Clare Bradshaw

Clare Bradshaw
Stockholm University | SU · Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences

PhD

About

86
Publications
18,468
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,777
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1993 - May 1997
The University of Edinburgh
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), Japan, in March 2011, ¹³⁷Cs in demersal fish had, between 2011 and 2015, a prolonged ecological half-life when compared to pelagic fish. Using stable isotope mixing models combined with gut content analysis and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations, this study investigated the hypothe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Working Group on Fisheries Benthic Impact and Trade-offs (WGFBIT) develops methods and performs assessments to evaluate benthic impact from fisheries at regional scale, while con- sidering fisheries and seabed impact trade-offs. In this report, new fishery benthic impact assessments are carried out for several sub-regions in the Mediterranean (...
Article
Full-text available
Allochthonous subsidies to marine ecosystems have mainly focused on biogeochemical cycles, but there has also been recent interest in how terrestrial carbon (C) influences marine food webs. In the Baltic Sea, pine (Pinus sylvestris) pollen is found in large amounts in shallow bays in early summer. Pollen is a significant C‐source in freshwater ecos...
Article
Full-text available
Millions of tons of dredged sediment are dumped at sea annually. International conventions limit dumping when there is a risk of adverse ecological effects, for example if the sediment is contaminated. However, the perception of risk differs substantially among stakeholders and in Sweden there is a lack of guidelines for how to address such risk. I...
Article
Full-text available
Bottom trawling is known to affect benthic faunal communities but its effects on sediment suspension and seabed biogeochemistry are less well described. In addition, few studies have been carried out in the Baltic Sea, despite decades of trawling in this unique brackish environment and the frequent occurrence of trawling in areas where hypoxia and...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental benthic dredging was conducted in an unfished area in the Baltic Proper to mimic the impact of trawling, with a focus on benthic biogeochemical processes. Sediment cores were taken on the track where the surface sediment had been scraped away and compared to undisturbed controls. Benthic fluxes were immediately affected and pore water...
Article
Full-text available
The Baltic Sea is one of the most polluted seas in the world with widespread eutrophication and radionuclide contamination. Using key species of the Baltic Sea, the effects of eutrophication on uptake and trophic transfer of the radioactive micronutrients commonly found in nuclear power plant effluents were investigated using aquaria in a controlle...
Article
Full-text available
Several countries currently lack common recommendations specific to Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of contaminated sediments and stakeholders report inconsistencies between currently used approaches. The objective of this study was to provide an increased understanding of how ERAs of contaminated sediments are conducted in comparison to establish...
Article
Multispecies experiments like microcosms and mesocosms are widely used in many fields of research but not in radioecology. In radioecology, size limitations are important as large experimental volumes involve problems with waste (radionuclides), or shielding, absorption and available space in gamma fields (often within a climate chamber). We have t...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in the biochemical composition of primary producers can alter their food quality, influencing their consumers and further propagating through the food web. Gamma (È) radiation is an environmentally important type of ionizing radiation as it can damage macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids due to its high frequency, short waveleng...
Article
The issue of potential long-term or hereditary effects for both humans and wildlife exposed to low doses (or dose rates)of ionising radiation is a major concern. Chronic exposure to ionising radiation, defined as an exposure over a large fraction of the organism's lifespan or even over several generations, can possibly have consequences in the prog...
Article
Interpreting and predicting the combined effects of toxicants in the environment is an important challenge in ecotoxicology. How such effects are connected across different levels of biological organisation is an additional matter of uncertainty. Such knowledge gaps are particularly prominent with regards to how ionising radiation interacts with co...
Article
Ecosystem response to gamma radiation exposure depends on the different species sensitivities and the multitude of direct and indirect pathways by which individual organisms can be affected, including the potential for complex interactions across multiple trophic levels. In this study, multi-species microcosms were used to investigate effects of io...
Article
Risks posed by the presence of radionuclides in the environment require an efficient, balanced, and adaptable assessment for protecting exposed humans and wildlife, and managing the associated radiological risk. Exposure of humans and wildlife originate from the same sources releasing radionuclides to the environment. Environmental concentrations o...
