Clare S Allely

Clare S Allely
University of Salford and Honorary Research Fellow (University of Glasgow) · School of Health Sciences

MA (hons.), MRes, PhD, MSc, PgCAP
Autism and the criminal justice system. Serial homicide. Mass shooting. Lone-actor terrorism. Threat assessment.

About

115
Publications
47,728
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1,223
Citations
Citations since 2017
82 Research Items
936 Citations
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Introduction
I am a Professor of Forensic Psychology at the University of Salford in Manchester, England. I am an affiliate member of the Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre at Gothenburg University, Sweden. I am also an Honorary Research Fellow in the College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences affiliated to the Institute of Health and Wellbeing at the University of Glasgow.
Additional affiliations
June 2011 - June 2014
University of Glasgow
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
January 2015 - January 2016
University of Salford
Field of study
  • Academic Practice
September 2013 - August 2014
Glasgow Caledonian University
Field of study
  • Forensic Psychology
September 2007 - September 2010
University of Manchester
Field of study
  • Experimental Psychology

Publications

Publications (115)
Article
A case study analyzed the role of trauma in contributing to arson and terroristic threats in a person with an autism spectrum disorder. Trauma played a critical role in "channeling the focus of an ASD-related preoccupation into traumatic re-enactments, re-experiencing with accompanying worldview and beliefs."
Article
Four dysfunctional identities were presented that exemplified a theme of "contamination" from a former positive life to one of possible victimization. Identity repair and redemption was sought through engaging in the Path to Intended Violence and committing acts of violence and/or terroristic violence.
Article
We applied the path to intended violence (PTIV) [Calhoun, F. S., & Weston, S. W. (2003). Contemporary threat management: A practical guide for identifying, assessing, and managing individuals of violent intent. Specialized Training Services] model and the Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18; [Meloy, J. R. (2017 Meloy, J. R. (2017)...
Article
Full-text available
Background Court Mental Health Liaison and Diversion Services (CMHLDS) have developed in some countries as a response to the over-representation of mental illness and other vulnerabilities amongst defendants presenting to criminal justice (or correctional) systems. This study examined the characteristics and rates of mental disorder of 9088 defenda...
Article
Full-text available
The study of social psychological processes and cognition entails unraveling how people perceive, interact in, and react to our social world. Particularly, social psychology relies on disentangling how people’s beliefs and behaviors are influenced by others across different experiences and phenomena. In recent years, this framework has been increas...
Article
Extremism is a global phenomenon, with an increasing domestic and international presence. Extremists recruit persons to their causes through online forums that spread hate-filled narratives and promote violence. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder may be vulnerable to recruitment through these online forums, and clinicians who work with autis...
Article
Purpose: To systematically review studies on the effectiveness of supplementary imaging for breast cancer screening in women with dense breasts. Materials and methods: A systematic search of peer-reviewed publications in English (January 2000 to March 2021) was carried out. Eight databases were used to retrieve the studies: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Coch...
Article
Julian Assange is an Australian national and the founder of WikiLeaks, a nonprofit organization that publishes news leaks and classified information provided by anonymous whistle-blowers. In May 2019, a United States federal grand jury returned an 18-count criminal indictment against Assange. If convicted, Assange could face up to 10 years of incar...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to add to the relatively limited existing literature exploring the experience of individuals with autism spectrum disorder in the prison environment. Prisoners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) need to be identified in order that they are given the necessary and appropriate support and safeguards. It is increa...
Article
Full-text available
Three of the most prevalent developmental disorders (DDs) are autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). As part of a study screening for DDs in Greater Manchester, UK, a unique opportunity was taken to explore parents' experiences of receiving reports about their chil...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are estimated to be 19 times more likely to encounter the criminal justice system (CJS) in comparison to individuals without FASD. During encounters with the CJS, investigative interviews are employed to obtain accurate information from suspects, victims or witnesses of crime. A systematic s...
Article
This article will explore serial and mass murder. It will cover the literature which has investigated leakage and warning signs or red flags in mass shooters. The role of biological, or body-related, issues; narcissism; fame-seeking; the injustice collector concept; and the preoccupation and fascination with other mass shooters are then discussed a...
Book
Full-text available
The 13 papers included in this Research Topic approach varied aspects of social cognition and its relationship to legal processes, providing important guidance on how we might explore these questions in future international work across different jurisdictions and countries. We
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the current literature which assesses the incidence of completed or attempted mass shooting events in which a female party acted either alone or as an accomplice; explore the involvement of women in the planning or execution of acts of terrorism; evaluate the pathology of women involved in these acts...
