Chunyan Li

Chunyan Li
Louisiana State University | LSU · Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences (DOCS)

PhD

About

207
Publications
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Introduction
I do not check messages here regularly and I apologize for not responding to messages. Please email to communicate. . Research interest: Estuarine dynamics, ocean physical processes, use of observations, & theoretical and numerical models as tools to study the physical processes. Quantifying and studying the mechanisms related to transport, circulations, water exchange, and extreme weather (such as hurricanes) induced waves and storm surges; and atmospheric-Oceanic Observing Systems.

Publications

Publications (207)
Article
Full-text available
Studying mixing and re-stratification during and after hurricanes have important implications for the simulation of circulation and bio-geochemical processes in oceanic and shelf waters. Numerical experiments using FVCOM on an unstructured computational mesh were implemented to study the direct effect of hurricane winds on the mixing and temperatur...
Article
Full-text available
The wet/dry point treatment method of FVCOM was applied to simulate the tide-induced flooding/drying process in the estuarine–tidal-creek–saltmarsh complex of the Okatee/Colleton River Estuary, South Carolina. The simulation results were compared with observed currents at three mooring sites and flooded areas observed from remote-sensing hypsometri...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses the application of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) for the quantification of transport of water and the underlining physical mechanism. The transport of water through estuaries and tidal inlets is affected by tide, river flow, and wind. It is often assumed that wind effects in such systems are negligible unless under...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental temperature is a widely used variable to describe weather and climate conditions. The use of temperature anomalies to identify variations in climate and weather systems makes temperature a key variable to evaluate not only climate variability but also shifts in ecosystem structural and functional properties. In contrast to terrestrial...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the CTD data from 58 stations in the Bering Sea and the Chukchi Sea in the summer of 2019, the values of mixed layer depth (MLD) were obtained by using the density difference threshold method. It was concluded that the MLD can be estimated more accurately by using a criterion of 0.125 kg/m3 in this region. The average MLD in the Bering Sea...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric cold fronts can periodically generate storm surges and affect sediment transport in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). In this paper, we evaluate water circulation spatiotemporal patterns induced by six atmospheric cold front events in the Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana using the 3-D hydrodynamic model ECOM-si. Model simulat...
Article
Full-text available
Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) are quasi-remote sensing instruments widely used in oceanography to measure velocity profiles continuously. One of the applications is the quantification of land–ocean exchange, which plays a key role in the global cycling of water, heat, and materials. This exchange mostly occurs through estuaries, lagoons...
Article
To investigate the interactions among geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and sediment dynamics on the inner shelf offshore Louisiana, multiple acoustic and optical sensors were deployed during a 58-day intermediate-energy period from May 23 to July 22, 2016. Time series results show that an elongated bathymetric “trough” between Ship Shoal and Isles Der...
Chapter
Weather forecasting models and the highest generation of climate models called general circulation models (GCMs) are similar in many ways. Both types of models use the same Seven Basic Equations to simulate atmospheric motion and energy, moisture, and momentum exchanges. The most fundamental differences between GCMs and weather forecasting models i...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the most fundamental entities of the atmosphere that cause it to behave as it does, including the concepts of pressure, density, and volume. The composition of air, which is dominated by diatomic nitrogen and diatomic oxygen, along with widely varying (across space and time) concentrations of water vapor, carbon dioxide, whi...
Chapter
Fog is simply a cloud in contact with the surface. Often, but not always, a temperature inversion layer exists above the fog layer. The inversion itself is formed at night by the absorption of longwave radiation emitted by the surface in the absence of shortwave radiation. The result of this absorption is that the surface (which emitted the energy)...
Chapter
The weather can affect the ocean just as the ocean can affect weather. Weather effects on the ocean occur on a wide array of time scales, with each having a different impact. Tides are periodic variations of the ocean surface level caused by tide-generating force from the Moon and Sun. Tides can modify storm surge through nonlinear interactions. Th...
Chapter
For many applications, such as building design, wind energy, and recreation, the vertical pattern of the variations of speed and direction in a given place/time is important to know. Such applications often involve the coastal zone. But coastal and marine areas are often data-poor, so it is often necessary to make estimates of the wind at a given h...
