Clara D Martin

Clara D Martin
Basque Center on Cognition, Brain and Language

Professor

About

90
Publications
23,874
Reads
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2,154
Citations
Introduction
Bilingualism, from phoneme-grapheme to word and sentence processing; Influence of orthography on phonological processing; Phoneme and word acquisition in second language learning; Behavioral and EEG methods
Additional affiliations
September 2008 - June 2012
University Pompeu Fabra
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2006 - January 2007
Bangor University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Purpose This scoping review considers the acoustic features of a clear speech register directed to nonnative listeners known as foreigner-directed speech (FDS). We identify vowel hyperarticulation and low speech rate as the most representative acoustic features of FDS; other features, including wide pitch range and high intensity, are still under d...
Article
The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOTC) supports extraction and processing of visual features. However, it has remained unclear whether left vOTC-based functional connectivity (FC) differs according to task-relevant representations (e.g., lexical, visual) and control demands imposed by the task, even when similar visual-semantic processing...
Article
Full-text available
In our continuously globalizing world, cross-cultural and cross-linguistic communications are far from exceptional. A wealth of research has indicated that the processing of non-native accented speech can be challenging for native listeners, both at the level of phonology (e.g., Munro & Derwing, 1995) and syntax (Caffarra & Martin, 2019). However,...
Article
Bilinguals living in a bilingual society continuously need to choose one of their languages to communicate a message. Sometimes, the circumstances (e.g., the presence of a monolingual) dictate language choice. When surrounded by other bilinguals, however, the bilinguals themselves can often decide which language to use. While much previous research...
Article
Full-text available
The cognate effect refers to translation equivalents with similar form between languages—i.e., cognates, such as “band” (English) and “banda” (Spanish)—being processed faster than words with dissimilar forms—such as, “cloud” and “nube.” Substantive literature supports this claim, but is mostly based on orthographic similarity and tested in the visu...
Article
Full-text available
Orthography plays a crucial role in L2 learning, which generally relies on both oral and written input. We examine whether incongruencies between L1 and L2 grapheme-phoneme correspondences influence bilingual speech perception and production, even when both languages have been acquired in early childhood before reading acquisition. Spanish–Basque a...
Article
Full-text available
Language perception studies on bilinguals often show that words that share form and meaning across languages (cognates) are easier to process than words that share only meaning. This facilitatory phenomenon is known as the cognate effect. Most previous studies have shown this effect visually, whereas the auditory modality as well as the interplay b...
Preprint
Purpose In languages with alphabetical writing systems, the relationship between phonology and orthography is strong. Phonology-to-orthography mappings can be consistent (i.e., one phonological unit corresponds to one orthographic unit) or inconsistent (i.e., one phonological unit corresponds to multiple orthographic units). This study investigates...
Preprint
Full-text available
This review considers the acoustic features of a clear speech register directed to non-native listeners known as Foreigner Directed Speech (FDS). We identify vowel hyperarticulation and low speech rate as the most representative acoustic features of FDS; other features, including wide pitch range and high intensity, are still under debate. We also...
Article
Previous research suggests that native listeners may be more tolerant to syntactic errors when they are produced in a foreign accent. However, studies investigating this topic within the semantic domain remain conflicting. The current study examined the effects of mispronunciations leading to semantic abnormality in foreign-accented speech. While t...
Article
The grain size of orthographic representations prompted by a consistent orthography (like Spanish or Basque) increases if reading is simultaneously learned in another language with an inconsistent orthography (like French). Here, we aimed to identify item properties that trigger this grain-size accommodation in bilingual reading. Twenty-five French...
Article
Full-text available
The present study uses event-related potentials to investigate how crosslinguistic (dis)similarities modulate anticipatory processing in the second language (L2). Participants read predictive stories in English that made a genitive construction consisting of a third-person singular possessive pronoun and a kinship noun (e.g., his mother) likely in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Language perception studies on bilinguals often show that words that share form and meaning across languages (cognates) are easier to process than words that share only meaning. This facilitatory phenomenon is known as the cognate effect. Most previous studies have shown this effect visually, whereas the auditory modality as well as the interplay b...
Preprint
The present study uses event-related potentials to investigate how crosslinguistic (dis)similarities modulate anticipatory processing in the second language (L2). Participants read predictive stories in English that made a genitive construction consisting of a third-person singular possessive pronoun and a kinship noun (e.g., his mother) likely in...
Article
Full-text available
Most research showing that cognates are named faster than non-cognates has focused on isolated word production which might not realistically reflect cognitive demands in sentence production. Here, we explored whether cognates elicit interference by examining error rates during sentence production, and how this interference is resolved by language c...
Article
Full-text available
Vocabulary learning occurs throughout the lifespan, often implicitly. For foreign language learners, this is particularly challenging as they must acquire a large number of new words with little exposure. In the present study, we explore the effects of contextual diversity—namely, the number of texts a word appears in—on native and foreign language...
