Claude E. Boyd

Claude E. Boyd
Auburn University | AU · School of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences

Ph.D.

About

561
Publications
363,708
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
22,284
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1971 - present
Auburn University
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (561)
Article
Background Elemental profiling is a tool that has been proposed to improve the traceability of seafood products. Small sources of variation can affect the outcome of elemental profiling and therefore pose to lower the overall accuracy of analyses. Here, we investigate two potential sources of variation through three experiments: laboratory variatio...
Article
Commercial processing is potentially a confounding factor for elemental profiling in shrimp. Here, two sets of paired samples were collected pre/post-processing from the same farms; one set from Thailand (n = 15) and one from Ecuador (n = 19). The samples from Ecuador were subjected to a meta-bisulfite bath as part of the processing regimen while t...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution of aquatic animal protein to the global, animal-source protein supply and the relative importance of aquaculture to capture fisheries in supplying this protein is relevant in assessments and decisions related to the future of aquatic food production and its security. Meat of terrestrial animals, milk, and eggs resulted in 76,966 Kt...
Article
Full-text available
Engineering design studies and financial feasibility assessments were made for construction, maintenance, equipment, operations, loan requirement, shrimp sales and predicted cash flows for simulated transformations of extensive shrimp farms to intensive shrimp farms in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Farms with less than 2.8 ha of feed-based, aerated pr...
Article
Shrimp are one of the fastest growing commodities in aquaculture and have a considerable land footprint. Here, we explored the impact of utilizing different production methods (extensive vs intensive) for expanding shrimp production on the cumulative land footprint of shrimp aquaculture. A meta-analytic approach was utilized to simultaneously estim...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess the amounts of land, water, energy in fuels, and wild fish for fishmeal and fish oil in feeds required per tonne of harvested, farmed shrimp in five countries producing most of the shrimp destined for the international market. Land use for whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei production differed slightly betw...
Article
Full-text available
Shrimp are an important and valuable commodity for aquaculture that is widely traded internationally. Widespread antibiotic use has been documented in shrimp farming and is a common source of criticism of aquaculture products. Additionally, previous reports have found some evidence of antibiotic residues in shrimp samples obtained from retail store...
Article
Full-text available
Shrimp are a globally traded aquaculture commodity that accounts for a large proportion of the monetary value of aquaculture. There are concerns among consumers about seafood labeling fraud and environmental sustainability. Therefore, the geographic origin of shrimp from retail stores was investigated with trace element profiling. 94 shrimp samples...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, shrimp farms occupied an estimated 3.490 million hectares (Mha) of land and operated 2.426 Mha of production ponds in 2018. Extensive shrimp farms used 1.804 Mha of farm area (1.377 Mha of production ponds), but produced 11.4% of global shrimp production. An estimated 1.718 Mha of land was required to produce ingredients for feeds used in...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture will play an increasingly important role in the global seafood supply as fisheries harvests have plateaued. Shrimp are a highly valuable aquaculture commodity which are produced largely for global trade. The Aquaculture Stewardship Council's shrimp certification standard is meant to serve as a market-based tool that rewards the better a...
Article
Aquaculture production is an important part of the global food supply and has equaled or surpassed fisheries production as the main source of aquatic foods. Aquaculture is a resource intensive practice that can use large amounts of land, water, energy, and cause pollution and degradation to the local environment. Intensive production practices have...
Article
Full-text available
A survey of 101 shrimp farms in Ecuador revealed that the average annual shrimp yield based on production pond water surface area was 7.03 ± 0.93 (SE) t/ha/year. The range in annual yield among the five provinces with shrimp farms was 3.67 ± 0.71 to 11.95 ± 5.56 t/ha year, respectively. Averages for total land, water, and energy use were 0.54 ± 0.0...
Article
Elemental profiling is a process where element concentrations in tissues are used to discern group membership between a priori groups, such as geographic location. The goal of this meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of elemental profiling to discern the geographic origin of seafood products when coupled with discriminant analyses. Coh...