Chapter
Many fluids, including the atmosphere, behave in general accordance with fundamental laws that express the relationships between fundamental entities such as temperature, pressure, and density. This chapter explores how the atmosphere—which is almost entirely gaseous—fulfills such gas laws. An understanding of this behavior is particularly importan...
Chapter
Rising motion is important in meteorology because it allows air to cool to its dew point temperature, condense, form clouds, and enlarge droplets by either the collision-coalescence process or the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process before precipitation is possible. This chapter covers the four basic ways that air can rise. The first mechanism follo...
Chapter
The part of the Earth covered by ice and snow is called the cryosphere. The unique nature of water, with increasing density as temperature decreases to 4°C, and then decreasing density from 4°C to freezing, with and abrupt decrease in density upon freezing and increasing density once again as the water cools below freezing, causes distinctive ocean...
Chapter
Because of reflection, refraction, and diffusion of light, interesting optical effects are common in the coastal zone. Crepuscular rays of sunlight sometimes appear prominently, often between darker gaps. Inferior and superior mirages cause objects to appear below and above (respectively) the true location of the observed object. Multiple rapid ver...
Chapter
A tornado is a vertically rotating funnel of air, under a very steep pressure gradient, that protrudes to the surface from a cumulonimbus cloud. Tornadic wind speeds are highest of all storms, but impacts are more isolated and local. This chapter details the formation processes, including the simplified version of the gradient wind equation—known a...
Chapter
In addition to obeying the Ideal Gas Law and principles of adiabatic motion, air moves vertically based on the principles described in the hydrostatic equation, which relates height differences in a static atmosphere to the vertical pressure change over those differences. In addition, the First Law of Thermodynamics—the postulate that energy can be...
Chapter
In extratropical environments, air temperature affects a lake’s circulation based on the changes in density with temperature. In early autumn, when a lake begins to cool, its waters become denser, sink, and are replaced by warmer waters from the depths, which are, in turn, cooled, leading to reverse stratification, with colder surface waters floati...
Chapter
Clouds consist of liquid and solid water and form as air rises to a height at which it cools below the dew point or frost point temperature, usually in the presence of abundant microscopic solid particles called condensation or freezing nuclei. Stratiform clouds are wide, thick, clouds with a layered, blanket-like appearance that tend to form a sin...
Chapter
The Ekman spiral exists in the near-surface ocean just as in the near-surface atmosphere. The angle of the surface wind direction with the isobars is an important feature of both the atmospheric and oceanic Ekman spiral. In the atmosphere, the wind direction makes a larger but widely varying angle with the isobars on land than offshore and points m...
Chapter
When the pressure gradient force and Coriolis effect are imbalanced, the flow does not remain straight but instead curves. The centripetal acceleration influences winds in such situations and accounts for this curvature. Centripetal acceleration is related to the gradient wind, which works with the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis effect to...
Chapter
Air-sea interactions is the least understood aspect of the climate system because of a data shortage, but it is probably the most important. This chapter depicts some of the many relationships between air and sea and their impacts. Energy, matter, and momentum storage and exchange include many impacts on salinity and three-dimensional circulation o...
Chapter
This chapter describes the mechanisms by which energy is transferred across space, and how these mechanisms are important in meteorology. Of particular importance is electromagnetic radiation—the mechanism by which energy from the Sun crosses through space and enters Earth’s atmosphere. Laws governing the intensity of this solar (shortwave) radiati...
Chapter
Because the total energy (latent heat plus sensible heat) is more abundant near the Equator both directly from the Sun and from the latent energy released in thunderstorms near and at the ITCZ, weather systems must move this extra energy poleward. Several mechanisms involving advection at various scales, from the planetary scale to the microscale,...
Chapter
Acceleration due to gravity plays an important role in atmospheric motion in several ways. The hydrostatic approximation plays an important role in local circulation, as colder air sinks down into valleys. The Hydrostatic Equation also can have implications for the degree to which surface anticyclones and cyclones remain intact to great heights in...
