Claire St. Peter

Claire St. Peter
West Virginia University | WVU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

66
Publications
27,301
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1,459
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2006 - present
West Virginia University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (66)
Article
The term procedural fidelity refers to the degree to which a procedure is implemented as designed. Reduced procedural fidelity negatively affects differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and response cost, but little is known about its effects on differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). We attempted to identify a potentia...
Article
The finding that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is efficacious at 80% integrity when continuous reinforcement is programmed for alternative responding may have contributed to a perception that integrity at 80% or above is acceptable. However, research also suggests that other interventions (e.g., noncontingent reinforcemen...
Article
The communities of behavior analysts and animal trainers remain relatively disconnected, despite potentially beneficial links between behavioral principles and the practices of animal training. Describing existing links between research by behavior analysts and practices used by animal trainers may foster connections. In this paper, we describe an...
Article
Matching job tasks to the individual’s preferences improves job performance. Preference assessments, including paired stimulus (PS) and multiple-stimulus-without-replacement (MSWO) procedures, can be used to identify preferred vocational tasks for individuals with disabilities. However, there are few direct comparisons of the efficacy and efficienc...
Article
Functional communication training (FCT) reduces escape-maintained challenging behavior but can result in time away from instruction. Instructional time could be maintained if interventions incorporated academic interventions like curricular revision. We compared FCT with extinction to a curricular-revision treatment package involving antecedent mod...
Article
Although in‐vivo behavioral skills training (BST) is often effective, it may be too resource‐intensive for organizations that rely on volunteers. Alternatives to in‐vivo BST include video models or interactive computer training (ICT), but the utility of these procedures for training volunteers remains largely unknown. We used a randomized control t...
Article
Resurgence of previously suppressed behavior can occur when differential reinforcement is discontinued. Recent research has investigated strategies to mitigate resurgence, including punishing the target response during alternative reinforcement. A punishment strategy consisting of reinforcer loss contingent on the target response (response cost) do...
Article
Timeout is an effective behavior-reduction strategy with considerable generality. However, little is known about how timeout is implemented under natural conditions, or how errors in implementation impact effectiveness. During Experiment 1, we observed teachers implementing timeout during play to evaluate how frequently the teachers implemented tim...
Article
Full-text available
Describing demographic variables (e.g., ethnicity/race, socioeconomic status, gender/sex, age) of participants may be important for identifying relations between these variables and behavior-analytic procedures. Previous research found that demographic variables were underreported in behavior-analytic studies dealing with particular populations (e....
Article
Abrupt discontinuation of functional communication training can cause resurgence of challenging behavior. Teaching multiple alternative responses in sequence (serial training) may reduce resurgence, relative to teaching a single alternative. However, previous evaluations of serial training included a different number of response options across comp...
Article
Resurgence is often discussed in relation to the relapse of undesirable behavior. However, resurgence may also describe the recurrence of socially appropriate behavior, including academic responding. The recurrence of academic responses following periods of extinction may aid in the solution of novel problems. The aims of this study were to evaluat...
Article
We compared rates of academic responses and problem behavior during mathematics with distributed and accumulated reinforcer arrangements for 3 students with Attention‐Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder who engaged in chronic, severe problem behavior. All 3 students engaged in more academic responding and less problem behavior when reinforcers accumulat...
Article
Some recommended strategies for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not empirically based. The purpose of the study was to evaluate effects of blue light covers on levels of stereotypy and on-task behavior. Four male children with ASD who engaged in repetitive behavior participated. Placing light covers over the classroom’s fluoresc...
Chapter
Many children diagnosed with ASD engage in challenging behavior, which can interfere with relationships, academic success, and daily functioning, or pose a safety risk to the individual or others (e.g., aggression, self-injury). Challenging behavior may develop and persist because of the consequences it produces, such as gaining access to attention...
Article
Resurgence refers to the recurrence of a previously reinforced response following the worsening of reinforcement conditions (e.g., extinction) for an alternative response. Because of the implications for treatment relapse, researchers have become particularly interested in mitigating resurgence of human behavior. Some studies have employed reversal...
Article
Resurgence is the reemergence of a previously reinforced behavior following the extinction of an alternative behavior. Although several variables are known to impact resurgence, few studies have examined resurgence when the target response was previously punished. Results of two studies examining resurgence after punishment have been mixed. In the...
Article
Descriptive assessments involve recording naturally occurring instances of behavior and corresponding antecedent and consequent events. Authors have argued for the use of two forms of descriptive assessment, structured and narrative Antecedent-Behavior- Consequence recording, because these methods may require little training. However, the extent to...
Article
Full-text available
Participation in college classrooms remains low, despite evidence that increased participation contributes to better grades. Incorporating active student educational strategies may help combat poor participation. The Good Behavior Game is a tool for improving various behaviors of children and adolescents in schools. However, strategies similar to t...
