Claire Card

Claire Card
University of Saskatchewan | U of S · Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences

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79
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Publications

Publications (79)
Article
Our understanding of the temporal changes in endometrial and luteal gene transcripts related to the actions of oxytocin and prostaglandin during early equine pregnancy is incomplete. Additionally, the role of oxytocinase, also known as Leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase (LNPEP), during early pregnancy in mares has not been previously investigated. Lute...
Article
Full-text available
Leucyl and cystinyl aminopeptidase (LNPEP/oxytocinase) is an enzyme that metabolizes oxytocin in serum and tissues. The presence of oxytocin/neurophysin I (OXT), oxytocin and LNPEP and their relationship to other genes is unknown in the equine conceptus. Our objective was to characterize gene expression of LNPEP and OXT on D8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16 an...
Article
Iodine, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are required for normal fetal growth, maturation and neonatal survival. There is a lack of robust information on iodine levels found in colostrum, milk and serum of mares and foals following a healthy pregnancy. Our objective was to characterize colostrum, milk and serum iodine levels in healthy post...
Article
Exposure to plants containing glucosinolates (GSL) affects thyroid function in many species, in horses is implicated in the birth of foals with congenital hypothyroidism. The present study was performed to determine the effect of feeding a GSL (sinigrin) in combination with a low iodine diet for 12 weeks on thyroid hormones and serum iodine concent...
Article
The ability to predict impending foaling is invaluable, as attending foaling improves mare and foal outcome during parturition; therefore, a comparison of foaling prediction technologies is warranted. The purpose of this study was to compare technologies to predict foaling. Forty Standardbred mares were monitored daily for parturition. Prefoaling m...
Article
An understanding of the One Health and EcoHealth concepts by students is dependent on medical pedagogy and veterinary medical pedagogy having similarities that allow a common discourse. Medical pedagogy includes a focus on the social, political, and economic forces that affect human health, while this discourse is largely absent from veterinary med...
Article
Hydropsical conditions are exceedingly rare in the horse. However, when they occur, they are true emergencies due to the severe enlargement of the pregnant uterus, which can result in clinical signs, such as an enlarged round abdomen, dyspnea, reluctance to walk, and colic, and may lead to the development of abdominal wall disease. The pathogenesis...
Article
“International Cultural Boma,” in an African context means a meeting that allows learning and a two-way exchange of information between elders and youngsters. African culture involves the transfer of wisdom and knowledge from the - wise, knowledgeable, and highly experienced - elders to the young that are mentored into responsible community members...
Article
CASE DESCRIPTION 5 mares were evaluated because of reproductive complications following longterm (> 1 year) use of intrauterine glass marbles for estrus suppression. CLINICAL FINDINGS 3 mares had 1 intrauterine glass marble, and 2 mares had 2 intrauterine glass marbles. On examination, 2 mares had signs of chronic endometritis, and 3 had signs of p...
Article
Full-text available
Caregivers of HIV-positive children were interviewed in the Mbarara and Isingiro districts of Uganda to identify current trends in practices related to HIV testing and the disclosure of HIV status to the child. A total of 28 caregivers of at least one HIV-positive child participated in semi-structured interviews exploring when and why they tested t...
Article
Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously demonstrated to be a safe, inexpensive and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the utero-ovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil i...
Article
Ultrasound-guided biopsies of corpora lutea have been previously used for research purposes in the mare and cow. However, the health effects and fertility after transvaginal luteal biopsies (TVLB) or transvaginal ovarian biopsies (TVOB) obtained for diagnostic purposes in cases of suspected ovarian tumors have not been previously evaluated in the h...
Article
A 24-day-old Friesian colt died suddenly and a physical examination the morning the foal died showed no abnormalities and serum IgG levels >8.0 g/l. Necropsy examination revealed haemopericardium and a 2 cm transverse tear at the root of the aorta. The foal was also found to have Chlamydophila spp. in the epithelium and Balantidium coli on the muco...