Article
Full-text available
Estimates of aeration energy use in shrimp farming varied from 11.4 to 41.6 GJ/t shrimp (average = 19.8 GJ/t). Several opportunities for reducing energy use in aeration are available. Many farms adopt an excessive yield to installed aeration capacity ratio. Moreover, the proportion of installed aerator capacity in use and duration of aerator operat...
Article
Full-text available
Important operational changes that have gradually been assimilated and new approaches that are developing as part of the movement toward sustainable intensive aquaculture production systems are presented via historical, current, and future perspectives. Improved environmental and economic sustainability based on increased efficiency of production c...
Chapter
Acidity in water bodies with pH of about 4 up to 8.3 is caused by carbon dioxide and dissolved humic substances. Waters with pH <4.0 usually contain sulfuric acid or possibly another strong acid, but they still contain carbon dioxide and possibly humic compounds. Low pH is associated with low productivity and biodiversity. Acidity is measured by ti...
Chapter
Concentrations of dissolved oxygen and other dissolved atmospheric gases at saturation in water vary with the partial pressures and solubilities of the gases, and the temperature and salinity of the water. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen and other dissolved gases at saturation decrease with greater elevation (lower barometric pressure), higher s...
Chapter
The pH or negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration is a master variable in water quality because the hydrogen ion influences many reactions. Because dissolved carbon dioxide is acidic, rainwater that is saturated with this gas is naturally acidic—usually about pH 5.6. Limestone, calcium silicate, and feldspars in soils and other geologi...
Chapter
Phosphorus usually is the most important nutrient limiting phytoplankton productivity in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Phosphorus occurs naturally in most geological formations and soils in varying amounts and forms; the main source of agricultural and industrial phosphate is deposits of the mineral apatite—known as rock phosphate. Munic...
Chapter
Sulfur is a nutrient for plants and animals; hydrogen sulfide is an odorous, toxic material; and sulfur dioxide is an air pollutant responsible for acid rain. Plants primarily use sulfate as a sulfur source, and sulfur containing amino acids in plants are important to animal nutrition. Sulfur compounds undergo oxidations and reductions in the envir...
Chapter
Temperature is a measure of the heat content of an object which results from the energy content of that object. The main source of energy in ecological systems is solar radiation. The earth’s energy budget is essentially balanced with the incoming solar radiation being balanced by the reflection of solar radiation and the re-radiation of energy abs...
Chapter
The familiar water cycle is driven by solar radiation, and water is continually transformed back and forth between water vapor and liquid water. In the process, water passes through several distinct compartments of the hydrosphere to include atmospheric moisture, precipitation, runoff, groundwater, standing water bodies, flowing streams, and ocean....
Chapter
Impaired water quality can result from natural causes, but the most common cause is anthropogenic pollution. Soil erosion leads to turbidity and sedimentation in water bodies. Organic wastes impart a high oxygen demand often culminating in low dissolved oxygen concentrations and nitrogen and phosphorus in effluents cause eutrophication. Pesticides,...
Chapter
The term eutrophication refers to a water body changing over time from nutrient-poor to nutrient-rich status. More nutrients cause increased aquatic plant growth that negatively influences water quality and especially dissolved oxygen availability. The result is a decrease in species diversity and an increase in the biomass of a few and usually les...
Chapter
The water molecule is electrostatically charged with a negative site on one side and two positive sites on the other. Attractions between oppositely-charged sites on adjacent water molecules are stronger than typical van der Waals attractions among molecules and are called hydrogen bonds. The molecules in solid (ice) and in liquid water exhibit str...
Chapter
Natural waters contain suspended particulates that increase turbidity, impart apparent color, and interfere with light penetration. These particles originate from erosion, vegetative debris from watersheds, and microorganisms produced in water bodies. Suspended particles vary from colloids that remain suspended indefinitely to larger silt and sand...
Chapter
The solubilities of most minerals from which trace metals in natural waters originate are favored by low pH. The concentration of the free ion of a dissolved trace element usually is much lower than is the total concentration of the trace element. This results from ion pair associations between the free trace ion and major ions, complex ion formati...
