Clara Portela

Clara Portela
University of Valencia | UV · Department of Constitutional Law

PhD European University Institute

About

82
Publications
21,835
Reads
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792
Citations
Citations since 2016
29 Research Items
572 Citations
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Introduction
A faculty member at University of Valencia, Clara Portela holds PhD from European University Institute in Florence and an MA degree from Free University of Berlin. Her research focuses on European security policy, international sanctions and arms control. She is a Visiting Professor at OSCE Academy, formerly at the College of Europe in Natolin, the University of Innsbruck and the University of Mainz. Her work was awarded the THESEUS Prize for Promising Research in European Integration.
Additional affiliations
June 2019 - June 2021
European Council
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • research on arms control
July 2008 - November 2017
Singapore Management University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
September 2004 - June 2008
European University Institute
Field of study
  • Political Science
October 1997 - June 2000
Freie Universität Berlin
Field of study
  • Political Science

Publications

Publications (82)
Article
Convergence among EU member states with respect to nuclear weapons has been fundamentally altered by the humanitarian turn to nuclear disarmament. This has led to a crystallization of differentiated subgroups among the member states, whose membership coincides with that of informal groupings active in the broader nuclear nonproliferation regime. Co...
Article
The UN frequently employs sanctions on the same conflicts where it attempts medi�ation. While both efforts carry a UN stamp, they follow different political logics that are not always coherent with each other: sanctions are enacted by the UN Security Council, while mediation is led by a special representative/envoy of the UN Secretary�General, ofte...
Article
In the wake of unsettling conflicts and democratic backsliding, states and organisations increasingly respond with sanctions. The European Union (EU) is one of them: Brussels makes use of the entire toolbox in its foreign policy, and its sanctions appear in different forms—diplomatic measures, travel bans, financial bans, or various forms of econom...
Article
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Since the 1990s, sanctions senders like the European Union, the United States, and the United Nations have been imposing visa bans and asset freezes on individuals as a key element of their sanctions packages. Notwithstanding the growing centrality that individual sanctions have acquired in international sanctions practice, little is known about th...
Article
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In December 2020, the European Union (EU) rolled out a human rights sanctions regime, emulating the US Global Magnitsky Act. It constitutes the third horizontal sanctions regime adopted by the EU over the past three years. The organising logic of horizontal blacklists, almost alien to the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) until recently, fi...
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Sanctions are one of the toughest and most coercive tools available to the European Union (EU). They are increasingly used in order to respond to breaches of international norms and adverse security developments in the neighbourhood and beyond. However, the EU sanctions policy is facing a number of challenges related to the efficiency of decision-m...
Chapter
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La Unión Europea (UE) cuenta con una larga historia como actor en la lucha contra las Armas de Destrucción Masiva (ADM) y en particular en la no proliferación de armas nucleares. La Estrategia Europea de Seguridad, adoptada por el Consejo de la UE en diciembre de 2003, identificó la proliferación de ADM como potencialmente la mayor amenaza para nue...
Article
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Fecha de recepción: 03.01.20 Fecha de aceptación: 25.05.20 Resumen: La investigación sobre sanciones internacionales considera mayoritariamen-te que estas alcanzan el «éxito» cuando los destinatarios cumplen con las exigencias del emisor. Sin embargo, esta forma de evaluar es inadecuada porque: primero, no se ha de-sarrollado aún una metodología só...
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In response to Russia’s actions in Ukraine in 2014, the EU introduced sanctions on Moscow. Despite increasing polarisation among member states after imposition, the sanctions package was consistently renewed. How can sanctions persistence be explained? While scholarly accounts highlight German leadership, commitment to norms, and policymakers’ enga...
Book
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The European Union increasingly uses sanctions in order to respond to breaches of international norms and adverse security developments in its neighbourhood and beyond. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of EU sanctions and discusses options on how to maintain them as an effective tool. The current shifts in internati...
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The recent spurt of sanctions activity brings with it a key innovation: horizontal blacklists. This is a welcome development in the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) approach to sanctions because it seeks to advance its security policy goals and strike a balance between keeping EU unity intact, maintaining transatlantic solidarity and...