Poster
Full-text available
Orthography is omnipresent in instructed L2 learning, and an increasing research pool investigates its effect on speech production and perception [1]. While orthography has facilitative effects on word learning and phonological accuracy [2], it may be detrimental on phonetic aspects of speech production and perception [3-4]. In classroom environmen...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the impact of a study abroad (SA) English program on English and native vowel production. Basque-Spanish bilingual adolescents were assessed on their vowel production in English, Basque and Spanish before the SA program, the day after the program was completed, and four months later. The results revealed that after the SA progra...
Article
The present study uses event-related potentials to investigate the role of prediction in the processing of information structure, a domain of language that belongs to the level of the discourse. Twenty-three native speakers of English read short contexts including three Noun Phrases (NPs) (e.g., Either an adviser or an agent can be helpful to a ban...
Article
Full-text available
This functional magnetic resonance imaging study established that different portions of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) support reactive and proactive language control processes during multilingual word retrieval. The study also examined whether proactive language control consists in the suppression of the nontarget lexicon. Healthy mul...
Article
Full-text available
Distinct theoretical proposals have described how communicative constraints (contextual biases, speaker identity) impact verbal irony processing. Modular models assume that social and contextual factors have an effect at a late stage of processing. Interactive models claim that contextual biases are considered early on. The constraint‐satisfaction...
Article
Full-text available
Speakers can correct their speech errors, but the mechanisms behind repairs are still unclear. Some findings, such as the speed of repairs and speakers' occasional unawareness of them, point to an automatic repair process. This paper reports a finding that challenges a purely automatic repair process. Specifically, we show that as error rate increa...
Article
Full-text available
Vocabulary learning is better achieved by children facing a teacher than when presented to the same teacher through video (so-called "video deficit" effect), which has significant implications for toddlers' education. Since millions of adults also learn new vocabulary when acquiring a second language (L2), it is important to explore whether adults...
Article
Full-text available
Multilinguals have to control their languages constantly to produce accurate verbal output. They have to inhibit possible lexical competitors not only from the target language, but also from non-target languages. Bilinguals’ training in inhibiting incongruent or irrelevant information has been used to endorse the so-called bilingual advantage in ex...
Article
Compared to low‐variability training, high‐variability training leads to better learning outcomes and supports generalization of learning. However, it is unclear whether the learning advantage is driven by multiple talkers or by enhanced acoustic variability across target sounds. The current study addressed this issue in nonnative production learni...
Article
Full-text available
In modern multi-cultural societies, conversations between foreign speakers and native listeners have become very common. These exchanges often include the use of figurative language. The present study examines, for the first time, whether native listeners’ non-literal interpretation of discourse is influenced by indexical cues such as speaker accen...
Data
Model comparisons. For each variable taken into account, a table showing the model comparisons is displayed. (DOCX)
Data
Density plots. The conditions of foreign and native accented ironic praise are examined closely through a density plot. (DOCX)
Data
Raw data from the survey. Each participant and item score is reported for Accent Strength, Intelligibility and Irony. (XLSX)
Preprint
A fundamental cognitive operation involved in speech production is word retrieval from the mental lexicon, which in monolinguals is supported by dissociable ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) mechanisms associated with proactive and reactive control. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study established whether in multilinguals...
Article
Full-text available
When a speaker's auditory feedback is altered, he adapts for the perturbation by altering his own production, which demonstrates the role of auditory feedback in speech motor control. In the present study, we explored the role of auditory acuity and executive control in this process. Based on the DIVA model and the major cognitive control models, w...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated whether orthographic depth can increase the bias towards multi-letter processing in two reading-related skills: visual attention span (VAS) and rapid automatized naming (RAN). VAS (i.e., the number of visual elements that can be processed at once in a multi-element array) was tested with a visual 1-back task and RAN w...
Article
Full-text available
Intercultural communication has become more and more frequent in the recent globalized society. When native listeners try to understand non-native speakers, they have to deal with different types of grammatical errors, some being frequently encountered and others being less common. The present ERP study investigated how native listeners process dif...
Article
Full-text available
Language comprehension often involves the generation of predictions. It has been hypothesized that such prediction-for-comprehension entails actual language production. Recent studies provided evidence that the production system is recruited during language comprehension, but the link between production and prediction during comprehension remains h...
Article
Full-text available
Language comprehension often involves the generation of predictions. It has been hypothesized that such prediction-for-comprehension entails actual language production. Recent studies provided evidence that the production system is recruited during language comprehension, but the link between production and prediction during comprehension remains h...
Article
Language comprehension is largely supported by predictive mechanisms that account for the ease and speed with which communication unfolds. Both native and proficient non-native speakers can efficiently handle contextual cues to generate reliable linguistic expectations. However, the link between the variability of the linguistic background of the s...
Article
Full-text available
Perceiving linguistic input is vital for human functioning, but the process is complicated by the fact that the incoming signal is often degraded. However, humans can compensate for unimodal noise by relying on simultaneous sensory input from another modality. Here, we investigated noise-compensation for spoken and printed words in two experiments....