Article
Full-text available
The treatment of vulnerable defendants by criminal justice systems or correctional systems varies within and between countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine three legal jurisdictions – New South Wales in Australia; Norway; England and Wales – to understand the extent of variation in practice within the court systems for defendants with i...
Article
Aim Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) may present as neuropsychiatric problems as well as impairments of motor, cognitive, social and communication functioning. This study describes the introduction of a specialist service with expertise in NDD into an existing court mental health liaison and diversion service to determine if the service would imp...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure in the UK, evidence on the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is lacking. This paper reports on FASD prevalence in a small sample of children in primary school. Methods A 2-phase active case ascertainment study was conducted in 3 mainstream primary schools in Greater Ma...
Article
Full-text available
This heuristic study examined potential serial sexual homicide offenders (SSHOs), an unacknowledged offender group comprised of aspiring and probable SSHOs, and compared them to successful SSHOs. Data were collected on six aspiring SSHOs that each failed a single homicide attempt, 16 probable SSHOs that committed 17 homicides in separate events, an...
Article
Full-text available
Background Prevalence studies among prisoners have found rates of 1–4% for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autistic traits. However, little is known about those prisoners with high levels of autistic traits. Aim This aim of this study was to compare the mental health characteristics of prisoners with autistic traits with neurotypical prisoners n...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Despite high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure in the UK, evidence on the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is lacking. This paper reports on FASD prevalence in a small sample. Methods: A two-phase active case ascertainment study was conducted in three mainstream primary schools in Greater Manchester, UK. Schools w...
Article
Trauma is prevalent in the lives of adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). As a result, a routine screening for trauma is essential especially when autism-related symptoms are heightened or when violence is exhibited. Case studies and empirical analyses of individuals with ASD and trauma have indicated that traditional Post-Traumatic Stress...
Preprint
Full-text available
The current study examines potential serial homicide offenders (SHOs), a previously unacknowledged offender group comprised of aspiring and probable SHOs, and compares them to successful SHOs. Data on 17 aspiring, 46 probable, and 16 successful SHOs were collected. The study results indicate that potential serial killers share more in common with s...
Article
Purpose Allely and Dubin (2018) and Allely et al. (2019) have emphasised that there are a range of innate vulnerabilities in many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who are charged with the viewing of indecent images of children (IIOC). Currently, the association between ASD and the viewing of IIOC is poorly recognised and understood b...
Article
Purpose Despite an increasing number of studies that examine sexual offending behaviour in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) individuals, there has been a lack of research investigating stalking and ASD. This study aims to carry out a scoping review following PRISMA guidelines to identify studies which have been carried out exploring stalking behaviou...
Article
In this article, the case of Mr. Holmes is discussed in detail with a particular focus on the treatment he received when he was at graduate school in the months leading up to the shooting and, primarily, the findings from the sanity evaluation carried out by Dr. Metzner. In this article the I³ model is applied to the case of Mr. Holmes. His attack...
Article
Purpose There remains a lack of knowledge surrounding paraphilic or deviant arousal sexual behaviours in individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Kellaher, 2015). The purpose of this paper is to explore the literature for any empirical study, case study or discussion/review paper surrounding individuals with ASD and zoophilia or bestiality....
Article
Purpose Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have a detrimental impact on the individual’s ability to benefit from rehabilitative prison-based programmes, and studies have also found that there is an association between PTSD and higher rates of re-offending. Studies have also found that a significant number of cases of trauma and PTSD go undet...
Article
Purpose The area of trauma in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is an important area given the substantial rates of abuse endured by these individuals. However, there are issues with the identification of trauma, understanding how it is perceived, and manifested. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The limited research...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and violence is poorly understood. Several violence risk factors are either modified by or are unique to ASD; clinicians conducting violence risk assessment of people with ASD must consider these factors. An ASD-specific risk assessment tool is clearly needed. In the absence of this, clinician...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The current research provides perspective regarding the true prevalence of serial murderers in modern society and addresses the conflict between the evidenced decline in serial homicide and the viewpoint that the phenomenon is increasing. The likelihood that serial murderers are responsible for most unresolved homicides and missing pers...
Article
