Clare Kelly

Clare Kelly
NYU Langone Medical Center | NYUMC · Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Ph.D.

About

115
Publications
31,248
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26,212
Citations
Citations since 2017
6 Research Items
13543 Citations
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
February 2006 - present
NYU Langone Medical Center
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (115)
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Some studies have suggested alterations of structural brain asymmetry in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but findings have been contradictory and based on small samples. Here, we performed the largest ever analysis of brain left-right asymmetry in ADHD, using 39 datasets of the ENIGMA consortium. Methods: We analyzed...
Article
Full-text available
Patterns of functional connectivity are unique at the individual level, enabling test-retest matching algorithms to identify a subject from among a group using only their functional connectome. Recent findings show that accuracies of these algorithms in children increase with age. Relatedly, the persistence of functional connectivity (FC) patterns...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adults. Neuroanatomic heterogeneity limits our understanding of the etiology of ADHD. This study aimed to parse neuroanatomic heterogeneity of ADHD, and to determine whether subgroups could be discerned in patients based...
Preprint
Full-text available
Patterns of functional connectivity are unique at the individual level, enabling test-retest matching algorithms to identify a subject from among a group using only their functional connectome. Recent findings show that accuracies of these algorithms in children increase with age. Relatedly, the persistence of functional connectivity (FC) patterns...
Article
Objective: Neuroimaging studies show structural alterations of various brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although nonreplications are frequent. The authors sought to identify cortical characteristics related to ADHD using large-scale studies. Methods: Cortical thickness and surface area (b...
Article
Background: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies and meta-analyses, namely inadequate sample size an...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purposes of this study were to examine the impact of 3 weeks of amphetamine administration on intrinsic connectome-wide connectivity patterns in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and explore the association between stimulant-induced symptom improvement and functional connectivity alteration. Methods: Part...
Article
Full-text available
One of the grand challenges faced by neuroscience is to delineate the determinants of interindividual variation in the comprehensive structural and functional connection matrices that comprise the human connectome. At present, this endeavor appears most tractable at the macroanatomic scale, where intrinsic brain activity exhibits robust patterns of...
Article
Objective: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can identify structural connectivity alterations in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most ADHD DTI studies have concentrated on regional differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) despite its limited sensitivity to complex white matter architecture and increasing evidence of global brain dif...
Article
Full-text available
An increasingly important goal of psychiatry is the use of brain imaging data to develop predictive models. Here we present two contributions to statistical methodology for this purpose. First, we propose and compare a set of wavelet-domain procedures for fitting generalized linear models with scalar responses and image predictors: sparse variants...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to identify meaningful functional imaging-based biomarkers are limited by the ability to reliably characterize inter-individual differences in human brain function. Although a growing number of connectomics-based measures are reported to have moderate to high test-retest reliability, the variability in data acquisition, experimental designs...
Article
The examination of functional connectivity in fMRI data collected during task-free "rest" has provided a powerful tool for studying functional brain organization. Limitations of this approach include susceptibility to head motion artifacts and participant drowsiness or sleep. These issues are especially relevant when studying young children or clin...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, the developmental trajectories of neural circuits implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are largely unknown. Here, we specifically focused on age-related changes in the functional circuitry of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a key hub underlying social-cognitive processes known to be impaired in ASD. Using a cross-...
Article
We propose a novel method for neurodevelopmental brain mapping that displays how an individual's values for a quantity of interest compare with age-specific norms. By estimating smoothly age-varying distributions at a set of brain regions of interest, we derive age-dependent region-wise quantile ranks for a given individual, which can be presented...
Article
The vast majority of mental illnesses can be conceptualized as developmental disorders of neural interactions within the connectome, or developmental miswiring. The recent maturation of pediatric in vivo brain imaging is bringing the identification of clinically meaningful brain-based biomarkers of developmental disorders within reach. Even more au...
Article
The identification of phenotypic associations in high-dimensional brain connectivity data represents the next frontier in the neuroimaging connectomics era. Exploration of brain- phenotype relationships remains limited by statistical approaches that are computationally intensive, depend on a priori hypotheses, or require stringent correction for mu...