Article
Full-text available
Interventions based on functional analyses may result in better treatment outcomes than those using arbitrary reinforcers. However, functional analyses may be impractical in some situations, or an immediate intervention may be necessary while a functional analysis is being conducted. In these situations, delivering the social reinforcers most commo...
Article
Provides an introduction to the special issue in the Behavior Consultation and Therapy section of Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice . This particular issue will be addressing important areas in educational settings. Claire St. Peter, PhD, served as the special issue editor of this inaugural issue. The articles in this issue address behavior...
Presentation
Abstract Treatment integrity refers to the degree to which a treatment is implemented as it was designed. Treatment integrity failures are known to be detrimental to treatments such as differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and response cost, but little is known about their effects on differential reinforcement of other behavior (...
Article
Full-text available
Access to behavior-analytic professionals who can implement interventions like discrete-trial instruction (DTI) may be limited for families living in rural communities. We trained four rural parents of children with autism to implement DTI accurately with a confederate using in vivo behavioral skills training. The DTI skills that parents demonstrat...
Article
Researchers, teachers, practitioners, and parents are often concerned with how to program for and achieve the maintenance of appropriate behavior. The unintended maintenance of problem behavior is less often evaluated. This article describes a behavioral phenomenon, resurgence, that may result in the unintended maintenance of problem behavior. Exam...
Article
Resurgence refers to the reemergence of a previously reinforced response following the extinction of a more recently reinforced response. In a published study, resurgence occurred to a lesser extent following differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) than differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) with pigeons, but this effec...
Article
One intervention used to increase attendance at collegiate class meetings is to provide points for activities that take place in class; however, the percentage of course points necessary to facilitate high attendance is unknown. In Experiment 1, we assessed the relation between the relative percentage of points available for in-class activities and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Treatment integrity failures are commonly studied by measuring response rates when errors are consistently made during intervention implementation. For example, St. Peter Pipkin and Vollmer (2010) programmed commission errors by specifying a constant probability of reinforcement for problem behavior during an intervention based on differential rein...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of incorrect or partial implementation (poor treatment integrity) on response cost are largely unknown. We evaluated reduced treatment integrity during response cost on rates of 2 concurrently available responses. College students earned points by clicking on either a black circle or a red circle on a computer screen. Experiment 1 compared...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) is a common intervention for challenging behavior. When implemented correctly, DRO typically results in a decrease in challenging behavior. However, DRO interventions may not be implemented with high accuracy by caregivers. In particular, caregivers may sometimes accidentally reinforce challenging...
Article
To date, the majority of resurgence studies have occurred in controlled contexts with nonhuman subjects. However, understanding resurgence has implications for application. In this article, I outline six reasons why applied behavior analysts should know about resurgence. These reasons are the generality of the phenomenon, the diversity of responses...
Article
Full-text available
Manding allows individuals to access reinforcers in their environment. Caregivers may not implement mand-training programs as designed, which could result in decreased mand proficiency. This study evaluated the effects of delivery of the incorrect item (Experiment 1) and response-independent item delivery (Experiment 2) across 4 levels of treatment...
Article
Full-text available
Treatment integrity is often assessed as a global measure generated by aggregating performance across several individual components. Correct implementation of individual treatment components may be crucial to treatment success. Performance on individual treatment components may be masked by global measures of treatment integrity. We identified comp...
Article
Previous research supports the use of a variety of error-correction procedures to facilitate skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction. We used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare the effects of 4 commonly used error-correction procedures on skill acquisition for 2 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and...
Article
Full-text available
Although behavioral interventions are powerful tools for parents and teachers, they are unlikely to result in lasting change if the intervention agents find them unacceptable. After developing effective behavior intervention plans for classroom use, we compared social validity of those interventions using three measures: concurrent-chains selection...
Article
Resurgence of problem behavior following the discontinuation of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) may be prevented by response-independent reinforcer delivery. In basic research, response-independent reinforcer delivery following DRA prevented resurgence of the initially reinforced response and maintained alternative respondi...
Article
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders may not attempt treatment, even when effective treatment options are available. Little is known about how to improve frequency of attempts to implement treatment (‘treatment adherence’). We provided 32 rural parents of young children with autism spectrum disorders with either written or video train...
Article
Full-text available
Pyramidal training involves an experienced professional training a subset of individuals who, in turn, train additional individuals. Pyramidal training is effective for training a variety of behavior-analytic skills with direct-care staff, parents, and teachers. As teachers’ roles in behavioral assessment increase, pyramidal training may be useful...
Chapter
Full-text available
The standard of care for severe behavioral problems of persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities involves conducting assessments to determine the variables that give rise to and support problem behavior and hypothesis-driven intervention that addresses these causes. Conventional interventions involve disrupting the contingency betwee...