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In 2011 revolutions ousted the presidents of Tunisia and Egypt, and in 2014 similar large protests led to the overthrow of the leadership of Ukraine. These uprisings removed from power leaders and their close associates who had long been suspected of stealing vast amounts of public wealth from their countries and hiding this wealth overseas. Respon...
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This paper argues that the idea of targeted sanctions should be transferred to the Trade and Sustainable Development (TSD) chapters and to the Generalised System of Preferences. It posits that the targeted approach can strengthen the conditionality provisions in trade agreements to promote compliance with labour standards and that enforcement mecha...
Research
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Sanctions are one of the tools utilised to address human rights violations. They are also an increasingly prominent tool in the European Union's foreign policy. International sanctions policy is part of a global trend towards individualisation: rather than affecting the state as a whole, bans nowadays are targeted at individuals identified as respo...
Research
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Die UN warnen vor Engpässen bei der Versorgung syrischer Flüchtlinge. Vertreter von 70 Ländern beraten auch darüber in Brüssel. Wäre ein Ende der Sanktionen gegen Syrien hilfreich? Clara Portela dazu im DW­Interview. Deutsche Welle: Am Dienstag und am Mittwoch findet in Brüssel eine Konferenz der EU und der Vereinten Nationen zu Syrien statt. Dabei...
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When the Iran nuclear deal was signed, it was celebrated as a diplomatic success, especially for the United States. Media reports focused on the image of U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry negotiating the deal. However, closer inspection reveals that it was not exclusively U.S. action that was responsible for the success. In the absence of the cont...
Article
The emergence of targeted sanctions in the mid-1990s was due to the humanitarian impact of embargoes, which were deemed unacceptable and compelled senders to shift to measures designed to affect only wrongdoers. Twenty years on, the present paper considers the extent to which autonomous sanctions are designed to affect those individuals and elites...
Article
This article investigates the relationship between the European Union's withdrawal of trade benefits for developing countries under the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) and its sanctions under the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). Our expectation is that GSP withdrawals and CFSP sanctions will not cohere. However, our research revea...
Chapter
International sanctions have become the instrument of choice for policymakers dealing with a variety of different challenges to international peace and security. This is the first comprehensive and systematic analysis of all the targeted sanctions regimes imposed by the United Nations since the end of the Cold War. Drawing on the collaboration of m...
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This article examines to what extent the Arab Spring constitutes a critical juncture – a major turning point – for the EU’s sanctions policy towards Egypt, Libya, Syria and Tunisia. Based on a multidimensional critical juncture operationalization, we find that the Arab Spring only constitutes such a turning point for the EU’s sanctions policy towar...
Article
Sanctions are frequently applied by the UN Security Council (UNSC) as well as regional organizations. While the objectives sought often vary, a frequent commonality is that they target African states. Indeed, Africa is the most frequently targeted continent by the UNSC and regional organisations including the African Union, Economic Community of We...
Article
European Union (EU) sanctions are agreed in the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), a framework where the unanimity rule prevails and where individual Member States have a formal veto. Thus, Member State compliance with sanctions can be expected to be optimal: If Member States have serious objections to the imposition of sanctions, they can...
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The European network of independent non-proliferation think tanks SUMMARY The European Union (EU) has evolved a role in the management of crises provoked by states perceived to be in breach of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. At the outset of these non-proliferation efforts, the EU was criticized for the timidity of its reactions. More than 11...
Article
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All international sanctions are embedded in larger contexts of overlapping policy instruments and other sanctions regimes. Yet we tend to look at sanctions and evaluate their effectiveness from the vantage point of a single sender of sanctions – whether it is the UN, the EU, or an individual country like the United States
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Chapter
Already more than a decade after the adoption by the European Council of the first EU ‘Strategy against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)’ in December 2003, this edited volume has aimed to take stock of developments and provide an assessment of the EU activities in the field. Undoubtedly, this is more easily said than done, and...
Book