Article
The 2014 Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for Radioecology identified that the key challenge in education and training (E&T) was "to maintain and develop a skilled workforce in Europe and world-wide, through university candidates and professionals trained within radioecology" since "scientific research in radioecology and application of that knowled...
Article
This paper focuses on how a community of researchers under the COMET (CO-ordination and iMplementation of a pan European projecT for radioecology) project has improved the capacity of marine radioecology to understand at the process level the behaviour of radionuclides in the marine environment, uptake by organisms and the resulting doses after the...
Article
Exposure to radiation is a potential hazard to humans and the environment. The Fukushima accident reminded the world of the importance of a reliable risk management system that incorporates the dose received from radiation exposures. The dose to humans from exposure to radiation can be quantified using a well-defined system; its environmental equiv...
Chapter
1. Baltic Sea organisms appear to be particularly sensitive to persistent hazardous substances because many of them are physiologically stressed in their brackish-water environment. 2. The profile of chemical pollution of the Baltic Sea has changed during the past decades with reductions in the concentrations of many “legacy contaminants” such as D...
Article
Full-text available
The combined effects of ocean warming and contaminants on marine ecosystems are poorly understood. In this study, we exposed model ecosystems comprising typical shallow coastal Baltic Sea communities to elevated temperature (+5 °C) and the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), both singly and in combination, for 13 days. Higher temperatur...
Article
Full-text available
In environmental risk assessments of nuclear waste, there is need to estimate the potential risks of a large number of radionuclides over a long time period during which the environment is likely to change. Usually concentration ratios (CRs) are used to calculate the activity concentrations in organisms. However, CRs are not available for all radio...
Article
Full-text available
As a result of nuclear accidents and weapons tests, the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 are common contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Concentration ratios (CR) based on concentrations of stable Cs and Sr in biota and media are used for the estimation of transfer of their radioisotopes for radiation dose calculations in environmental and human safet...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidenta...
Article
Full-text available
Risk assessment of exposure to radionuclides and radiation does not usually take into account the role of species interactions. We investigated how the transfer of carbon between a primary producer, Raphidocelis subcapitata, and a consumer, Daphnia magna, was affected by acute exposure to gamma radiation. In addition to unexposed controls, differen...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidenta...
Article
The risk of exposure to radioactive elements is seldom assessed considering mixture toxicity, potentially over- or underestimating biological and ecological effects on ecosystems. This study investigated how three endpoints, carbon transfer between phytoplankton and Daphnia magna, D. magna mobility and growth, responded to exposure to γ-radiation i...
Article
Risk assessment does not usually take into account mixtures of contaminants, thus potentially under-or overestimating environmental effects. We investigated how the transfer of carbon between a primary producer, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and a consumer, Daphnia magna, is affected by acute exposure of γ radiation (GR) in combination with the...
Article
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is an additive brominated flame retardant and a recognized PBT chemical. However, little is known about its effects on coastal species, and even less on ecosystem effects. We investigated the dose-response effects of HBCDD over 8 months in 1000 L experimental mesocosms assembled from coastal Baltic Sea ecosystem compo...
Article
Full-text available
We will never have data to populate all of the potential radioecological modelling parameters required for wildlife assessments. Therefore, we need robust extrapolation approaches which allow us to make best use of our available knowledge. This paper reviews and, in some cases, develops, tests and validates some of the suggested extrapolation appro...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Studies undertaken in the last decade by European and international organizations, have shown that regarding the nuclear sciences (including radioecology) there is a decreased student interest, decreased course numbers and ageing faculty members and facilities. Taking this situation into account, the Mobility, Training and Education Work Package (W...
Article
We studied the fate of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) added in a particulate suspension to experimental ecosystems assembled from brackish (Baltic Sea) coastal bays. Two experiments examined how A) benthic macrofauna (over 21 d), and B) increased temperature (14 d), affected HBCDD concentrations and fractionation of α...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report summarises the main issues related with the International Wildlife Dosimetry Workshop, organized by STAR in June 2014.The workshop addressed a wide spectrum of questions related to the ionising radiation dose estimation in animals and plants, involving world leading experts in each of the subjects treated. There were 30 participants fro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Presentation of the Radioecology Exchange website
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report is a detailed plan for the COMET WP3 Initial Research Activity (IRA) in the form of a list of research projects and goals, participants and timing. The topics and their objectives, in short, are the following: 1. Marine modelling – improving predictions of concentrations in and exposures of marine biota and humans through sophisticated...