Chapter
To this point in the book, other than on topics related to the Ekman spiral, the emphasis has been on the free atmosphere, where motion is determined by the pressure gradient force (per unit mass), apparent acceleration due to the Coriolis effect, and centripetal acceleration, but the latter only if the flow is curved. Thus, the free atmosphere is...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the scope, uniqueness, and importance of the coastal atmosphere. The distinction between meteorology and climatology is stressed, along with the basic functions of the atmosphere and its interactions with the other components of the surface–ocean–atmosphere system. Then, the structural features and the functiona...
Chapter
Built-up areas usually have a higher temperature than their surrounding rural environs. There are many reasons for this urban heat island. These factors generally combine to give urban areas temperatures that are most elevated relative to the surrounding rural areas in the evening and nighttime hours, perhaps by 2–6 C°. In general, the larger the c...
Chapter
The “general circulation” refers to the broadscale, mean preferred circulation of the atmosphere. Heating near the Equator causes air to rise, producing a thermally induced low pressure belt near the Equator. This initiates a pressure gradient force that pulls near-surface air from both the Northern and Southern hemispheres toward the Equator, init...
Chapter
The only way to estimate atmospheric stability at a given place and time is to understand the vertical profile of temperature. There are several mechanisms for assessing the stability condition based on the temperature profile. A global network of sites where instrument packages called radiosondes are launched synchronously twice daily measure, amo...
Chapter
While at first glance, it might be assumed that the coastal areas should have abundant sources of water; this is often not the case. Many coastal areas are affected by atmospheric features that promote desiccation. For example, subsidence associated with subtropical anticyclones makes many coastal areas dry, particularly on the east sides of the su...
Chapter
In the Ekman layer, the wind is assumed to result from a balance between the pressure gradient force, apparent acceleration due to the Coriolis effect (CE), and friction. But because friction weakens with height substantially in this layer, the importance of CE changes vertically. This causes the wind direction to change continuously with increasin...
Chapter
A winter storm is a form of a mid-latitude wave cyclone, usually with trailing warm fronts and cold fronts. If the temperatures involved are above freezing ahead of the front and subfreezing behind the front, several precipitation types could be expected. As the cold front approaches, it might be possible to experience freezing rain, then sleet, th...
Chapter
Radiosonde measurements, or soundings, are plotted automatically on a thermodynamic diagram. These thermodynamic diagrams are useful tools for gaining a quick sense of the atmospheric properties. The Skew-T Log-P diagram is a type of thermodynamic diagram used by the U.S. National Weather Service. This diagram plots isotherms of temperature as line...
Chapter
Extraterrestrial solar irradiance (KEX) is the solar irradiance at the “top” of the Earth’s atmosphere, on a plane perpendicular to the Sun’s rays, and at mean Earth–Sun distance. To calculate the amount of irradiance available in the photic zone, the maximum possible extraterrestrial irradiance or the solar constant, which is 1366 + 3 Watts per sq...
Chapter
The eddy covariance method is the most accurate and direct approach to measure fluxes of energy, matter, and momentum, in neutral, stable, and unstable atmospheric conditions. This chapter reviews the eddy covariance form of the wind stress (or shearing stress; τ) equation, along with the corresponding eddy flux equations for energy (heat; QH) and...
Chapter
Many variables must be considered when attempting to assess the probability of severe convective weather associated with fronts, thunderstorms, lightning, and tornadoes. This chapter provides an overview of how various severe weather indices are computed and how they can be interpreted to provide guidance on the likelihood of severe weather in the...
Chapter
This chapter explains the types, notation on weather maps, and mechanisms producing fronts, along with the characteristic types of weather expected along fronts. A cold front is a front in which the air from the colder air mass is advancing and the air from the warmer air mass is retreating. In a warm front, the warmer air is advancing and the cold...
Chapter
Temperature, a measure of the speed of molecules present in matter, is an important atmospheric feature. This chapter introduces scales that are commonly used to measure temperature and terms used to describe the temperature of a place. The diurnal cycle of temperature on a “typical” day is then described in the context of local surpluses and defic...
Chapter
The Seven Basic Equations represent the spatial and temporal dimensions of atmospheric motion, energy, and moisture, and are solved simultaneously in numerical weather prediction at many grid points in the atmosphere. The first three equations are collectively known as the Reynolds Equations of Motion. They solve for the time rate of change of wind...
