# Clara StegehuisUniversity of Twente | UT · Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science (EEMCS)

Clara Stegehuis

Doctor of Philosophy

## About

62

Publications

6,152

Reads

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610

Citations

Introduction

**Skills and Expertise**

## Publications

Publications (62)

We investigate the number of maximal cliques, i.e., cliques that are not contained in any larger clique, in three network models: Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi random graphs, inhomogeneous random graphs (also called Chung-Lu graphs), and geometric inhomogeneous random graphs. For sparse and not-too-dense Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi graphs, we give linear and polynomial...

We study the distances of edges within cliques in a soft random geometric graph on a torus, where the vertices are points of a homogeneous Poisson point process, and far-away points are less likely to be connected than nearby points. We obtain the scaling of the maximal distance between any two points within a clique of size $k$. Moreover, we show...

Multi-connectivity facilitates higher throughput, shorter delay, and lower outage probability for a user in a wireless network. Considering these promises, a rationale policy for a network operator would be to implement multi-connectivity for all of its users. In this paper, we investigate whether the promises of multi-connectivity also hold in suc...

With more and more demand from devices to use wireless communication networks, there has been an increased interest in resource sharing among operators, to give a better link quality. However, in the analysis of the benefits of resource sharing among these operators, the important factor of co-location is often overlooked. Indeed, often in wireless...

We provide large deviations estimates for the upper tail of the number of triangles in scale-free inhomogeneous random graphs where the degrees have power law tails with index $-\alpha, \alpha \in (1,2)$. We show that upper tail probabilities for triangles undergo a phase transition. For $\alpha<4/3$, the upper tail is caused by many vertices of de...

We consider the problem of detecting whether a power-law inhomogeneous random graph contains a geometric community, and we frame this as an hypothesis testing problem. More precisely, we assume that we are given a sample from an unknown distribution on the space of graphs on n vertices. Under the null hypothesis, the sample originates from the inho...

Cellular networks have become one of the critical infrastructures, as many services depend increasingly on wireless connectivity. Therefore, it is important to quantify the resilience of existing cellular network infrastructures against potential risks, ranging from natural disasters to security attacks, that might occur with a low probability but...

Complex network theory crucially depends on the assumptions made about the degree distribution, while fitting degree distributions to network data is challenging, in particular for scale-free networks with power-law degrees. We present a robust assessment of complex networks that does not depend on the entire degree distribution, but only on its me...

We develop tail estimates for the number of edges in a Chung-Lu random graph with regularly varying weight distribution. Our results show that the most likely way to have an unusually large number of edges is through the presence of one or more hubs, i.e.\ edges with degree $O(n)$.

In the past decade, geometric network models have received vast attention in the literature. These models formalize the natural idea that similar vertices are likely to connect. Because of that, these models are able to adequately capture many common structural properties of real-world networks, such as scale invariance and high clustering. Indeed,...

Complex network theory crucially depends on the assumptions made about the degree distribution, while fitting degree distributions to network data is challenging, in particular for scale-free networks with power-law degrees. We present a robust assessment of complex networks that does not depend on the entire degree distribution, but only on its me...

Since spectrum below 6 GHz bands does not suffice to meet the high bandwidth requirements of 5G use cases, 5G networks expand their operation to mmWave bands with multi-GHz of available spectrum. However, operation at mmWave bands raises two challenges: high penetration loss and susceptibility to objects blocking the line-of-sight. As a remedy, tra...

In the past decade, geometric network models have received vast attention in the literature. These models formalize the natural idea that similar vertices are likely to connect. Because of that, these models are able to adequately capture many common structural properties of real-world networks, such as self-invariance and high clustering. Indeed,...

Several papers have highlighted the potential of network science to appeal to a younger audience of high school children and provided lesson material on network science for high school children. However, network science also provides a great topic for outreach activities for primary school children. Therefore, this article gives a short summary of...