Article
Full-text available
Studies on adults suggest that reading-induced brain changes might not be limited to linguistic processes. It is still unclear whether these results can be generalized to reading development. The present study shows to which extent neural responses to verbal and nonverbal stimuli are reorganized while children learn to read. MEG data of thirty Basq...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the proactive nature of the human brain in language perception. Specifically, we examined whether early proficient bilinguals can use interlocutor identity as a cue for language prediction, using an event-related potentials (ERP) paradigm. Participants were first familiarized, through video segments, with six novel in...
Article
Full-text available
Listeners are able to anticipate upcoming words during sentence comprehension, and, as a result, theyalso pre-activate semantically related words. In the present study, we aim at exploring whether theseanticipatory processes are modulated by indexical properties of the speakers, such as a speaker's accent.Event-related brain potentials were obtaine...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we explore whether world knowledge (WK) processing differs between individuals listening to their native (L1) or their non-native (L2) language. We recorded event-related brain potentials in L1 and L2 speakers of Spanish while they listened to sentences uttered by native speakers of Spanish. Sentences were either congruent or incongru...
Article
Bilinguals have been shown to perform worse than monolinguals in a variety of verbal tasks. This study investigated this bilingual verbal cost in a large-scale picture-naming study conducted in Spanish. We explored how individual characteristics of the participants and the linguistic properties of the words being spoken influence this performance c...
Article
Full-text available
Native speakers with different linguistic backgrounds differ in their usage of language, and particularly in their vocabulary. For instance, British natives would use the word "holiday" when American natives would prefer the word "vacation". This study investigates how cross-dialectal lexical variation impacts lexical processing. Electrophysiologic...
Article
Full-text available
In order to study the difficulties experienced during sentence comprehension in a foreign language (L2), we investigated semantic and world knowledge information retrieval in L2 comprehenders. Event-related potentials (ERP) were collected in late learners of English whose native language is Spanish, performing a sentence reading task in English. We...
Article
Full-text available
Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which wa...
Article
The present study investigated how pragmatic information is integrated during L2 sentence comprehension. We put forward that the differences often observed between L1 and L2 sentence processing may reflect differences on how various types of information are used to process a sentence, and not necessarily differences between native and non-native li...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the mechanisms responsible for fast changes in processing foreign-accented speech. Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) were obtained while native speakers of Spanish listened to native and foreign-accented speakers of Spanish. We observed a less positive P200 component for foreign-accented speech relative to native speech...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we will focus on how bilinguals cope with reading individual words and sentences in their different languages, and on how electroencephalographic recordings could be used to explore the time course of the cognitive processes underlying bilingual comprehension of visually delivered linguistic stimuli. Event-related brain potentials...
Article
The present study investigated whether lexical processes that occur when we name objects can also be observed when an interaction partner is naming objects. We compared the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of participants performing a conditional go/no-go picture naming task in two different conditions: individually and jointly with a...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Many studies have shown that recollection process is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, whereas familiarity is generally spared. However, in these studies, the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) presented is average ROC likely to mask individual differences. Methods: In the present study using a face-recognition task, we...
Article
Full-text available
Why is it more difficult to comprehend a 2nd (L2) than a 1st language (L1)? In the present article we investigate whether difficulties during L2 sentence comprehension come from differences in the way L1 and L2 speakers anticipate upcoming words. We recorded the brain activity (event-related potentials) of Spanish monolinguals, French-Spanish late...
Article
Full-text available
Do the integration of semantic information and that of world knowledge occur simultaneously or in sequence during sentence processing? To address this question, we investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by the critical word of English sentences in three conditions: (1) correct; (2) semantic violation; (3) world knowledge violation (se...
Article
A crucial step for understanding how lexical knowledge is represented is to describe the relative similarity of lexical items, and how it influences language processing. Previous studies of the effects of form similarity on word production have reported conflicting results, notably within and across languages. The aim of the present study was to cl...
Article
Full-text available
This study asks whether early bilingual speakers who have already developed a language control mechanism to handle two languages control a dominant and a late acquired language in the same way as late bilingual speakers. We therefore, compared event-related potentials in a language switching task in two groups of participants switching between a do...
Article
Based on previous reports of bilinguals’ reduced non-linguistic switch cost, we explored how bilingualism affects various task-switching mechanisms. We tested different groups of Spanish monolinguals and highly-proficient Catalan–Spanish bilinguals in different task-switching implementations. In Experiment 1 we disengaged the restart cost typically...
Article
We explored the temporal course of language control after-effects to shed light on the scope of language control (local vs. global) and on the way in which language control is implemented (L1 inhibition or L2 over-activation). High-proficient bilinguals named objects across three blocks, first in their L1, then in their L2, and then again in their...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the hypothesis that early bilinguals use language-control brain areas more than monolinguals when performing non-linguistic executive control tasks. We do so by exploring the brain activity of early bilinguals and monolinguals in a task-switching paradigm using an embedded critical trial design. Crucially, the task was designed such that...