Article
Synchronization of oestrus in mares remains a challenge to practitioners using Assisted Reproductive Technologies. The research objective was to compare adverse reactions and reproductive parameters in mares treated with different sources of progestins for oestrus synchronization. Mixed breeds of mares with a mean age of 3 years (range 2-20) were u...
Article
Oxytocinase/insulin regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) or leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase (LNPEP) is an enzyme that is involved in the regulation of hormones such as oxytocin, vasopressin, and angiotensin in both humans and sheep. Historically, very low levels of this aminopeptidase were reported in monthly samples obtained from cycling and pregnant ma...
Article
The case report in this issue by Witte et al. (2012) is a description of an uncommon case of a short (3 cm) congenitally incompetent cervix associated with a pneumouterus in a 5-year-old maiden Quarter Horse mare with a normal 64 XX karyotype. Serial ultrasonographic examinations showed active ovaries of normal size with regular follicular activity...
Article
Induction of multiple ovulations, or superovulation, may potentially increase the efficiency of equine embryo transfer programs. Our objective was to investigate the effects of equine follicle-stimulating hormone (eFSH) treatment on the success rate of embryo transfer programs in mares. In the research facility of the University of Saskatchewan, Ca...
Article
Reliable methods for regulating oestrus and superovulation in equine embryo transfer (ET) programs are desirable. The objective in this study was to compare two oestrus synchronization methods combined with equine follicle-stimulating hormone (eFSH) treatment in an ET program. In the progesterone and estradiol-17β (P&E) group, mares (n=12) were giv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) is a key regulator of the inflammatory cascade resulting from bacterial infections, and may play a role in equine endometritis. Our objective was to compare TLR-2 mRNA expression in the endometrium of mares resistant and susceptible to endometritis; we hypothesized it would differ between these two categories of mares d...
Article
The objective was to compare the reproductive performances associated with the first (Cycle-1), second (Cycle-2), and mid-season (MS-Cycle) ovulations of the breeding season in donor mares that were treated with equine-FSH (eFSH) in the early vernal transition. Mares (n=15) kept under ambient light were examined ultrasonographically per-rectum star...
Article
The objective of this investigation was to clone and express the elk and horse common alpha-subunit and FSH beta-subunit cDNAs, and to produce recombinant FSH from both species in vitro. The RNAs extracted from elk and horse pituitary glands were reverse-transcribed and amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The cDNAs corresponding to both subunit...
Article
The objective was to compare the effects of eFSH and deslorelin treatment regimes on ovarian stimulation and embryo production of donor mares in early spring transition. Starting January 30th, mares kept under ambient light were examined by transrectal ultrasonography. When a follicle > or =25 mm was detected, mares were assigned to one of two trea...
Article
Reliable methods of regulating estrus and stimulating superovulations in equine embryo transfer programs are desirable. Our objectives were to investigate the efficacy of a progesterone and estradiol-17beta (P&E) estrus synchronization regimen in mares with and without subsequent equine follicle-stimulating hormone (eFSH) treatment and to examine t...
Article
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of purified equine- and porcine-FSH treatment regimes in mares in early vernal transition. Mares (n = 22) kept under ambient light were examined ultrasonographically per-rectum, starting January 30th. They were assigned to one of two treatment groups using a sequential alternating treatment de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A decrease in endometrial edema from the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to 24 h later was significantly associated with subsequent ovulation within the 24-to 48-h window after hCG administration.
Article
Endometritis has been reported to be the third most common medical condition of horses. Timely diagnosis and treatment of endometritis in mares increases the chance of pregnancy. Exfoliative endometrial cytology is often used as a clinical tool to evaluate endometrial inflammation through detection of neutrophils. There is a lack of information on...
Article
Morphologic assessment of spermatozoa is one of the most objective measures in a Breeding Soundness Examination of a stallion. There are different systems for morphologic assessment of spermatozoa. The objectives of this article are to review spermatogenesis, describe clinical sample preparation, discuss previous methods of morphologic classificati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are limited data on the success of different estrus synchronization protocols combined with the administration of eFSH in horses, and no information on embryo quality and post-transfer pregnancy rate. The main objectives of this study were to investigate and compare estrus synchronization parameters, ovulation (Ov) rates, embryo recovery and...