Chapter
A thunderstorm is defined as any storm during which thunder is heard. The least severe type of thunderstorm is the air mass thunderstorm, which is usually caused by free convection and undergoes three stages of development, with characteristic weather features in each stage. More severe types of thunderstorms are most likely to occur when clusters...
Chapter
The increasing coastal population and intensive industrial, transportation, residential, and recreational land use in the coastal zone cause many environmental impacts. The dispersion of pollutants can be described qualitatively simply by looking at the plume and categorizing it as looping, coning, fanning, lofting, fumigating, or trapping. However...
Chapter
Coastal jets refer to regional-scale, low-level jets (LLJs) near the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). One important factor for producing a coastal jet is a very sharp temperature (or potential temperature) gradient along the coast. This scenario creates a strong offshore-to-onshore, thermally driven air pressure gradient, with isobars par...
Chapter
Winds form in response to the pressure gradient force per unit mass, or, according to Newton’s Second Law, pressure gradient force, which pushes air from areas of higher atmospheric pressure to areas of lower atmospheric pressure. The diurnal-scale land and sea breeze in coastal zones, countryside breeze between urban and rural areas, valley and mo...
Chapter
Tropical cyclones (TCs) are ferocious, maritime, low-latitude cyclonic storms lasting from several hours to two weeks, lacking fronts and completely embedded in maritime tropical air masses. Known by different names in different parts of world, they form out of near-surface easterly waves, which are weak troughs that move generally from east to wes...
Chapter
The abrupt and awesome exchange of electrical energy is called lightning, which occurs as Ice particles in upper part of the cumulonimbus cloud with positive electrical charge interact with the particles that have a mostly negative charge in the lower cloud regions. Usually the particles on Earth’s surface have a net negative charge too, but as a c...
Chapter
Friction reduces wind velocity and therefore weakens the apparent acceleration due to the Coriolis effect. Because the pressure gradient is not directly affected by the presence of friction, the pressure gradient acceleration will exceed the weakened Coriolis effect in an environment in which friction is non-negligible. The result is that regardles...
Chapter
Coastal flooding includes direct coastal inundation by the sea (such as during storm surge events), estuarine floods (especially, where there has been high outflow by a river), and flooding along the margins of large lakes. Whether the flooding is merely a nuisance or is catastrophic, mitigation practices such as avoidance of development of low-lyi...
Chapter
An air mass is a body of air with relatively uniform characteristics over large areas. The place where an air mass forms and obtains its characteristics is known as its source region. Several factors determine the nature of an air mass. First, the conditions in the source region have an obvious influence. Second, the nature of the surface over whic...
Chapter
Along with energy and motion, moisture is an essential ingredient in creating weather and climate. This chapter reviews several of the many variables that can be used to express humidity, culminating in the most useful and powerful variables, including vapor pressure, relative humidity, specific humidity, wet-bulb temperature, dew point temperature...
Chapter
The Navier-Stokes equations presented in a previous chapter assumed no horizontal mean shear. However, coastal modelers should use a specialized, sophisticated form of these equations that take into account horizontal shear. Moreover, improved representations of friction are also included here, in the more complete Navier-Stokes equations. These im...
Chapter
In non-neutral stability conditions, adjustment—termed Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory—must be made to the logarithmic wind profile to account for the increased or decreased tendency for rising motion, because the turbulent eddies are anisotropic rather than isotropic. The diabatic wind profile is modeled by employing an adjustment factor to the ne...
Chapter
The culmination of the implications of the Ideal Gas Law, hydrostatic balance, and humidity leads naturally to an ability to describe the path of a hypothetical blob of air—called an air parcel—as it is forced to rise in the atmosphere. This tendency to rise is a measure of atmospheric stability. Stability is assessed by comparing the temperature o...
Chapter
The Coriolis effect (CE) is an important control on winds at the regional and broader spatial scales. It is an apparent force or tendency of deflection of objects in motion, including wind, such that in the Northern Hemisphere, it is to the right of the direction that the air is moving. In the Southern Hemisphere, the air is apparently being deflec...