We investigate the asymptotic number of induced subgraphs in power-law uniform random graphs. We show that these induced subgraphs appear typically on vertices with specific degrees, which are found by solving an optimization problem. Furthermore, we show that this optimization problem allows to design a linear-time, randomized algorithm that disti...

Many real-world networks were found to be highly clustered and contain a large amount of small cliques. We here investigate the number of cliques of any size $k$ contained in a geometric inhomogeneous random graph: a scale-free network model containing geometry. The interplay between scale-freeness and geometry ensures that connections are likely t...

In this paper, we investigate the effect of local structures on network processes. We investigate a random graph model that incorporates local clique structures, and thus deviates from the locally tree-like behavior of most standard random graph models. For the process of bond percolation, we derive analytical approximations for large percolation p...

Subgraphs such as cliques, loops, and stars play a crucial role in real-world networks. Random graph models can provide estimates for how often certain subgraphs appear, which can be tested against real-world networks. These estimated subgraph counts, however, crucially depend on the assumed degree distribution. Fitting a degree distribution to net...

In this paper, we provide degree distributions for AB random geometric graphs, in which points of type A connect to the closest k points of type B. The motivating example to derive such degree distributions is in 5G wireless networks with multi-connectivity, where users connect to their closest k base stations. In this setting, it is important to k...

Subgraphs such as cliques, loops and stars form crucial connections in the topologies of real-world networks. Random graph models provide estimates for how often certain subgraphs appear, which in turn can be tested against real-world networks. These subgraph counts, however, crucially depend on the assumed degree distribution. Fitting a degree dis...

Many real-world networks were found to be highly clustered, and contain a large amount of small cliques. We here investigate the number of cliques of any size $k$ contained in a geometric inhomogeneous random graph: a scale-free network model containing geometry. The interplay between scale-freeness and geometry ensures that connections are likely...

In this article, we introduce a new method to locate highly connected clusters in a network. Our proposed approach adapts the HyperBall algorithm to localize regions with a high density of small subgraph patterns in large graphs in a memory-efficient manner. We use this method to evaluate three measures of subgraph connectivity: conductance, the nu...

In this paper, we investigate the effect of local structures on network processes. We investigate a random graph model that incorporates local clique structures to deviate from the locally tree-like behavior of most standard random graph models. For the process of bond percolation, we derive analytical approximations for large outbreaks and the cri...

Multi-connectivity facilitates higher throughput, shorter delay, and lower outage probability for a user in a wireless network. Considering these promises, a rationale policy for a network operator would be to implement multi-connectivity for all of its users. In this paper, we investigate whether the promises of multi-connectivity also hold in suc...

In this paper, we provide degree distributions for $AB$ random geometric graphs, in which points of type $A$ connect to the closest $k$ points of type $B$. The motivating example to derive such degree distributions is in 5G wireless networks with multi-connectivity, where users connect to their closest $k$ base stations. It is important to know how...

We investigate the asymptotic number of induced subgraphs in power-law uniform random graphs. We show that these induced subgraphs appear typically on vertices with specific degrees, which are found by solving an optimization problem. Furthermore, we show that this optimization problem allows to design a linear-time, randomized algorithm that disti...

In this paper we introduce a new method to locate highly connected clusters in a network. Our proposed approach adapts the HyperBall algorithm to localize regions with a high density of small subgraph patterns in large graphs in a memory-efficient manner. We use this method to evaluate three measures of subgraph connectivity: conductance, the numbe...

Quarantining and contact tracing are popular ad hoc practices for mitigating epidemic outbreaks. However, few mathematical theories are currently available to asses the role of a network in the effectiveness of these practices. In this paper, we study how the final size of an epidemic is influenced by the procedure that combines contact tracing and...

Quarantining and contact tracing are popular ad hoc practices for mitigating epidemic outbreaks. However, few mathematical theories are currently available to asses the role of a network in the effectiveness of these practices. In this paper, we study how the final size of an epidemic is influenced by the procedure that combines contact tracing and...