Chapter
The total hardness of water results from divalent cations—mainly from calcium and magnesium—expressed as equivalent calcium carbonate. The total hardness equivalence of 1 mg/L calcium is 2.5 mg/L, while 1 mg/L magnesium equates to 4.12 mg/L. Hardness and alkalinity often are similar in concentration in waters of humid regions, but hardness frequent...
Chapter
The total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration in freshwater is determined by passing water through a 2-μm filter, evaporating the filtrate to dryness, and reporting the weight of the solids remaining after evaporation in milligrams per liter. Salinity and electrical conductivity usually are used to assess the concentrations of ions in seawater, an...
Chapter
Phytoplankton and bacteria have a greater effect on water quality than do other aquatic microorganisms. Phytoplankton are the main primary producers while bacteria are responsible for the majority of organic matter decomposition and nutrient recycling. An overview of microbial growth, photosynthesis, and respiration is provided, and methods for mea...
Chapter
Solubility, chemical equilibrium, and equilibrium constants are closely related to Gibbs free energy of reaction. Electrostatic interactions among ions decrease the activities of ions, and these interactions increase with greater ionic strength. As a result, for precise calculations related to solubility and equilibrium, ionic activities instead of...
Chapter
Electrons are lost when a substance is oxidized and gained when a substance is reduced. Oxidations and reductions occur in couplets—known as half-cells—in which one substance, the oxidizing agent, accepts electrons from another substance, the reducing agent. The oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized. The flow of electrons be...
Chapter
The atmosphere is a vast storehouse of nitrogen—it consists of 78% by volume of this gas. Atmospheric nitrogen is converted by electrical activity to nitrate (NO3⁻) that reaches the earth’s surface in rainfall. Atmospheric nitrogen also can be fixed as organic nitrogen by bacteria and blue-green algae, and it can be reduced to ammonia (NH3) by indu...
Book
This volume is of great importance to humans and other living organisms. The study of water quality draws information from a variety of disciplines including chemistry, biology, mathematics, physics, engineering, and resource management. University training in water quality is often limited to specialized courses in engineering, ecology, and fisher...
Article
Full-text available
There is considerable interest in the culture of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus van-namei) in inland low-salinity water in Alabama and other states in the Sunbelt region of the US. However, the growing season is truncated as compared with tropical or subtropical areas where this species is typically cultured, and temperature is thought to be a major...
Article
Laboratory soil–water systems in which soil organic matter was increased by 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% by adding dry, chopped ryegrass (Lolium perenne) shoots to sandy soil containing 0.06% organic matter. Agricultural limestone was added to the systems, and pH, alkalinity and hardness of the water were monitored for 65 days. The pH, alkalinit...
Article
Shrimp samples from aquaculture ponds supplied with either freshwater (0.2–1.3 g L⁻¹ salinity) or seawater (27.6–39.0 g L⁻¹ salinity) were subjected to elemental profiling and to stable isotope analysis. Concentrations of 35 trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs) were analyzed by ICP-MS, and the δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N concentrations were analy...
Article
Full-text available
The US catfish industry has shown increasing trends toward intensification of production as a means of achieving cost efficiencies on farms. Previous studies depicted the potential for cost efficiencies in alternative technologies such as split‐pond systems, intensively aerated ponds, and in‐pond raceway systems. This study provides an economic com...
Article
Full-text available
How to Cite: ABDELRAHMAN, H. A. AND BOYD, C. E. Effects of mechanical aeration on evaporation rate, water temperature In-text: (Abdelrahman and Boyd, 2018) Your Bibliography: Abdelrahman, H. and Boyd, C. (2018). Effects of mechanical aeration on evaporation rate, water temperature. Global Aquaculture Advocate. [online] Available at: https://www.aq...
Article
Full-text available
Organic fertilizers (livestock manures and other agricultural wastes or by-products) and chemical fertilizers can be applied to aquaculture ponds to increase fish or shrimp production. Pond fertilization increases concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients to stimulate phytoplankton photosynthesis that is the base of the food...
