Claire Fortunel

Claire Fortunel
Institute of Research for Development | IRD · 123 - Plant Architecture, Functioning and Evolution (AMAP)

PhD

About

69
Publications
20,885
Reads
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5,505
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2018 - May 2019
University of Texas at Austin
Position
  • Research Associate
February 2018 - present
Institute of Research for Development
Position
  • Researcher
March 2017 - February 2018
University of Texas at Austin
Position
  • Research Associate
Education
November 2004 - June 2008
L'institut Agro | Montpellier SupAgro
Field of study
  • Population Biology and Ecology
September 2003 - August 2004
L'institut Agro | Montpellier SupAgro
Field of study
  • Evolutionary Biology and Ecology
September 2001 - August 2003

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Abiotic constraints and biotic interactions act simultaneously to shape communities. However, these community assembly mechanisms are often studied independently, which can limit understanding of how they interact to affect species dynamics and distributions. We develop a hierarchical Bayesian neighborhood modeling approach to quantify the simultan...
Article
Understanding the mechanisms generating species distributions remains a challenge, especially in hyperdiverse tropical forests. We evaluated the role of rainfall variation, soil gradients and herbivory on seedling mortality, and how variation in seedling performance along these gradients contributes to habitat specialisation. In a 4-year experiment...
Article
As distinct community assembly processes can produce similar community patterns, assessing the ecological mechanisms promoting coexistence in hyperdiverse rainforests remains a considerable challenge. We use spatially explicit neighbourhood models of tree growth to quantify how functional trait and phylogenetic similarities predict variation in gro...
Article
The consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem services largely depend on the functional identities of extirpated species. However, poor descriptions of spatial patterns of community functional composition across landscapes hamper accurate predictions, particularly in highly diverse tropical regions. Therefore, understanding how community func...
Article
Full-text available
Wood specific gravity (WSG) is a strong predictor of tree performance across environmental gradients. Yet it remains unclear how anatomical elements linked to different wood functions contribute to variation in WSG in branches and roots across tropical forests. We examined WSG and wood anatomy in white sand, clay terra firme and seasonally flooded...
Preprint
Context Intraspecific variability (IV) has been proposed to explain species coexistence in diverse communities. Assuming, sometimes implicitly, that conspecific individuals can perform differently in the same environment and that IV blurs species differences, previous studies have found contrasting results regarding the effect of IV on species coex...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence exists that tree mortality is accelerating in some regions of the tropics1,2, with profound consequences for the future of the tropical carbon sink and the global anthropogenic carbon budget left to limit peak global warming below 2 °C. However, the mechanisms that may be driving such mortality changes and whether particular species are es...
Article
Full-text available
Most trees on Earth form a symbiosis with either arbuscular mycorrhizal or ectomycorrhizal fungi. By forming common mycorrhizal networks, actively modifying the soil environment and other ecological mechanisms, these contrasting symbioses may generate positive feedbacks that favour their own mycorrhizal strategy (that is, the con-mycorrhizal strate...
Preprint
Intraspecific variability (IV) has been proposed as a new track to explain species coexistence. Previous studies generally assumed, although often non-explicitely, that IV results from intrinsic differences between conspecific individuals. Under this hypothesis, IV either (i) blurred species differences, thus promoting transient or unstable coexist...
Article
Premise: Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) play a key role in tree performance and functioning. NSC are stored in radial and axial parenchyma (RAP) cells, but it is not known if this relationship is altered among species and climates, or is linked to functional traits describing xylem structure (wood density) and tree stature. Methods: In a syst...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetation processes are fundamentally limited by nutrient and water availability, the uptake of which is mediated by plant roots in terrestrial ecosystems. While tropical forests play a central role in global water, carbon, and nutrient cycling, we know very little about tradeoffs and synergies in root traits that respond to resource scarcity. Fro...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetation processes are fundamentally limited by nutrient and water availability, the uptake of which is mediated by plant roots in terrestrial ecosystems. While tropical forests play a central role in global water, carbon, and nutrient cycling, we know very little about tradeoffs and synergies in root traits that respond to resource scarcity. Fro...
Article
Full-text available
A better understanding of how climate affects growth in tree species is essential for improved predictions of forest dynamics under climate change. Long-term climate averages (mean climate) drives spatial variations in species’ baseline growth rates, whereas deviations from these averages over time (anomalies) can create growth variation around the...
Article
Full-text available
Forest dynamics are shaped by both abiotic and biotic factors. Trees associating with different types of mycorrhizal fungi differ in nutrient use and dominate in contrasting environments, but it remains unclear whether they exhibit differential growth responses to local abiotic and biotic gradients where they co-occur. We used 9-year tree census da...
Article
Full-text available
Neighborhood models have allowed us to test many hypotheses regarding the drivers of variation in tree growth, but require considerable computation due to the many empirically supported non-linear relationships they include. Regularized regression represents a far more efficient neighborhood modeling method, but it is unclear whether such an ecolog...
Preprint
Full-text available
A better understanding of how climate affects growth in tree species is essential for improved predictions of forest dynamics under climate change. Long-term climate averages (mean climate) and short-term deviations from these averages (anomalies) both influence tree growth, but the rarity of long-term data integrating climatic gradients with tree...