We count the asymptotic number of triangles in uniform random graphs where the degree distribution follows a power law with degree exponent $\tau\in(2,3)$. We also analyze the local clustering coefficient $c(k)$, the probability that two random neighbors of a vertex of degree $k$ are connected. We find that the number of triangles, as well as the l...

The formation of triangles in complex networks is an important network property that has received tremendous attention. The formation of triangles is often studied through the clustering coefficient. The closure coefficient or transitivity is another method to measure triadic closure. This statistic measures clustering from the head node of a trian...

The formation of triangles in complex networks is an important network property that has received tremendous attention. Recently, a new method to measure triadic closure was introduced: the closure coefficient. This statistic measures clustering from the head node of a triangle (instead of from the center node, as in the often studied clustering co...

We consider subgraph counts in general preferential attachment models with power-law degree exponent $\tau > 2$ . For all subgraphs H , we find the scaling of the expected number of subgraphs as a power of the number of vertices. We prove our results on the expected number of subgraphs by defining an optimization problem that finds the optimal subg...

We study the average nearest-neighbour degree a ( k ) of vertices with degree k . In many real-world networks with power-law degree distribution, a ( k ) falls off with k , a property ascribed to the constraint that any two vertices are connected by at most one edge. We show that a ( k ) indeed decays with k in three simple random graph models with...

For scale-free networks with degrees following a power law with an exponent τ ∈ (2, 3), the structures of motifs (small subgraphs) are not yet well understood. We introduce a method designed to identify the dominant structure of any given motif as the solution of an optimization problem. The unique optimizer describes the degrees of the vertices th...

We study the stochastic block model with two communities where vertices contain side information in the form of a vertex label. These vertex labels may have arbitrary label distributions, depending on the community memberships. We analyze a version of the popular belief propagation algorithm. We show that this algorithm achieves the highest accurac...

For scale-free networks with degrees following a power law with an exponent $\tau\in(2,3)$, the structures of motifs (small subgraphs) are not yet well understood. We introduce a method designed to identify the dominant structure of any given motif as the solution of an optimization problem. The unique optimizer describes the degrees of the vertice...

Sampling uniform simple graphs with power-law degree distributions with degree exponent |$\tau\in(2,3)$| is a non-trivial problem. Firstly, we propose a method to sample uniform simple graphs that uses a constrained version of the configuration model together with a Markov Chain switching method. We test the convergence of this algorithm numericall...

We count the asymptotic number of triangles in uniform random graphs where the degree distribution follows a power law with degree exponent $\tau\in(2,3)$. We also analyze the local clustering coefficient $c(k)$, the probability that two random neighbors of a vertex of degree $k$ are connected. We find that the number of triangles, as well as the l...

Random graphs with power-law degrees can model scale-free networks as sparse topologies with strong degree heterogeneity. Mathematical analysis of such random graphs proved successful in explaining scale-free network properties such as resilience, navigability and small distances. We introduce a variational principle to explain how vertices tend to...

The configuration model generates random graphs with any given degree distribution, and thus serves as a null model for scale-free networks with power-law degrees and unbounded degree fluctuations. For this setting, we study the local clustering $c(k)$, i.e., the probability that two neighbors of a degree-$k$ node are neighbors themselves. We show...

SciSports is a Dutch startup company specializing in football analytics. This paper describes a joint research effort with SciSports, during the Study Group Mathematics with Industry 2018 at Eindhoven, the Netherlands. The main challenge that we addressed was to automatically process empirical football players' trajectories, in order to extract use...

We consider subgraph counts in general preferential attachment models with power-law degree exponent $\tau>2$. For all subgraphs $H$, we find the scaling of the expected number of subgraphs as a power of the number of vertices. We prove our results on the expected number of subgraphs by defining an optimization problem that finds the optimal subgra...

We study the stochastic block model with two communities where vertices contain side information in the form of a vertex label. These vertex labels may have arbitrary label distributions, depending on the community memberships. We analyze a linearized version of the popular belief propagation algorithm. We show that this algorithm achieves the high...