Article
Full-text available
In safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories, understanding radionuclide fate in ecosystems is necessary to determine the impacts of potential releases. Here, the reliability of two mechanistic models (the compartmental K-model and the 3D dynamic D-model) in describing the fate of radionuclides released into a Baltic Sea bay...
Chapter
Commercial bottom trawling in fishery industry is estimated to affect around 15 million km2 of the world’s seafloor every year (Bradshaw et al., 2012). However, few studies have investigated whether this disturbance remobilises sediment-associated contaminants (Allan et al., 2012) and, if so, whether these are bioavailable to aquatic organisms (Bra...
Article
Benthic trawling can cause the resuspension of large amounts of sediments. Such regular practice in the Grenland fjord system in the south of Norway has the potential to affect the fate, movement, and bioavailability of sediment-associated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). A novel mode of exposing passive sampling devic...
Article
Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes in details the basic concepts, needs and data treatment for the population modeling approaches that have been implemented under WP-5 dedicated to “ecologically-relevant low doses effects to non-human species” as part of Task 5.1 devoted to the derivation of population-level protection criteria. Two modeling approaches are pres...
Article
Sediments are sinks for contaminants in the world's oceans. At the same time, commercial bottom trawling is estimated to affect around 15 million km(2) of the world's seafloor every year. However, few studies have investigated whether this disturbance remobilises sediment-associated contaminants and, if so, whether these are bioavailable to aquatic...
Article
Full-text available
Energy (carbon) flows and element cycling are fundamental, interlinked principles explaining ecosystem processes. The element balance in components, interactions and processes in ecosystems (ecological stoichiometry; ES) has been used to study trophic dynamics and element cycling. This study extends ES beyond its usual limits of C, N, and P and exa...
Article
Studies were reviewed that investigated the combined effects of ionising radiation and other stressors on non-human biota. The aim was to determine the state of research in this area of science, and determine if a review of the literature might permit a gross generalization as to whether the combined effects of multi-stressors and radiation are fun...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The overarching goal of the STAR Work Package 4 "Radiation Protection in a Mixed Contaminant Context" is to determine if radiation protection criteria for wildlife are robust, even within a mixed contaminant context. Within this framework, we have critically reviewed existing approaches, methods and tools developed in ecotoxicology for assessing ex...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As part of the STAR Mobility, Training and Education work package (WP6) two stakeholder workshops were held to give insight into the recruitment needs within radioecology. The overall objective of the workshops was to bring a variety of stakeholders together to discuss the supply and demand for radioecology skills in its workforce today and in the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes in details the basic concepts, needs and data treatment for the approaches we will implement under WP-5 dedicated to “ecologically-relevant low doses effects to non-human species”. It gives the preliminary list of the potential sets of selection for biological species and endpoints, then develops the method and tools for estab...
Article
Integrative passive sampling with devices such as semipermeable membrane devices generally relies on rigs for month-long static exposures in water. We evaluate here whether mobile exposures of passive samplers can provide reliable estimates of dissolved contaminant concentrations. Mobile exposures were obtained by towing samplers fastened to the en...
Article
This brief commentary summarizes the views of a working group assembled by the International Union of Radioecology to advance the approaches used to evaluate effects of radioactive materials in the environment. The key message in both the research needs and the recommendations for management of radioactive materials centers around the need to adopt...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Radioecology Education and Training Platform (E&T platform) is a website focal point for students and professionals interested in radioecology. The platform presents an overview of education and training course modules within radioecology/environmental radioactivity presently offered by the STAR consortium. Information on course curriculums and...
Article
Settling organic matter (OM) is the major food source for heterotrophic benthic fauna. The high sorption affinity of many contaminants for OM implies that OM can influence both the distribution and bioavailability of contaminants. Here, we experimentally examine the role of settling OM of various nutritional qualities on the bioaccumulation of cadm...