Article
Full-text available
Past environmental changes have shaped the evolutionary and ecological diversity of extant organisms. Specifically, climatic fluctuations have made environmental conditions alternatively common or rare over time. Accordingly, most taxa have undergone restriction of their distribution to local refugia during habitat contraction, from which they coul...
Article
Full-text available
The forests of Amazonia are among the most biodiverse plant communities on Earth. Given the immediate threats posed by climate and land-use change, an improved understanding of how this extraordinary biodiversity is spatially organized is urgently required to develop effective conservation strategies. Most Amazonian tree species are extremely rare...
Article
A major challenge remains to understand the relative contributions of history, dispersal and environmental filtering to the assembly of hyperdiverse communities across spatial scales. Here, we examine the extent to which biogeographical history and habitat specialization have generated turnover among and within lineages of Amazonian trees across br...
Article
It remains unclear how evolutionary and ecological processes have shaped the wide variety of plant life strategies, especially in highly diverse ecosystems like tropical forests. Some evidence suggests that species have diversified across a gradient of ecological strategies, with different plant tissues converging to optimize resource use across en...
Article
The forests of Amazonia are among the most biodiverse plant communities on Earth. Given the immediate threats posed by climate and land-use change, an improved understanding of how this extraordinary biodiversity is spatially organized is urgently required to develop effective conservation strategies. Most Amazonian tree species are extremely rare...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing habitat loss and fragmentation alter the functional diversity of forests. Generalising the magnitude of change in functional diversity of fragmented landscapes and its drivers is challenging because of the multiple scales at which landscape fragmentation takes place. Here we propose a multi-scale approach to determine whether fragmentation...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Examining tree species‐environment association can offer insight into the drivers of vegetation patterns and key information of practical relevance to forest management. Here, we aim to quantify the contribution of climate and soil gradients to variation in Central African tree species composition (abundance and occurrence). Location Tropical...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing spider diversity remains a great challenge, especially in tropical habitats where dozens of species can locally co-occur. Pitfall trapping is one of the most widely used techniques to collect spiders, but it suffers from several biases, and its accuracy likely varies with habitat complexity. In this study, we compared the efficiency of pa...
Article
Full-text available
Wood density (WD) relates to important tree functions such as stem mechanics and resistance against pathogens. This functional trait can exhibit high intraindividual variability both radially and vertically. With the rise of LiDAR-based methodologies allowing nondestructive tree volume estimations, failing to account for WD variations related to tr...
Article
1.Soil water and nutrient availability are key drivers of tree species distribution and forest ecosystem functioning, with strong species differences in water and nutrient use. Despite growing evidence for intraspecific trait differences, it remains unclear under which circumstances the effects of environmental gradients trump those of ontogeny and...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat loss and fragmentation result in significant landscape changes that ultimately affect plant diversity and add uncertainty to how natural areas will respond to future global change. This uncertainty is important given that the loss of biodiversity often includes losing key ecosystem functions. Few studies have explored the effects of landsca...
Article
Full-text available
Transpiration in humid tropical forests modulates the global water cycle and is a key driver of climate regulation. Yet, our understanding of how tropical trees regulate sap flux in response to climate variability remain elusive. With a progressively warming climate, atmospheric evaporative demand (i.e., vapor pressure deficit, VPD) will be increas...
Article
Full-text available
en Many plant species exhibit strong association with topographic habitats at local scales. However, the historical biogeographic and physiological drivers of habitat specialization are still poorly understood, and there is a need for relatively easy‐to‐measure predictors of species habitat niche breadth. Here, we explore whether species geographic...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the mechanisms promoting or limiting the coexistence of functionally divergent species in hyperdiverse tropical tree genera. Density-dependent enemy attacks have been proposed to be a major driver for the local coexistence of chemically divergent congeneric species. At the same time, we expect local soil conditions to favor th...
Article
Full-text available
Convergence occurs in both species traits and community structure, but how convergence at the two scales influences each other remains unclear. To address this question, we focus on tropical forest monodominance, in which a single, often ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree species occasionally dominates forest stands within a landscape otherwise characterize...
Article
Full-text available
Disentangling the mechanisms that shape community assembly across diversity gradients is a central matter in ecology. While many studies have explored community assembly through species average trait values, there is a growing understanding that intraspecific trait variation (ITV) can also play a critical role in species coexistence. Classic biodiv...
Data
This file contains data belonging to the article "Intraspecific leaf trait variability along a boreal-to-tropical community diversity gradient" by Cristina C. Bastias, Claire Fortunel, Fernando Valladares, Christopher Baraloto, Raquel Benavides, William Cornwell, Lars Markesteijn, Alexandre A. de Oliveira, Jeronimo B.B Sansevero, Marcel C. Vaz, Nat...
Data