We study the induced subgraph isomorphism problem on inhomogeneous random graphs with infinite variance power-law degrees. We provide a fast algorithm that determines for any connected graph H on k vertices if it exists as induced subgraph in a random graph with n vertices. By exploiting the scale-free graph structure, the algorithm runs in O(nk) t...

We study the induced subgraph isomorphism problem on inhomogeneous random graphs with infinite variance power-law degrees. We provide a fast algorithm that determines for any connected graph $H$ on $k$ vertices if it exists as induced subgraph in a random graph with $n$ vertices. By exploiting the scale-free graph structure, the algorithm runs in $...

An important problem in modeling networks is how to generate a randomly sampled graph with given degrees. A popular model is the configuration model, a network with assigned degrees and random connections. The erased configuration model is obtained when self-loops and double-edges in the configuration model are removed. We prove an upper bound for...

Sampling uniform simple graphs with power-law degree distributions with degree exponent $\tau\in(2,3)$ is a non-trivial problem. We propose a method to sample uniform simple graphs that uses a constrained version of the configuration model together with a Markov Chain switching method. We test the convergence of this algorithm numerically in the co...

Real-world networks often have power-law degrees and scale-free properties, such as ultrasmall distances and ultrafast information spreading. In this paper, we study a third universal property: three-point correlations that suppress the creation of triangles and signal the presence of hierarchy. We quantify this property in terms of c¯(k), the prob...

Subgraphs reveal information about the geometry and functionalities of complex networks. For scale-free networks with unbounded degree fluctuations, we count the number of times a small connected graph occurs as a subgraph (motif counting) or as an induced subgraph (graphlet counting). We obtain these results by analyzing the configuration model wi...

We study the average nearest neighbor degree $a(k)$ of vertices with degree $k$. In many real-world networks with power-law degree distribution $a(k)$ falls off in $k$, a property ascribed to the constraint that any two vertices are connected by at most one edge. We show that $a(k)$ indeed decays in $k$ in three simple random graph null models with...

Real-world networks often have power-law degrees and scale-free properties such as ultra-small distances and ultra-fast information spreading. We provide evidence of a third universal property: three-point correlations that suppress the creation of triangles and signal the presence of hierarchy. We quantify this property in terms of $\bar c(k)$, th...

In this paper, we review the recent literature on assemble-to-order systems. Each assemble-to-order system consists of multiple components and end-products. The components are assembled into the end-products after information on customer demand is received but the decision on what components to procure or produce must be made well before demand mat...

To understand mesoscopic scaling in networks, we study the hierarchical configuration model (HCM), a random graph model with community structure. The connections between the communities are formed as in a configuration model. We study the component sizes of the hierarchical configuration model at criticality when the inter-community degrees have a...

We investigate the presence of triangles in a class of correlated random graphs in which hidden variables determine the pairwise connections between vertices. The class rules out self-loops and multiple edges and allows for negative degree correlations (disassortative mixing) due to infinite-variance degrees controlled by a structural cutoff $h_s$...

Many real-world networks display a community structure. We study two random graph models that create a network with similar community structure as a given network. One model preserves the exact community structure of the original network, while the other model only preserves the set of communities and the vertex degrees. These models show that comm...

Most random graph models are locally tree-like - do not contain short cycles - rendering them unfit for modeling networks with a community structure. We introduce the hierarchical configuration model (HCM), a generalization of the configuration model that includes community structures, while properties such as the size of the giant component, and t...

We introduce a class of random graphs with a hierarchical community
structure, which we call the hierarchical configuration model. On the
inter-community level, the graph is a configuration model, and on the
intra-community level, every vertex in the configuration model is replaced by a
community: a small graph. These communities may have any shape...

A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term
citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a
probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication.
Two predictors are used: The impact factor of the journal in which a
publication has appeared and the number of citations...