Article
The ascendancy of functional neuroimaging has facilitated the addition of network-based approaches to the neuropsychologist's toolbox for evaluating the sequelae of brain insult. In particular, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) mapping of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) data constitutes an ideal approach to measuring macro-scale networks in the h...
Article
Background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in adolescence. Heavy use is associated with deficits on a broad range of cognitive functions and heavy use during adolescence may impact development of gray and white matter. Objectives: To examine differences in intrinsic brain activity and connectivity associated with cannabis depend...
Article
Full-text available
At macroscopic scales, the human connectome comprises anatomically distinct brain areas, the structural pathways connecting them and their functional interactions. Annotation of phenotypic associations with variation in the connectome and cataloging of neurophenotypes promise to transform our understanding of the human brain. In this Review, we pro...
Article
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly conceived as reflecting altered functional and structural brain connectivity. The latter can be addressed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We examined fractional anisotropy (FA), a DTI index related to white matter structural properties, in adult male subjects diagnose...
Article
Full-text available
Analyses of intrinsic fMRI BOLD signal fluctuations reliably reveal correlated and anticorrelated functional networks in the brain. Because the BOLD signal is an indirect measure of neuronal activity and anticorrelations can be introduced by preprocessing steps, such as global signal regression, the neurophysiological significance of correlated and...
Article
Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often exhibit symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Across both disorders, observations of distributed functional abnormalities suggest aberrant large-scale brain network connectivity. Yet, common and distinct network correlates of ASD and ADHD remain unidentified....
Article
Functional connectomics is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of neuroimaging research. Yet, concerns remain regarding the use of resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) to characterize inter-individual variation in the functional connectome. In particular, recent findings that "micro" head movements can introduce artifactual inter-individual and group-re...
Article
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) typically begins during adolescence and can persist into adulthood. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Recent evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies in adults suggests disruptions in amygdala-based circuitry; the present study exam...
Article
Full-text available
This observational, cross-sectional study investigates cortical signatures of developmental dyslexia, particularly from the perspective of behavioral remediation. We employed resting-state fMRI, and compared intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns of known reading regions (seeds) among three dyslexia groups characterized by (a) no remediat...
Data
Effects of five different statistical models with respects to global signal regression (GSreg), framewise displacement regression (FDreg), and data scrubbing (Scrub). +GSreg = analyzed with GSreg, -GSreg = analyzed without GSreg, +FDreg = analyzed with FDreg, -FDreg = analyzed without FDreg, +Scrub = frames larger than 0.5FD were Scrubbed from the...
Data
Region-specific effects of global signal regression on the group difference in intrinsic functional connectivity. L.IPS = left intraparietal suclus, L.FFG = left fusiform gyrus, R. MOG = right middle occipital gyrus, R.MPFC = right medial prefrontal cortex, +GSreg+FDreg = analyzed with both GSreg and FDreg, -GSreg+FDreg = analyzed without GSreg but...
Data
Conners’ Parent Rating Scales of DSM-IV Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity. The box-and-whisker plots depict (A.1) inattention and (A.2) hyperactivity-impulsivity scores for each group and group differences. The scatterplots represent relationships of WIAT Word Reading scores with (B.1) inattention and (B.2.) hyperactivity-impuls...
Data
Relationships between each iFC and ADHD-symptoms (Conners’ Parent Rating Scales; DSM-IV Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity). The upper scatterplots depict relationships between iFC and inattention scores (A.1, B.1, and C.1), whereas the lower ones depict relationships between iFC and hyperactivity-impulsivity scores (A.2, B.2, an...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been growing enthusiasm that functional MRI could achieve clinical utility for a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, several barriers remain. For example, the acquisition of large-scale datasets capable of clarifying the marked heterogeneity that exists in psychiatric illnesses will need to be realized. In...
Article
Full-text available
The National Institute of Mental Health strategic plan for advancing psychiatric neuroscience calls for an acceleration of discovery and the delineation of developmental trajectories for risk and resilience across the lifespan. To attain these objectives, sufficiently powered datasets with broad and deep phenotypic characterization, state-of-the-ar...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The authors performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of task-based functional MRI studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors searched PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Web of Science, ERIC, CINAHAL, and NeuroSynth for studies published through June 30, 2011. Significant differences in brain region activation be...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background / Purpose: Recent studies have suggested that intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) measures can be systematically and spuriously altered by head motion (1, 2). Some proposed a solution referred to as “scrubbing” (i.e. excising entire contaminated frames of data at individual subject level) (1); others suggested regressing indices of...