Species ranks at sample size of 20 individuals per species (ITV) vs species ranks at sample size of 5 individuals (rarefied ITV) in order to detect bias in the ITV estimate by a small sample size. R2 close to 1 means no bias (i.e. similar ITV values obtained for a species using 20 individuals and using 5 individuals). (TIF)
Data
Boxplot of the ITV values for leaf size grouped in 7 categories of sample size per species (No. of individuals). n: number of observations in each category. (TIF)
Data
Community accumulation curves at sample size of 5 individuals. Dashed lines are 95% confident. (TIF)
Data
Linear regression models of the median values of trait overlap (panel A, B) and the proportion of low (less than 0.25; panel C, D) and high (> 0.75; panel E, F) values of degree of trait overlap between species for each forest community against species richness for both leaf size (left) and SLA (right). Trait similarity was calculated by kernel den...
Data
Species ranks at sample size of 10 individuals per species (ITV) vs species ranks at sample size of 5 individuals (rarefied ITV) in order to detect bias in the ITV estimate by a small sample size. R2 close to 1 means no bias (i.e. similar ITV values obtained for a species using 10 individuals and using 5 individuals). (TIF)
Data
Boxplot of the ITV values for SLA grouped in 7 categories of sample size per species (No. of individuals). n: number of observations in each category. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to become extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularl...
Article
Full-text available
To obtain a reliable description of spider communities, robust sampling protocols are crucial. However, it remains unclear if descriptions of spider communities in tropical habitats require both day and night sampling. Here we tested whether sampling both day and night in high and low vegetation strata would lead to better diversity estimates of sp...
Article
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have gen...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Species coexistence in the highly diverse tropical forests poses a considerable challenge to ecologists. Functional traits and phylogenetic relationships of co-occurring species provide the opportunity to distinguish the signatures of stochastic and deterministic assembly processes in communities. However, as multiple...
Article
1. Trade-offs among functional traits reveal major plant strategies that can give insight into species distributions and ecosystem processes. However, current identification of plant strategies lacks the integration of root structural traits together with leaf and stem traits. 2. We examined correlations among 14 traits representing leaf, stem and...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical plant diversity is extraordinarily high at both local and regional scales. Many studies have demonstrated that natural enemies maintain local diversity via negative density dependence, but we know little about how natural enemies influence beta-diversity across habitats and/or regions. One way herbivores could influence plant beta-diversit...
Article
Ecology Letters (2011) 14: 34–41 Negative density dependence (NDD) and environmental filtering (EF) shape community assembly, but their relative importance is poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that seedling’s mortality risk is positively related to the phylogenetic relatedness of neighbours. However, natural enemies, whose depredations o...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Environmental filtering is a primary process shaping community assembly, but the extent to which it drives patterns in species-rich communities remains poorly understood. Analyses of the distributions of functional traits can provide novel insights to this fundamental question. Recent results from tropical forests sugg...
Article
Tropical forests contain an important proportion of the carbon stored in terrestrial vegetation, but estimated aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests varies two-fold, with little consensus on the relative importance of climate, soil and forest structure in explaining spatial patterns. Here, we present analyses from a plot network designed to...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in land use and subsequent shifts in vegetation can influence decomposition through changes in litter quality (chemistry and structure) and alterations of soil temperature and moisture. Our aim was to study the effects of land abandonment on litter decomposition in a Mediterranean area of Montado, South Portugal. We tested the hypothesis th...
Article
Species performance depends on ecological strategies, revealed by suites of traits, conferring different relative ecological advantages in different environments. Although current knowledge on plant strategies along successional gradients is derived from studies conducted in situ, actually quantifying these strategies requires disentangling the eff...
Article
Full-text available
Land use and climate changes induce shifts in plant functional diversity and community structure, thereby modifying ecosystem processes. This is particularly true for litter decomposition, an essential process in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. In this study, we asked whether changes in functional traits of living leaves in respo...
Article
Objective: To identify the relative roles of climatic, edaphic and management factors in controlling the weighted mean traits of vegetation. Location: Eleven sites in Europe and one in Israel undergoing transitions in land use. Material and Methods: Standardised methods were used to collect information on species traits and attributes from plots co...
Article
Summary • Given the speed and extent of changes in vegetation as a result of human activity, there is a need to investigate ways in which individual species’ impacts on ecosystem processes can be generalized and scaled-up to the community level. • We focus on linking community functional parameters (mean of the traits of the plants in the community...
Article
A standardized methodology to assess the impacts of land-use changes on vegetation and ecosystem functioning is presented. It assumes that species traits are central to these impacts, and is designed to be applicable in different historical, climatic contexts and local settings. Preliminary results are presented to show its applicability. Eleven si...
Article
In its simplest definition, a trait is a surrogate of organismal performance, and this meaning of the term has been used by evolutionists for a long time. Over the last three decades, developments in community and ecosystem ecology have forced the concept of trait beyond these original boundaries, and trait-based approaches are now widely used in s...