Article
Full-text available
Laminitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in elk presenting with shifting leg lameness, reluctance to move, recumbency and hoof wall ridging. Eliminating the underlying cause and corrective trimming lead to a good prognosis for recovery.
Article
A 19-year-old Quarter Horse mare was evaluated because of bloody vaginal discharge that was apparent immediately following breeding. On transrectal ultrasonography, it was evident that the uterus was filled with fluid containing echogenic particles; linear hyperechoic structures were also visible. Endoscopy was performed, which revealed a number of...
Article
Fetal maturation and equine parturition are not understood fully, although the adrenal and thyroid glands are thought to have regulatory roles. Thyroidectomized equine fetuses undergo prolonged gestation, and spontaneous diseases such as thyroid musculoskeletal disease and gestational fescue endophyte exposure are also associated with delayed partu...
Article
Historical, clinical and experimental data were collected from 9 horses homozygous for HYPP (H/H). All showed episodes of respiratory stertor, described as a rattling or honking sound, usually within the first week post partum. Five horses had one or more episodes of dysphagia, in 3 horses this was accompanied by drooling and in 3 by weight loss. I...
Article
During the past 2 decades, commercial preparations of FSH have been extensively used to superovulate cattle. The problems that have been encountered in superovulation of cattle include high variability in the ovulation rate and subsequent yield of viable embryos. The lack of predictability in superovulatory trials has been attributed to difficultie...
Article
A syndrome of congenital hypothyroidism and dymaturity has been an important cause of reproductive loss and foal mortality in western Canada. The cause and pathogenesis of this syndrome is under investigation. One issue to be addressed is whether all the anomalies present in affected foals are produced concurrently by the same agent, or if affected...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical, echographic, and histopathological features of an unusual enlarging scrotal mass in a 5-year-old gelding are described. Echography of the scrotal mass in this case provided valuable information concerning the nature of the tissue present, and assisted in narrowing the differential diagnosis.
Article
Full-text available
Breeding or semen collection was attempted using: natural cover, manual stimulation, artificial vagina, pharmacologic induction of ejaculation, and electroejaculation. Sperm cells were recovered from the ductus deferens and epididymides post mortem. Only semen collected ex copula by imipramine and xylazine treatment resulted in conceptions (4/5). T...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal mortality in a large, extensively managed mare herd and what risk factors were involved in foal mortality. For a 6 wk period between April 18, 1994, and May 31, 1994, 334 foals were born, of which 74 died before reaching 10 d of age, giving an overall mortality of 22% for this per...
Article
Clenbuterol is a highly selective β2 adrenergic agonist that has been used to induce bronchodilation and uterine relaxation in mares. The effects of clenbuterol on equine uterus and fetus have not been described. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of acute maternal (n = 4) i.v. administration of clenbuterol on the fetus and...
Article
Full-text available
Placental lactogen (PL) was isolated from goat cotyledonary tissue by a combination of mild alkaline extraction, anion and cation exchange chromatography, chromatofocussing and molecular filtration. The product, enriched 15,000-fold from the initial extract, was homogeneous when examined by SDS-gel electrophoresis (Mr 22,500) and isoelectricfocussi...
Article
A 7-day-old male Nubian-Alpine crossbred goat was examined because of listlessness, anorexia, and diarrhea. The presumptive diagnosis was severe enteritis. Large numbers of Clostridium perfringens and a non-pathogenic heavily encapsulated Escherichia coli were isolated from the feces. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified on the qualitative fecal e...
Article
Full-text available
Significant changes in endometrial echotexture occur in the uterine body. The time frames where mean numeric pixel values (NPV) of the endometrium decreased or increased in relation to ovulation were influenced by hormonal treatment. It was concluded that estrus-induction with prostaglandin F2 (PGF2), combined with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG...

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