Clare Sutherland

Clare Sutherland
University of Aberdeen | ABDN · School of Psychology

PhD

About

51
Publications
38,793
Reads
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1,110
Citations
Introduction
Clare Sutherland is a senior lecturer at the University of Aberdeen. She trained at the ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, University of Western Australia. Clare conducts research in Social Psychology, Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Psychology.
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - present
University of Western Australia
Position
  • Research Associate
June 2015 - December 2016
University of Western Australia
Position
  • Research Associate
October 2011 - May 2015
The University of York
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Adults form highly influential impressions about how trustworthy someone is from a mere glance at their face. Given their social and adaptive influence, the question emerges of how trust impressions develop. Following renewed interest, some mixed findings, and debate around their origins, this paper systematically reviews and meta-analyses research...
Article
Being able to identify trustworthy strangers is a critical social skill. However, whether such impressions are accurate is debatable. Critically, the field currently lacks a quantitative summary of the evidence. To address this gap, we conducted two meta-analyses. We tested whether there is a correlation between perceived and actual trustworthiness...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
Adults teach children not to "judge a book by its cover." However, adults make rapid judgments of character from a glance at a child's face. These impressions can be modestly accurate, suggesting that adults may be sensitive to valid signals of character in children's faces. However, it is not clear whether such sensitivity requires decades of soci...
Article
Full-text available
Lay wisdom warns against “judging a book by its cover”. However, facial first impressions influence people’s behaviour towards others, so it is critical that we understand whether these impressions are at all accurate. Understanding impressions of children’s faces is particularly important because these impressions can have social consequences duri...
Article
Full-text available
People evaluate a stranger’s trustworthiness from their facial features in a fraction of a second, despite common advice “not to judge a book by its cover.” Evaluations of trustworthiness have critical and widespread social impact, predicting financial lending, mate selection, and even criminal justice outcomes. Consequently, understanding how peop...
Article
Full-text available
Trustworthiness is assumed to be processed implicitly from faces, despite the fact that the overwhelming majority of research has only involved explicit trustworthiness judgements. To answer the question whether or not trustworthiness processing can be implicit, we apply an electroencephalography (EEG) fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) paradi...
Article
Trustworthiness is assumed to be processed implicitly from faces, despite the fact that the overwhelming majority of research has only involved explicit trustworthiness judgements. To answer the question whether or not trustworthiness processing can be implicit, we apply an electroencephalography fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) paradigm, wh...
Article
Objectives: Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired social interactions and altered trust. In the general population, trust is often based on facial appearance, with limited validity but enormous social consequences. The aim was to examine trust processing in schizophrenia and specifically to examine how people with schizophrenia use facial app...
Article
Full-text available
A common goal in psychological research is the measurement of subjective impressions, such as first impressions of faces. These impressions are commonly measured using Likert ratings. Although these ratings are simple to administer, they are associated with response issues that can limit reliability. Here we examine best-worst scaling (BWS), a forc...
Article
Full-text available
Despite warnings not to “judge a book by its cover”, people rapidly form facial impressions. In Oosterhof and Todorov’s (2008) two-dimensional model of facial impressions, trustworthiness and dominance underlie impressions and primarily function to signal the potential threat of others. Here, we test a key assumption of these models, namely that th...
Article
A large research literature details the powerful behavioral consequences that a trustworthy appearance can have on adult behavior. Surprisingly, few studies have investigated how these biases operate among children, despite the theoretical importance of understanding when these biases emerge in development. Here, we used an economic trust game to s...
Article
Full-text available
We routinely make judgements of trustworthiness from the faces of others. However, the accuracy of such judgements remains contentious. An important context for trustworthiness judgements is sexual unfaithfulness. Accuracy in sexual unfaithfulness judgements may be adaptive for avoiding reproductive costs associated with having an unfaithful partne...
Article
Influential facial impression models have repeatedly shown that trustworthiness, youthful–attractiveness, and dominance dimensions subserve a wide variety of first impressions formed from strangers’ faces, suggestive of a shared social reality. However, these models are built from impressions aggregated across observers. Critically, recent work has...
Article
Full-text available
Facial impressions of trustworthiness guide social decisions in the general population, as shown by financial lending in economic Trust Games. As an exception, autistic boys fail to use facial impressions to guide trust decisions, despite forming typical facial trustworthiness impressions (Autism, 19, 2015a, 1002). Here, we tested whether this diss...
Article
Full-text available
Forming accurate impressions of others’ trustworthiness is a critical social skill, with faithfulness representing a key aspect of trust in sexual relationships. Interestingly, there is evidence for a small degree of accuracy in facial impressions of sexual unfaithfulness. Theoretical accounts suggest that these impressions may function to help wit...
Data
Negative binomial analyses. (DOCX)
Preprint
Influential facial impression models have repeatedly shown that trustworthiness, youthful-attractiveness and dominance dimensions subserve a wide variety of first impressions formed from strangers’ faces, suggestive of a shared social reality. However, these models are built from impressions aggregated across observers. Critically, recent work has...