Article
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This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special...
Article
Hanley (2012) provided a guide to practitioners and researchers in the conduct of functional assessment for problem behavior, citing a body of empirical work to support his view. Much of the work Hanley drew upon was conducted with individuals with developmental delay in hospitals or outpatient clinic settings. In this paper, we argue that the guid...
Article
Sleep insufficiency is a major public health concern, yet the accuracy of selfreported sleep measures is often poor. Self-report may be useful when direct measurement of nonverbal behavior is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable, as it may be with sleep measurement. We used feedback and positive reinforcement within a small-n multiple-baseline de...
Article
Full-text available
Preference assessments directly evaluate items that may serve as reinforcers, and their implementation is an important skill for individuals who work with children. This study examined the effectiveness of pyramidal training on teachers' implementation of preference assessments. During experiment 1, 3 special education teachers taught 6 trainees to...
Article
Full-text available
Biting and chewing by horses on crossties can result in injury to the handler and damage to equipment. Operant-conditioning techniques have been used to train horses and could be used to reduce or eliminate undesirable biting and chewing. Presently, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule, in the context of a reversal design,...
Article
Two experiments assessed resurgence during differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) implemented with two types of treatment challenges: reduced reinforcement rate for the alternative response and discontinuation of reinforcement for the alternative response. Experiment 1 involved a human-operant preparation with three participants t...
Article
Two experiments assessed resurgence during differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) implemented with two types of treatment challenges: reduced reinforcement rate for the alternative response and discontinuation of reinforcement for the alternative response. Experiment 1 involved a human-operant preparation with three participants t...
Article
Full-text available
Temporal patterns of behavior have been observed in real-life performances such as bill passing in the U.S. Congress, in-class studying, and quiz taking. However, the practical utility of understanding these patterns has not been evaluated. The current study demonstrated the presence of temporal patterns of quiz taking in a university-level introdu...
Article
Full-text available
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is used frequently as a treatment for problem behavior. Previous studies on treatment integrity failures during DRA suggest that the intervention is robust, but research has not yet investigated the effects of different types of integrity failures. We examined the effects of two types of inte...
Article
Full-text available
Descriptive observations were conducted to record problem behavior displayed by participants and to record antecedents and consequences delivered by caregivers. Next, functional analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers for problem behavior. Then, using data from the descriptive observations, lag-sequential analyses were conducted to examine...
Article
Full-text available
Although the influence of reinforcement history is a theoretical focus of behavior analysis, the specific behavioral effects of reinforcement history have received relatively little attention in applied research and practice. We examined the potential effects of reinforcement history by reviewing nonhuman, human operant, and applied research and in...
Article
Full-text available
Resurgence describes a procedure, a particular behavioral effect (increases in previously reinforced responding during the extinction of another response), and a behavioral process. There are three phases in a resurgence procedure: reinforcement of a target response, reinforcement of an alternative response, and extinction of both responses. This r...
Article
Full-text available
Data reliability and treatment integrity have important implications for clinical practice because they can affect clinicians' abilities to accurately judge the efficacy of behavioral interventions. Reliability and integrity data also allow clinicians to provide feedback to caregivers and to adjust interventions as needed. We present reasons why re...
Article
Full-text available
A functional analysis for a boy with Down syndrome and autism suggested that vocal stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. The analysis also showed that instructions and noncontingent attention suppressed vocal stereotypy. A treatment package consisting of noncontingent attention, contingent demands, and response cost effectively redu...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on sha...
Article
We attempted to determine the effects of instructions, goal setting, and reinforcement, in isolation and combination, on the letter naming proficiency of 2 underperforming Kindergarten students. During a no-intervention baseline, both students' accuracy was low or declining. Instructions alone produced increases over baseline responding, but the ef...
Article
Full-text available
Prior researchers have evaluated the efficacy of using the matching law to describe naturally occurring behavior-environment interactions. However, spurious matching could be obtained if the response and environmental event were correlated, even if the event did not reinforce the response. To assess the likelihood of obtaining spurious matching whe...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted descriptive observations of 5 individuals with developmental disabilities and severe problem behavior while they interacted with their caregivers in either simulated environments (an inpatient hospital facility) or in their homes. The focus of the study was on caregiver reprimands and child problem behavior. Thus, we compared the frequ...
Article
Three studies were conducted to assess the reliability and validity of a measure that we developed using a non-clinical sample of university undergraduates, the Driving and Riding Avoidance Scale (DRAS). Study 1 indicated that the scale was internally consistent (alpha=0.92) and that a four-factor model (general avoidance, avoidance of traffic and...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate response allocation of stereotypy during free-operant and restricted-operant conditions. Five children with autism or related developmental disabilities participated in at least one and up to three of the experiments. In Experiment 1, the stereotypic response that emerged as most probable during a free-o...

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