Article
A few major ions contribute most of the weight of dissolved solids in water. Direct determination of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration is tedious, and the electrical conductivity of freshwater and the salinity of saline water are common surrogates for TDS in aquaculture. The primary concern over dissolved solids is maintaining TDS concentr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The study used discussions and interviews with selected respondents to generate relevant information for training fish farmer groups and other actors involved in aquaculture. The trainings followed data collection so as to make sure that training focused on identified knowledge gaps among target groups. The study focused on selected districts in ce...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The rapid development of mobile technology, the increased penetration rates and the inherent characteristics of mobile phones are the reasons mobile phones are currently emerging as the fast widespread form of electronic communication system in African countries. Mobile phones can, therefore play a key role in disseminating relevant information to...
Article
Low‐salinity inland ponds in west Alabama were used to determine if soil composition and water ionic profiles influenced shrimp growth. Soils from four farms were collected and placed into individual tanks equipped with airlift biofilters and 2.5% reconstituted seawater. Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were cultured for 42 d. Growth, surv...
Chapter
There is a close relationship between water-quality conditions in grow-out systems and the health of aquaculture animals. Impaired water quality can cause direct mortality, but more often, it stresses aquatic animals making them more susceptible to infectious diseases. The effort required for maintaining homeostasis by aquatic animals exposed to su...
Article
Full-text available
Soil physico-chemical properties of the growout ponds of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were in relation to shrimp yields for one production cycle. The culture ponds were old (>5 years) and new (newly constructed) types. Soil texture was silty clay with low sand content and high proportion of clay for both the pond types with alkaline soil pH...
Article
Shrimp farms in India had average yields (pond surface basis) of 7.86 ± 1.04 (SE) m.t./ha/yr for Litopenaeus vannamei (n = 89) and 3.88 m.t./ha/yr for Penaeus monodon (n = 11). Average feed conversion ratio was 1.48 ± 0.04 for L. vannamei and 1.24 ± 0.12 for P. monodon. Land use for production ponds, supporting area, and feed ingredients averaged 0...
Article
Shrimp from three major exporting countries – India, Vietnam, and Thailand – were identified to country of origin by elemental profiling. Concentrations of 23 elements, including essential macro- and micro-nutrients and non-essential trace elements, in headless shell on shrimp (HLSO) samples were analyzed by ICP-AES. Elemental concentrations in shr...
Article
Application of agricultural limestone to increase alkalinity to about 50 mg/l improves production in fertilized ponds and enhances water quality in ponds for feed-based aquaculture. Burnt lime and hydrated lime cause an initial high pH, but they can be applied to bottoms of empty ponds for the purpose of neutralizing bottom soil acidity. In additio...
Article
Feed-based production of ictalurid catfish in ponds is the largest aquaculture sector in the USA. Feed has an oxygen demand, and increases carbon dioxide, ammonia nitrogen, and phosphate inputs to ponds. Major sources of oxygen in ponds are phytoplankton photosynthesis and mechanical aeration; the major sink for oxygen is respiration by fish and by...
Article
This work aimed at assessing the role of salinity in the dissolution rates of CaCO3, discussing its implications for aquaculture liming. A simplified formula of artificial seawater without HCO3⁻ was initially prepared. Four batches of 10 L of diluted artificial seawater (salinity = 3.3 g/L) without HCO3⁻ were prepared. Sixteen Erlenmeyer flasks wer...
Article
A case study is presented to compare the results of design and management including circulation and dissolved oxygen management at a modified split-pond facility in west-central Alabama to the recommended design. Modifications included: the use of and a propeller pump instead of a slow-moving paddlewheel, lack of baffle in the waste cells, waste ce...
Article
Full-text available
Water-analysis kits are useful for practical aquaculture only if they provide equivalent decision-making as compared to standard water-analysis methods. This study used weighted Cohen's kappa (κ) statistics to compare management decisions made by farmers who used water-analysis kits (e.g., Seneye slide kit, Tetra EasyStrips, API test strips, Seache...