Article
Full-text available
Given the frequency of relationships nowadays initiated online, where impressions from face photographs may influence relationship initiation, it is important to understand how facial first impressions might be used in such contexts. We therefore examined the applicability of a leading model of verbally expressed partner preferences to impressions...
Article
Full-text available
People draw automatic social inferences from photos of unfamiliar faces and these first impressions are associated with important real-world outcomes. Here we examine the effect of selecting online profile images on first impressions. We model the process of profile image selection by asking participants to indicate the likelihood that images of th...
Article
Full-text available
People form first impressions from facial appearance rapidly, and these impressions can have considerable social and economic consequences. Three dimensions can explain Western perceivers’ impressions of Caucasian faces: approachability, youthful-attractiveness, and dominance. Impressions along these dimensions are theorized to be based on adaptive...
Article
Full-text available
Image manipulation of real face photographs, including averaging, morphing, and caricaturing, is widely used in studies of face perception. These methods have led to theoretical insights across topics of interest to social psychologists, including social perception, social categorization, stereotyping, prejudice, impression formation, and individua...
Article
Full-text available
Models of person perception have long asserted that our impressions of others are guided by characteristics of both the target and perceiver. However, research has not yet quantified to what extent perceivers and targets contribute to different impressions. This quantification is theoretically critical, as it addresses how much an impression arises...
Article
Objective: It is not clear how well evaluations made by other people correspond with self-evaluations of esteem or confidence. To address this question, we compared measurements of confidence in participants with and without dandruff METHODS: Participants with dandruff were significantly different from healthy control participants on a quality of...
Article
Full-text available
Models of first impressions from faces have consistently found two underlying dimensions of trustworthiness and dominance. These dimensions show apparent parallels to social psychological models of inter-group perception that describe dimensions of warmth (cf. trustworthiness) and competence (cf. dominance), and it has been suggested that they refl...
Article
Impairments of emotion recognition have been widely documented in Huntington's disease (HD), but little is known concerning how these relate to other aspects of social cognition, including first impressions of traits such as trustworthiness and dominance. Here, we introduce a novel and sensitive method to investigate the ability to evaluate trustwo...
Article
Full-text available
First impressions made to photographs of faces can depend as much on momentary characteristics of the photographed image (within-person variability) as on consistent properties of the face of the person depicted (between-person variability). Here, we examine two important sources of within-person variability: emotional expression and viewpoint. We...
Article
Full-text available
People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying “ambient image” face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimens...
Technical Report
This report describes the profile of online offenders and the nature of their offending. Ref: ISBN 978-1-78246-907-0, Home Office Research Report 82. Paper can be found: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-nature-of-online-offending
Poster
Studies of Western perceivers have found a three-factor structure to first impressions of Caucasian faces: approachability, youthful-attractiveness and dominance (Sutherland et al. 2013). These factors are thought to reflect responses to facial cues with a long evolutionary history related to threat and to sexual selection (Oosterhof & Todorov, 200...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Article
The facial first impressions literature has focused on trait dimensions, with less research on how social categories (like gender) may influence first impressions of faces. Yet, social psychological studies have shown the importance of categories like gender in the evaluation of behaviour. We investigated whether face gender affects the positive or...
Article
Full-text available
First impressions of social traits, such as trustworthiness or dominance, are reliably perceived in faces, and despite their questionable validity they can have considerable real-world consequences. We sought to uncover the information driving such judgments, using an attribute-based approach. Attributes (physical facial features) were objectively...
Article
Rapidly approaching (looming) sounds are ecologically salient stimuli that are perceived as nearer than they are due to overestimation of their loudness change and underestimation of their distance (Neuhoff, 1998; Seifritz et al., 2002). Despite evidence for crossmodal influence by looming sounds onto visual areas (Romei, Murray, Cappe, & Thut, 200...
Poster
Models of first impressions from faces have emphasised two social attribute dimensions in particular: trustworthiness (approach/avoid) and dominance (capability). These face perception models bear a strong resemblance to social psychological models of group/stereotyping perception that describe similar dimensions of warmth and competence. We invest...
Article
Full-text available
Facial stereotypes are cognitive representations of the facial characteristics of members of social groups. In this study, we examined the extent to which facial stereotypes for occupational groups were based on physiognomic cues to stereotypical social characteristics. In Experiment 1, participants rated the occupational stereotypicality of natura...
Article
Three experiments are presented that investigate the two-dimensional valence/trustworthiness by dominance model of social inferences from faces (Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008). Experiment 1 used image averaging and morphing techniques to demonstrate that consistent facial cues subserve a range of social inferences, even in a highly variable sample of 1...

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