Purpose There is increasing attention on investigating the association between fire-setting and psychopathology and also the degree to which fire-setting is a manifestation of mental disorder. Despite the actual prevalence of pyromania remaining elusive, there is growing evidence in the literature highlighting the higher rates of psychiatric mental...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify studies which have investigated arson or firesetting in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Design/methodology/approach A systematic PRISMA review was conducted. Findings The present review highlighted the relatively little research that has been conducted to date exploring firesetting...
Article
This paper examines how the symptomology of the small number of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) charged with online sexual offenses in Australia is established during legal arguments and conceived by the judiciary to impact legal liability and offending behavior. This study aims to provide empirical support for the proposition that...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to address the need for increased understanding, awareness and recognition of the autism female phenotype in terms of repetitive behaviours and restricted interests (RBRIs). Design/methodology/approach A systematic PRISMA review was conducted. The main aim of the present systematic review is to identify studi...
Article
Full-text available
Cambridge Core - Psychiatry - Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders - edited by Fred R. Volkmar
Chapter
Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders - edited by Fred R. Volkmar January 2019
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review available literature targeting the assessment and management of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) admitted to high secure psychiatric care (HSPC). Key areas of examination include the prevalence of ASD in HSPC, how individuals with an ASD differ from other patient groups in clinical an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: The likelihood that serial murderers are responsible for most unresolved homicides and missing persons was examined by investigating the accounting of the phenomenon in the context of a declining prevalence. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used, consisting of a review of a sample of unresolved homicides, a comparative analysis of...
Article
Purpose Females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may display superficial social skills which may mask their ASD symptomology impacting on the identification of the disorder – known as the “camouflage” hypothesis. Compared to males with ASD, it is increasingly recognised that females with ASD have a stronger ability to imitate behaviour which is...
Article
Purpose As recently highlighted by Creaby-Attwood and Allely (2017), it is crucial that the possible innate vulnerabilities that contributed to sexual offending behaviour in an individual with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are taken into consideration for the application of a diversion programme to avoid the stigma of a criminal conviction or...
Article
Mapping the antecedents of school shootings is an important step towards understanding and predicting when the tragedies occur. This study uses Crime Script Analysis (CSA) to map the variety of behaviours and precursors in sequence. An in-depth analysis of 16 school shooters in United States of America was used to build a crime script. The results...
Article
A threat assessment perspective, namely the Path toward Intended Violence, was applied in the case of the mass shooting perpetrated by Dylann Roof on June 17, 2015 at an Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina. This perspective is important since it attempts to build on accounts regarding how he progressed toward hi...
Article
Purpose Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with specific assessment, specific difficulties, needs and therapeutic issues and therefore are a challenging group for forensic services. Given the challenge that individuals with ASD present to forensic services, the suggested increase in the number of this group within this setting and...
Chapter
This chapter examines the evidence for the level of brain injury in those who commit criminal acts. It includes numerous case studies of single and multiple homicides where brain injury was found to be present, and a comprehensive account of how brain injury is assessed and identified. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain, which i...
Article
It is important to consider whether there are innate vulnerabilities that increase the risk of an individual with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), predominantly those defendants with a diagnosis of Asperger's Syndrome, being charged and convicted of a sexual offence. The significance of such can be readily seen in recent English case law, with...
Article
Concern has been highlighted in the literature regarding how juries and judges handle cases which involve a defendant with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relatively little research on judicial perceptions or decision-making regarding individuals with ASD indicates that judges have limited understanding and familiarity with high-functioning ASD...
Article
There have been many different conceptualizations regarding Elliot Rodger's clinical presentation including claims of him having Asperger's Syndrome (Duke, 2014), psychosis and psychopathy (Langman, 2014) and a description of him as an “injustice collector” (O'Toole, 2014). This article proposes that Elliot Rodger's Narcissistic rage and its overla...
Article
Purpose The prevalence of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) being associated with terroristic threats, lone wolf terrorism or affiliating with terroristic groups is rare. This paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach However, several cases are presented, where individuals with autism are involved in making a n...
Article
Based on evidence from the relevant research literature, we present a hypothesis that there may be a link between cholesterol, vitamin D, and steroid hormones which subsequently impacts on the development of at least some of the “autisms” [Coleman & Gillberg]. Our hypothesis, driven by the peer reviewed literature, posits that there may be links be...