Article
Split-pond systems divide a traditional pond into a 1:4 relationship where 20% of the water surface area is designated to fish production and 80% is designated to waste-treatment. Water passes from the fish cell to the waste cell for water quality improvement and flows back to the fish cell. The present study was conducted on a commercial catfish f...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon concentrations were measured from 203 samples of starter, fingerling, and grower aquaculture feeds from several countries and for several common species. The feed protein concentrations reported by manufacturers often were slightly greater than the measured crude protein concentrations. The correlation coefficients...
Article
There is growing interest in sustainable intensification of aquaculture production. Yet little economic analysis has been done on farm-level effects of the economic sustainability of production intensification. Data from 83 shrimp farms (43 in Vietnam and 40 in Thailand) were used to identify (through principal component and cluster analyses) 13 cl...
Article
The oxygen demand, acidification potential, and waste loads of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and phosphorus from feed were determined for production of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, tilapia Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Loads of these variables in cultu...
Article
Full-text available
Springs serving the Warm Springs Regional Fisheries Center, Warm Springs, Georgia, have pH, alkalinity, and hardness levels that lie under the range required for successful fish propagation while free CO2 is well above allowable targets. We evaluate a pretreatment process that exploits limestone’s (CaCO3) ability to react away hydrogen ions (H⁺) an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Split ponds have a fish cell and a waste cell, approximately 20% water surface area and 80% water surface area respectively, in which water recirculates to improve water quality as a more intensive management system than traditional ponds. This is a continuation of a study that focuses on the possible benefits of using mechanical aeration in the wa...
Article
The rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is increasing the solubility of limestone, calcium silicate, and feldspars, resulting in greater total alkalinity concentration in inland waters. This phenomenon will result in inland waters having slightly greater alkalinity concentration (and buffering capacity), higher pH when at equilibr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Water temperature is a vital factor controlling the growth rate of all cultured aquatic species. Shallow water aquaculture ponds typically stratify thermally in the day and destratify at night. The severity of thermal stratification in the pond is controlled by the degree of light penetration. The depth of penetration of solar radiation into a smal...
Article
Resource use was investigated at 34 Litopenaeus vannamei and five Penaeus monodon farms in Thailand and 30 L. vannamei and 24 P. monodon farms in Vietnam. Farms varied in water surface areas for production, reservoirs, canals, and settling basins; in pond size and depth; and in water management, stocking density, feeding rate, amendment input, aera...
Article
Samples of agricultural limestone were obtained from quarries in the USA as follows: Talking Rock, GA; Whitestone, GA; Austinville, VA; Bonham, TX; and Thomasville, PA, referred as GA-1, GA-2, VA, TX and PA respectively. The limestone products were tested initially for non-equilibrium pH, concentrations of calcium and magnesium, neutralizing value...
Article
The solubilities of calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxide were determined in four waters of different initial salinity, pH, and alkalinity (in parentheses, respectively) as follows: freshwater (0.01 g L− 1, 6.26, 2.79 mg L− 1); diluted seawater (3.7 g L− 1, 7.37, 13 mg L− 1); diluted seawater (11.0 g L− 1, 7.97, 35.3 mg L− 1); seawater (31.7 g L−...
Article
Annual treatment of a water supply reservoir with agricultural limestone at the E. W. Shell Fisheries Center at Auburn University has roughly doubled conductivity and concentrations of total alkalinity, total hardness, and calcium hardness in the discharge water. It also has prevented pH values below 6.7. Concentrations of water quality variables d...
Article
Global averages were obtained for amounts of energy, land, water, wildfish, nitrogen, and phosphorus embodied in aquaculture feed ingredients. These data allowed amounts of these embodied resources to be calculated for typical feed formulations for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; hybrid catfish, I. punctatus♀ × I. furcatus♂; Vietnamese catfis...
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA to reduce monitoring parameters in the evaluation of fish pond water qualities. Concentrations of settleable solids (Set), turbidity (Tur), total suspended solids (TSS), particulate organic matter (POM), chlorophyll-a (Chl), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total phosphorus (TP)...