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The vast majority of the existing literature on the emerging role of the EU as a non-proliferation actor exhibits only the most tertiary engagement with theory. This collection intends to redress this imbalance by placing the role of the EU in the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons within an analytical framework inspired by the emerging body of l...
Chapter
The development of a nuclear weapons programme by North Korea and concerns about Iran’s purported attempts to develop one constitute two of the issues which featured most prominently on the international security agenda over the past decade. The EU has addressed both proliferation crises, although to different degrees. In the initial phase of the I...
Chapter
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At its December 2003 summit, the European Council adopted its first ‘Strategy against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)’. This document (for its text see Appendix II of this volume) was released only six months after the European Security Strategy (ESS), also the first of its kind in the history of the EU. Until then, nuclear n...
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The increasingly frequent imposition of sanctions by the EU over the past decade has not been accompanied by a thorough pre-assessment and contingency planning stage, which has led to the formulation of suboptimal sanctions regimes. This paper argues for establishing a pre-assessment and contingency planning of sanctions, departing from the ‘ad hoc...
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Since May 2011, the EU has crafted one of its most far reaching and sophisticated sanctions operations in support of the anti-regime protests against the current regime in Syria. The present article examines the measures wielded by the EU, its expected impact and its implications for the EU’s relations with its global partners. While seriously unde...
Article
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This study analyses the use by the European Union of the novel concept of 'targeted sanctions' in the framework of its Common Foreign and Security Policy. It examines two sets of sanctions regimes featuring different degrees of efficacy: in Myanmar and Zimbabwe, the EU wielded measures in support of human rights and democracy objectives in the abse...
Article
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This article investigates the relationship between the European Union's withdrawal of trade benefits for developing countries under the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) and its sanctions under the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). Our expectation is that GSP withdrawals and CFSP sanctions will not cohere. However, our research revea...
Article
Full-text available
The present article looks at the evolution of Spanish views on deterrence and non-proliferation. Like every member state of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), Spain is covered by the US nuclear umbrella and has accepted the logic of deterrence, while at the same time maintaining a denuclearised status and committing to the goal of disar...
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Throughout its evolution, ASEAN has consistently maintained its attachment to the full respect of national sovereignty and the principle of non-interference in internal affairs, which translates into consensual decision-making, political rather than legally-binding agreements and the lack of sanctions for non-compliance. A major breakthrough in ter...
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The Foreign Ministers of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) held their annual summit from 17 to 18 November 2012 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Analysis European Union (EU) decision-makers have paid relatively little attention to the ASEAN region despite entering into a series of important agreements with ASEAN as a whole and with individ...
Chapter
Sanctions and embargoes are a significant, yet controversial component of the EU policies towards Asia. The goal of our chapter is to provide a comprehensive overview of EU sanction policy in the region. We examine the three most prominent episodes: the arms embargo on China, the sanctions against North Korea and the sanctions against Myanmar. We a...
Article
Full-text available
Since May 2011, the EU has crafted one of its most far reaching and sophisticated sanctions operations in support of the anti-regime protests against the current regime in Syria. The present article examines the measures wielded by the EU, its expected impact and its implications for the EU's relations with its global partners. While seriously unde...
Article
Full-text available
Sanctions are an important tool within the foreign policy of the European Union, which have until now remained obscure to both scholars and the general public. This book examines sanctions as a political tool of influence and evaluates the efficacy of sanctions imposed by the EU against third countries and their ability to bring about the desired o...
Article
Full-text available
the European Union (EU) suspended its sanctions against Burma/ Myanmar in response to a series of domestic political reforms that have been enacted since Thein Sein became the new president in March 2011. Analysis Since March 2011, Burma/Myanmar has witnessed a liberalization of the press, the re-lease of political prisoners and the initiation of a...