Article
In the context of increasing legal emphasis on fairness for people with disability, this article analyses the responsibilities and liabilities of lawyers in relation to the recognition and identification of client disability, and specifically Asperger’s Syndrome, prior to a hearing. This article also analyses the judge’s responsibilities when a par...
Article
Full-text available
This article is based on qualitative research with fathers who attended Mellow Dads, an intensive ‘dads only’ group-based intervention underpinned by attachment theory for fathers of at-risk children. Specifically the article draws on data from a process evaluation of the programme in order to explore the challenges of engaging men in effective fam...
Article
Objective There exist significant gaps in our understanding and knowledge of the contributory factors which give rise to the development of a mass shooter. Method A case analysis is presented of Anders Behring Breivik who engaged in a bombing and shooting spree in Norway on July 22, 2011. Results The case analysis presents that he has diagnoses of...
Article
Objectives: The primary objectives of the present systematic PRISMA review were: (1) to explore the range of prevalence of TBI in offenders and whether this is higher than in a control sample; (2) to determine which screening measures are available and evaluate the evidence on these; and, lastly, (3) to evaluate whether prevalence of TBI is associa...
Article
Full-text available
A small body of literature has suggested that, rather than being more likely to engage in offending or violent behavior, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may actually have an increased risk of being the victim rather than the perpetrator of violence (Sobsey, Wells, Lucardie, & Mansell, 1995 ). There is no evidence that people with AS...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Numerous studies investigate the rate of neurodevelopmental disorders in forensic populations. Studies have also investigated the rate of psychopathy in such settings. However, there appears to be a paucity of studies looking at both of these (co-morbidity between these disorders) and the possible relationships between the two in forens...
Article
Purpose – Studies have found innate vulnerabilities which potentially may increase the risk of an individual with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) finding themselves involved with the criminal justice system as a result of being charged with a sexual offence. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the literature which has explored sexual offending...
Article
A case analysis is presented of Dean Allen Mellberg’s shooting spree on Fairfield Air Force Base on June 20, 1994. The case analysis presents that he reportedly has a diagnosis of Autism, and a Paranoid Personality Disorder. Although the diagnoses of Autism and a Personality Disorder cannot be reviewed due to a paucity of publically available infor...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the research which has examined the link between autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and offending behaviour and the impact of prison on individuals with ASDs. Studies suggest that inmates with ASDs may be at an increased risk of bullying, confrontations, exploitation, anxiety and social isolation as a...
Chapter
In this article, a variety of neuroimaging methods that have been applied to investigate autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) will be covered, and a review of the latest findings for each will be summarized. Studies that attempt to map identified brain anomalies in individuals with ASD are mapped onto the symptoms, traits, and severity of the disorder.
Chapter
This article will explore recent studies that have identified alterations in brain regions in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Specifically, alterations have been found in the cortical surface anatomy, the white matter, the gray matter, the cerebellum, the olfactory-processing structures, the temporal lobe, the prefrontal corte...
Article
Aim(s): Development of language is one of the most remarkable and pivotal achievements in early childhood with the majority of children learning to talk by the age of three years. Good language development has major social and academic advantages. Poor language development puts them at an increased risk of behaviour problems, psychiatric disorders,...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study aimed to establish the predictors of positive and negative parenting behaviours in a United Kingdom population. The majority of previous research has focused on specific risk factors and has used a variety of outcome measures. This study used a single assessment of parenting behaviours and started with a wide range of potentia...
Article
Full-text available
Effective early intervention to prevent oppositional/conduct disorders requires early identification of children at risk. Patterns of parent-child interaction may predict oppositional/conduct disorders but large community-based prospective studies are needed to evaluate this possibility. We sought to examine whether the Mellow Parenting Observation...
Article
Full-text available
Background Self-harm is a major public health issue in young people worldwide and there are many challenges to its management and prevention. Numerous studies have indicated that ADHD is associated with completed suicides and other suicidal behaviours (i.e., suicidal attempt and ideation). However, significantly less is known about the association...

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Projects

Projects (7)
Archived project
Determine how some serial murderers are able to enjoy lengthy killing careers
Archived project
Examine the prevalence of serial homicide offenders and provide an accurate accounting of the phenomenon
Archived project
Examine two previously unacknowledged groups of offenders and compare them to successful serial homicide offenders