Article
The effects of chemical treatments on color change of yellow discolored catfish fillets during both refrigerated and frozen storage were investigated in this work. For the refrigerated storage (4°C), the effects of concentration of sodium bisulfite on reducing the yellow discoloration were studied. Compared to the untreated fillets, sodium bisulfit...
Article
A coated copper sulfate algicide designed for controlled release of copper was evaluated for its effectiveness in controlling phytoplankton in hybrid catfish, ♀Ictalurus punctatus × ♂Ictalurus furcatus, ponds. Copper concentrations were greater in ponds receiving weekly treatments with copper sulfate crystals than in ponds in which the coated coppe...
Article
There has been considerable interest worldwide in applying bacterial inocula to channel catfish ponds for improving water quality, especially for acceleration of ammonia nitrogen oxidation through bacterial nitrification. The effects of a selected bacterial amendment on water quality in small research ponds for channel catfish production were evalu...
Article
Full-text available
Several organizations have developed eco-label certification programs with standards to conserve resources and reduce negative environmental impacts of fish and shrimp production. Production by pond aquaculture is reported on a water surface area basis, but additional land for embankments, roads, storage areas, and so on, is required. Thus, data on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Description: There is considerable interest in the culture of Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in inland low-salinity water in Alabama and other states in the Sunbelt region of the US. However, the growing season is truncated as compared to tropical or subtropical areas where this species is typically cultured, and the temperature is thought...
Article
The effects of 12 bacterial amendments on reducing concentrations of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrite nitrogen (NO2− N) and organic matter in pond waters were evaluated in the laboratory. Concentrations of TAN, NO2− N and organic matter in untreated water (controls) naturally decreased with time during 16 days. No large acceleration in nitrifi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Mobile phones can improve aquaculture productivity by increasing access to technical guidance, extension services, product assembly, input coordination, and price discovery for small-and medium-scale fish farmers. Data were obtained in five focused group interviews held across Uganda. The findings indicate that the use of mobile phones is common am...
Article
The accuracy and precision of different methods for detecting the endpoint of the total alkalinity titration and the typical accuracy and precision obtained for alkalinity analyses by a large sample of laboratories were investigated. The optimum, endpoint for total alkalinity titrations decreased from pH 5.0 at 10 mg l− 1 alkalinity to pH 4.2 for 3...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Water temperature directly affects the growth rate of all cultured aquatic species. Shallow water aquaculture ponds typically stratify thermally in the day and destratify at night. Thermal gradients are caused by the attenuation of solar radiation in the water, and attenuation is a function of water turbidity. The objectives of this study were to m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The original split-pond concept involved no water quality management in the waste-treatment section of the system. Dissolved oxygen concentrations commonly fall to near 0 mg/L each night during the summer. Cycles of daily aerobic conditions and nightly anaerobic conditions are thought to be keys to efficient waste nitrogen processing, which is a di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is considerable interest in culture of Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in inland low­salinity water in Alabama and other states in Sunbelt region of the US. However the growth season is truncated as compared to tropical or subtropical areas where this species is typically cultured, and temperature is thought to be a major factor influe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aeration is increasingly used to improve water quality and increase yields in aquaculture ponds. Surface aerators increase oxygenation by creating a greater area of contact between water and air – a process that also favors higher evaporation rate. Evaporation results in heat loss from water bodies; therefore, it affects temperature that is an impo...
Article
Full-text available
Total alkalinity and total hardness are familiar variables in aquatic animal production. Aquaculturists-both scientists and practitioners alike-have some understanding of the two variables and of methods for adjusting their concentrations. The chemistry and the biological effects of alkalinity and hardness, however, are more complex than generally...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The experiment was performed to determine the effect a commercial potting mix partially replaced with dewatered aquaculture effluent had on tomato transplant growth. Methods The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial and evaluated two water sources (water-soluble, inorganic fertilizer or municipal water) and three soilless substrates...