Chapter
Sea and land breezes represent fundamental types of coastal mesoscale meteorological phenomena. They result from the uneven heating of land and sea, which induces mesoscale pressure and therefore circulation oscillations between day and night. The onshore sea breeze occurs by day, peaking in afternoon, and the offshore land breeze occurs nocturnall...
Chapter
Two processes generate precipitation: Either liquid water droplets collide and coalesce with each other until they grow too large to be supported by gravity, or liquid water in the cloud evaporates, which in turn deposits onto ice, allowing droplet growth as snow, in the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (aka: three-phase) process. In the three-phase proc...
Chapter
The change in wind velocity (u) with height (z) within the surface boundary layer (SBL) is an important factor for many applications. The nature of the function \( \overline{\mathrm{u}}=\mathrm{f}\left(\mathrm{z}\right) \) depends on several factors. Chief among these is the stability condition of the atmosphere, or, more precisely, the nature of t...
Chapter
In modeling boundary layer processes, it is convenient to derive a “correction factor” to account for the effects of roughness, especially if that correction factor is solely a function of known or easily measured quantities. That is the purpose of the drag coefficient (CD), which is derived in this chapter. Once known, CD can be used to calculate...
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), also referred to as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), has gained increasing popularity in terms of providing highly detailed micro-topography with millimetric measurement precision and accuracy. However, accurately depicting terrain under dense vegetation remains a challenge due to the blocking of si...
Article
Full-text available
Aimed at the explanation of clear tidal signal and storm surge signals in a closed inland lake near the coast (the Huguangyan Lake), this work uses a combined approach with observations and model experiments. Huguangyan Lake is a closed inland freshwater coneless volcanic crater lake near the coast in tropical southern China, less than 5 km from an...
Article
The measurements of tidal currents in the ocean can be done by instruments deployed in the ocean, or by a moving research vessel carrying a current meter. The latter has the advantage of resolution of spatial structures of the flow field both in the vertical and in the horizontal. In an archipelago region where the bathymetry and geomorphology in g...
Article
In order to estimate the spatially varying bottom friction coefficients (BFCs) in the Bohai, Yellow and East China Seas (BYECS), multi-mission satellite observations from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 are assimilated into a two-dimensional tidal model with an adjoint method. This work aims to: (1) study the characteristics of spatially varyin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Based on the high-resolution CTD data from 58 stations in the Bering Sea and the Chukchi Sea in the summer of 2019, the mixed layer depth (MLD) was obtained according to the density difference threshold method. It was verified that the MLD could be estimated more accurately by using a criterion of 0.125 kg/m3 in this region. The MLD in the Bering S...
Book
This is a textbook for non-atmospheric specialists who work in the coastal zone. Its purpose will be to help coastal environmental, engineering, and planning professionals to understand coastal atmospheric processes. This in turn will allow more effective communication with climate modelers, atmospheric environmental consultants, and members of the...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, subtidal responses of Barataria Bay to an atmospheric cold front in 2014 and Hurricane Barry of 2019 are studied. The cold fronts had shorter influencing periods (1 to 3 days), while Hurricane Barry had a much longer influencing period (about 1 week). Wind direction usually changes from southern quadrants to northern quadrants before...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric cold front-generated waves play an important role in the air–sea interaction and coastal water and sediment transports. In-situ observations from two offshore stations are used to investigate variations of directional waves in the coastal Louisiana. Hourly time series of significant wave height and peak wave period are examined for data...
Article
Full-text available
Influenced by weather, the estuaries and bays often exhibit recurring oscillations in flow and water level similar to astronomical tides. The weather impact however is less regular than tides and more difficult to predict. The spectrum of weather induced motions in estuaries and bays is mostly at the low-frequency end with time scales longer than t...
Article
Full-text available
Exchange flows between estuaries and the coastal ocean are important for land-ocean interactions and ecosystem health. This study is aimed at resolving severe weather-induced exchange flows between the Calcasieu Lake Estuary and Gulf of Mexico. For that purpose, we use data from a long-term deployment of side-looking acoustic Doppler current profil...