Article
Default network (DN) abnormalities have been identified in patients with chronic schizophrenia using "resting state" functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). Here, we examined the integrity of the DN in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis (FEP) compared with sex- and age-matched healthy controls. We collected R-fMRI data f...
Conference Paper
Background: Verbal proficiency at age 5 years is an important prognostic factor of long-term adjustment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, the neuronal underpinnings of verbal proficiency in ASD are undetermined. Their characterization may lead to the identification of biomarkers applicable as early as the first identification of ASD, to guid...
Article
Empirical evidence increasingly supports the hypothesis that patterns of intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) are sculpted by a history of evoked coactivation within distinct neuronal networks. This, together with evidence of strong correspondence among the networks defined by iFC and those delineated using a variety of other neuroimaging techni...
Article
The functional MRI (fMRI) community has zealously embraced resting state or intrinsic functional connectivity approaches to mapping brain organization. Having demonstrated their utility for charting the large-scale functional architecture of the brain, the field is now leveraging task-independent methods for the investigation of phenotypic variatio...
Article
Emerging neuroscientific and genetic findings emphasize the dimensional rather than the categorical aspects of psychiatric disorders. However, the integration of dimensional approaches within the current categorical diagnostic framework remains unclear. Here, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether dimensional...
Article
The brain's intrinsic functional architecture, revealed in correlated spontaneous activity, appears to constitute a faithful representation of its repertoire of evoked, extrinsic functional interactions. Here, using broad task contrasts to probe evoked patterns of coactivation, we demonstrate tight coupling between the brain's intrinsic and extrins...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been growing enthusiasm that functional MRI could achieve clinical utility for a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, several barriers remain. For example, the acquisition of large-scale datasets capable of clarifying the marked heterogeneity that exists in psychiatric illnesses will need to be realized. In...
Data
Correlations between personality domain scores across subjects. Correlations between all possible pairs of personality domain scores across all subjects. Numeric values are shown in the upper triangle; corresponding colors are shown in the lower triangle. Red colors represent positive correlations; blue colors represent negative correlations. Darke...
Data
Confirmatory split-half and non-parametric analyses. Table of results from confirmatory split-half and non-parametric analyses. Results are only shown for seeds demonstrating significant RSFC relationships predicted by personality. Results are listed for each personality domain and for both positive (i.e., stronger RSFC relationships with higher pe...
Data
Details of all functional connections predicted by personality. Table of local peaks associated with each RSFC relationship for each domain of personality. Coordinates are in standard MNI152 space. Seed locations are shown in Figure 1. Behavior refers to behavioral relationships: positive relationships are stronger with higher personality domain sc...
Data
Comparison of results using single- and multiple-scan session data. Comparison of surface maps of regions whose RSFC with PCU seeds was predicted by personality between a representative single-scan analysis (i.e., data from Scan 1 only; SINGLE) and the analysis used in the main text (i.e., data averaged across all scan sessions; MULTIPLE). Maps are...
Data
Concordance between models in which personality domains are included simultaneously and models in which domains are analyzed separately. Kendall's W comparison between group maps when all five personality domains are included simultaneously in the group analysis model, and when all five personality domains are analyzed in separate models. Kendall's...
Article
Full-text available
Personality describes persistent human behavioral responses to broad classes of environmental stimuli. Investigating how personality traits are reflected in the brain's functional architecture is challenging, in part due to the difficulty of designing appropriate task probes. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) can detect intrinsic activat...
Article
Full-text available
Volumetric studies have reported relatively decreased cortical thickness and gray matter volumes in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) whose childhood status was retrospectively recalled. We present, to our knowledge, the first prospective study combining cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry in adults diagnosed as...
Article
Full-text available
Affective empathy (AE) is distinguished clinically and neurally from cognitive empathy (CE). While AE is selectively disrupted in psychopathy, autism is associated with deficits in CE. Despite such dissociations, AE and CE together contribute to normal human empathic experience. A dimensional measure of individual differences in AE 'relative to' CE...