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The present article examines the character of the European Union (EU) as a polity by looking at the mechanisms it employs to ensure the coherence of its foreign policies. It first contrasts three ideal polity types. The methods selected to ensure coherence in foreign policy actions differ according to each of the three polity types. The article the...
Book
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A world-class range of academics and practitioners explores the long-neglected and relatively unexplored theme of political relations between the EU and ASEAN in an attempt to escape the economic and security-centered approaches, prevalent in contemporary U.S. debate. In doing so they deal with a selection of topics from an inter-disciplinary persp...
Chapter
In recent years, scholarly discussions on the relations between the European Union (EU) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have been dominated by economic issues, in particular the negotiation of a planned interregional Free Trade Agreement (FTA) which has, for the time being, failed to materialize. In an attempt to escape the c...
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The present article discusses the evolution of the European Union (EU) sanctions imposed in response to authoritarianism in Belarus in an attempt to ascertain the impact of these measures on the limited rapprochement that took place in the period 2008–2010. It is argued that despite the mostly non-economic character of the measures levied by the EU...
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One year has passed since the creation of the European Exter-nal Action Service (EEAS). The debate on European foreign policy during the EEAS' inaugural year has centred on the Euro-pean reaction to the Arab Spring, and most significantly, on the military intervention in Libya. The fact that the military operation in Libya was launched and conducte...
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The article examines the external image of the EU among elites in five selected Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore and the Philippines. Southeast Asia offers an interesting area for examining perceptions. Firstly, this region is linked to Europe by a long-standing and prosperous trade relationship. Secondly, the Assoc...
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Nuclear weapons remain the unquestioned core of the defence postures of both France and the United Kingdom. At the same time, the European Union is progressively enhancing its Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), notably through the establishment of a European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). Yet, despite evident progress in the CFSP, whos...
Book
Full-text available
Sanctions are an important tool within the foreign policy of the European Union, which have until now remained obscure to both scholars and the general public. This book examines sanctions as a political tool of influence and evaluates the efficacy of sanctions imposed by the EU against third countries and their ability to bring about the desired o...
Article
Full-text available
The foreign policies of the European Union (EU) has long been identified as a field of special concern in the study of coherence due to the difficulty of overcoming the problems posed by its duality (M.E. Smith 2001:171). Fifteen years have elapsed since the Treaty on European Union (TEU) signed at Maastricht formally linked the external relations...
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Since the signing of the Cotonou Agreement in 2000, the European Union (EU) has suspended development aid towards a number of African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries in response to breaches of Human Rights and democratic principles by activating the so-called Human Rights clause (article 96). The present article analyses the use by the EU of...
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Since the signing of the Cotonou Agreement in 2000, the European Union (EU) has suspended development aid towards a number of African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries in response to breaches of Human Rights and democratic principles by activating the so-called Human Rights clause (article 96). The present article analyses the use by the EU of...
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Während die Europäische Union auf dem Weg zu einer vollständig vergemeinschafteten Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik weiter voranschreitet, scheut sie nach wie vor eine ernst-hafte Debatte über die Zukunft der »europäischen« – britischen und französischen – Atomwaffen. Europa muss damit beginnen, die Atomwaffenpolitik auch ihrer eigenen Mitglie...
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Next 17 th May, high level representatives of the European Union will meet in Moscow with President Putin for the seventh EU-Russia Summit meeting. The delegation will be composed by Swedish Prime Minister Persson, and Commission President Prodi. Although the meeting's agenda is not known yet, it shall include a number of security items. It will ex...
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This is the second in a series of papers from a new project entitled “Who is a normative foreign policy actor? The European Union and its Global Partners”. The first paper – entitled Profiling Normative Foreign Policy: The European Union and its Global Partners, by Nathalie Tocci, CEPS Working Document No. 279, December 2007 – set out the conceptua...

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