Article
Full-text available
A Finite Volume Community Ocean Model is used to investigate how wind impacts the circulation and evolution of a freshwater plume from Mississippi River diversion in the Lake Pontchartrain Estuary. Results show that northerly and southerly winds tend to stretch the plume in the east‐west directions, while easterly and westerly winds constrain the p...
Article
Two sessions were organized during the 2018 Fall AGU Meeting entitled, (1) Coastal Response to Extreme Events: Fidelity of Model Predictions of Surge, Inundation, and Morphodynamics and (2) Improved Observational and Modeling Skills to Understand the Hurricane and Winter Storm Induced Surge and Meteotsunami. The focus of these sessions was on exami...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean-atmospheric dynamical processes influence the wave characteristics, and sea surface temperature (SST). The processes that affect SST in the ocean area included surface heat fluxes, wind, and precipitation. In this study, we analyzed the wave data in response to the cold front passages over Louisiana continental shelf. The data examined in thi...
Article
The wave characteristics and wave–current interaction in the six tidal inlets connecting the Barataria Basin and the northern Gulf of Mexico are investigated during spring–summer time period when both cold front passage and persistent southeast wind events exist. A fully-coupled unstructured-grid, three-dimensional, FVCOM-SWAVE model is employed an...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of hurricane forward speed (V) and approach angle (θ) on storm surge are important and a systematic investigation covering possible and continuous ranges of these parameters has not been done before. Here we present such a study with a numerical experiment using the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The hurricane track is sim...
Article
Sediment transport over Sandy Point dredge pit in the northern Gulf of Mexico during a cold front event in November 2014 was examined using a finely resolved numerical model. The Delft3D model was used to perform numerical experiments that simulate the effect of wind-generated waves, wind-driven currents, river discharge, and tides on sediment dyna...
Article
Full-text available
Estuarine processes in the arctic lagoons are among the least studied but important subjects, especially considering the rapid warming of arctic water which may change the length of ice-free period in the summer. In this paper, wind-driven exchange flows in the micro-tidal Elson Lagoon of northern Alaska with multiple inlets of contrasting widths a...
Article
Atmospheric cold fronts provide recurring forcing for circulations and long-term transport in estuaries with microtides. Multiple horizontal ADCPs were used to obtain time series data from three inlets in Barataria Bay. The data cover a period of 51 atmospheric cold fronts between 2013 and 2015. The weather and subtidal ocean response are highly co...
Article
Full-text available
Using a three-dimensional, hydrostatic, primitive-equation ocean model, this study investigates the dynamics of lateral circulation in a partially stratified tidal inlet, the Barataria Pass in the Gulf of Mexico, over a 25.6 h diurnal tidal cycle. Model performance is assessed against observational data. During flood tide, the lateral circulation e...
Article
Lake Pontchartrain is a brackish estuary and restricted lagoon in the microtidal northern Gulf of Mexico. Using a validated Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM), we study the flow regimes and wind-driven adjustment of circulation in this system. It is found that tidal currents are only significant in the eastern end near the open boundary. L...
Article
The generation of high-resolution data is increasingly important in understanding the complexities of coastal ocean and developing sound management strategies, especially in view of the long-term impact of severe weather systems. The impact of severe weather systems, when integrated over time, can be significant when compared with tidal oscillation...
Preprint
Using a three-dimensional, hydrostatic, primitive-equation ocean model, this study investigates the dynamics of lateral circulation in a partially stratified tidal inlet, the Barataria Pass in the Gulf of Mexico, over a 25.6-hour diurnal tidal cycle. Model performance is assessed against observational data. During flood tide, the lateral circulatio...
Article
A complex archipelago exhibits high velocity shear, strong advection, and significant nonlinearity for tides, overtides, tidal currents, and subtidal hydrodynamics. Here, a high-resolution regional ocean modeling system with two-way nesting is applied to the coastal Zhoushan Archipelago in the East China Sea. After validation for the M2, S2, K1, an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using a three-dimensional, hydrostatic, primitive-equation ocean model, this study investigates the dynamics of lateral circulation in a partially stratified tidal inlet, the Barataria Pass in the Gulf of Mexico, over a 25.6-hour diurnal tidal cycle. Model performance is assessed against observational data. During flood tide, the lateral circulatio...