Data
Evolution of Cluster Solutions. Panel A (Skeletonized Fractional Anisotropy [FA]): K-means cluster analysis was employed to group and differentiate white matter voxels based on their cross-sectional age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) trajectory across individuals aged 7–48 years. Skeletonized FA for the first five cluster solutions are depicted...
Data
Fractional Anisotropy (FA) Trajectory Characteristics for ICBM-81 DTI Atlas Tracts. Measures of age-related increases in FA during development are provided for each of the ICBM-81 DTI Atlas Tracts, as well as age-related decreases during adulthood and trajectory curvature (second-order parameter from quadratic model). (XLS)
Data
Evaluation of tract continuity within 5, 9, and 14-cluster solutions. For each solution, we list the following for each cluster: 1) % of voxels contained in the largest continuous tract within the cluster, and 2) the percentages of voxels that are part of large continuous tracts within the cluster (i.e., tract size> = 500 voxels). Measures are repo...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroscience is increasingly focusing on developmental factors related to human structural and functional connectivity. Unfortunately, to date, diffusion-based imaging approaches have only contributed modestly to these broad objectives, despite the promise of diffusion-based tractography. Here, we report a novel data-driven approach to detect simil...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive brain function is characterized by dynamic interactions within and between neuronal circuits, often occurring at the time scale of milliseconds. These complex interactions between adjacent and noncontiguous brain areas depend on a functional architecture that is maintained even in the absence of input. Functional MRI studies carried out du...
Article
Full-text available
Task-based neuroimaging studies face the challenge of developing tasks capable of equivalently probing reading networks across different age groups. Resting-state fMRI, which requires no specific task, circumvents these difficulties. Here, in 25 children (8-14 years) and 25 adults (21-46 years), we examined the extent to which individual difference...
Article
Models of cocaine addiction emphasize the role of disrupted frontal circuitry supporting cognitive control processes. However, addiction-related alterations in functional interactions among brain regions, especially between the cerebral hemispheres, are rarely examined directly. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approaches,...
Article
Risk avoidance is a hallmark of psychopathological conditions such as anxiety disorders. Yet few studies have examined its neural basis. The present work sought to identify the neural correlates of risk avoidance. While functional MRI scans were acquired, healthy adults (N=23) played a Wheel of Fortune game during which they chose to bet or pass on...
Article
Full-text available
Motor inhibition is among the most commonly studied executive functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Imaging studies using probes of motor inhibition such as the stop signal task (SST) consistently demonstrate ADHD-related dysfunction within a right-hemisphere fronto-striatal network that includes inferior frontal gyrus and p...
Article
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided a novel approach for examining interhemispheric interaction, demonstrating a high degree of functional connectivity between homotopic regions in opposite hemispheres. However, heterotopic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) remains relatively uncharacterized. In the pr...
Article
Full-text available
Analytic tools for addressing spontaneous brain activity, as acquired with fMRI during the “resting-state,” have grown dramatically over the past decade. Along with each new technique, novel hypotheses about the functional organization of the brain are also available to researchers. We review six prominent categories of resting-state fMRI data anal...
Article
Models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as neural disconnection syndromes have been predominantly supported by examinations of abnormalities in corticocortical networks in adults with autism. A broader body of research implicates subcortical structures, particularly the striatum, in the physiopathology of autism. Resting state functional magnetic...
Article
The recent upsurge in interest about pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) has spurred the need for greater understanding of its neurobiology. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have implicated fronto-temporal dysfunction in pediatric BD. However, recent data suggest that task-dependent neural changes account for a small fractio...
Article
Full-text available
Functional homotopy, the high degree of synchrony in spontaneous activity between geometrically corresponding interhemispheric (i.e., homotopic) regions, is a fundamental characteristic of the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain. However, despite its prominence, the lifespan development of the homotopic resting-state functional connectiv...
Article
The brain's energy economy excessively favors intrinsic, spontaneous neural activity over extrinsic, evoked activity, presumably to maintain its internal organization. Emerging hypotheses capable of explaining such an investment posit that the brain's intrinsic functional architecture encodes a blueprint for its repertoire of responses to the exter...