around the world are also present in this subregion. This document presents a literature review of the direct causes and underl...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aim. It is often assumed in natural resources management that communication helps with solving the ‘tragedy of the commons’ by way of shared knowledge and better coordination. ReHab is a role-playing game, both cooperative and competitive, exploring the role of knowledge production and communication for the conservation and managemen...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical forests are crucial in terms of biodiversity and ecosystem services, but at the same time, they are major sources of revenue and provide livelihoods for forest-dependent people. Hopes for the simultaneous achievement of conservation goals and poverty alleviation are therefore increasingly placed on forests used for timber extraction. Most...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Key points • Under Colombian law, the sale of game to cover basic needs (e.g. housing, health, education) or to buy other food items is not allowed, since this is considered commercial hunting and does not fall under provisions allowing for subsistence bushmeat hunting. • Law 611 (2000) opened the path to legal commercial use of wildlife. In practi...
Article
Full-text available
Description of the subject. The forests of the Congo Basin are among the best preserved areas on Earth. Nevertheless, the factors causing deforestation around the world are also present in this subregion. This document presents a literature review of the direct causes and underlying factors of deforestation in the tropical areas and highlights the...