Christos Makropoulos

Christos Makropoulos
National Technical University of Athens | NTUA · School of Civil Engineering

MEng, MSc, DIC, PhD

About

215
Publications
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4,371
Citations

Publications

Publications (215)
Article
Full-text available
Improving the public's awareness of and engagement with sustainable practices is essential for transitioning from a linear to a circular economy (CE). This task is not trivial; however, research into new ways of effectively supporting awareness and engagement, especially in view of digitalization trends, is still missing. In this study, we investig...
Article
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We propose a novel probabilistic approach to flood hazard assessment, aiming to address the major shortcomings of everyday deterministic engineering practices in a computationally efficient manner. In this context, the principal sources of uncertainty are defined across the overall modeling procedure, namely, the statistical uncertainty of inferrin...
Article
Full-text available
Sensors used for wastewater flow measurements need to be robust and are, consequently, expensive pieces of hardware that must be maintained regularly to function correctly in the hazardous environment of sewers. Remote sensing can remedy these issues, as the lack of direct contact between sensor and sewage reduces the hardware demands and need for...
Article
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Optimizing the design and operation of an Urban Water System (UWS) faces significant challenges over its lifespan to account for the uncertainties of important stressors that arise from population growth rates, climate change factors, or shifting demand patterns. The analysis of a UWS’s performance across interdependent subsystems benefits from a m...
Article
A participatory modelling approach is presented for effective groundwater management at the Mediterranean coastal plain of Marathon, Greece. The main objective was to identify groundwater problems in the area and to propose a viable groundwater management plan. Detailed investigation, using scientific literature and field work in the area, was cond...
Article
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Establishing cooperation in transboundary rivers is challenging especially with the weak or non-existent river basin institutions. A nexus-based approach is developed to explore cooperation opportunities in transboundary river basins while considering system operation and coordination under uncertain hydrologic river regimes. The proposed approach...
Article
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The challenging task of generating a synthetic time series at finer temporal scales than the observed data, embeds the reconstruction of a number of essential statistical quantities at the desirable (i.e., lower) scale of interest. This paper introduces a parsimonious and general framework for the downscaling of statistical quantities based solely...
Article
Groundwater management of coastal aquifers is a scientific and engineering challenge, as coastal aquifer systems are hydrogeologic features that are hydraulically connected with the sea while at the same time are stressed with extensive abstraction practices for irrigation. To remedy this, Managed Aquifer Recharge -MAR- is proved to be a sound and...
Article
The interplay between cyber and physical elements of water systems and the corresponding security challenges are fast becoming a key topic for the water sector. Of special concern is the absence of simulation tools for deliberate contamination attacks on water distribution networks (WDNs), in conjunction with cyber attacks on the contamination warn...
Article
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Water reuse and recycling is gaining momentum as a way to improve the circularity of cities, while recognizing the central role of water within a circular economy (CE) context. However, such interventions often depend on the location of wastewater treatment plants and the treatment technologies installed in their premises, while relying on an expen...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to analyze different human behavioral components and the data collected from several households regarding their water consumption to fathom public demeanor better and underscore the need for efficacious governmental strategies. To investigate this phenomenon, we mapped the human behavioral components with a view to eva...
Article
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Prompt detection of cyber–physical attacks (CPAs) on a water distribution system (WDS) is critical to avoid irreversible damage to the network infrastructure and disruption of water services. However, the complex interdependencies of the water network’s components make CPA detection challenging. To better capture the spatiotemporal dimensions of th...
Conference Paper
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Our modern urban environment relies on critical infrastructures that serve vital societal functions, such as water supply and sanitation, which are exposed to various threats of both physical and cyber nature. Despite the progress in protection and increased vigilance, long-established practices within the water utilities may rely on precarious met...
Conference Paper
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The performance of the compact sewer mining unit that is located in the EYDAP ‘s Research and Development Premises is discussed in this paper along with the prospect of this technology application to produce reclaimed water suitable for urban irrigation and fertilisers in remarkable recreation Athenian areas. A new pilot that applies this technolog...
Article
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Water distribution networks (WDNs) are critical infrastructure for the welfare of society. Due to their spatial extent and difficulties in deployment of security measures, they are vulnerable to threat scenarios that include the rising concern of cyber-physical attacks. To protect WDNs against different kinds of water contamination, it is customary...
Article
This work proposes a modeling framework to quantify the effects of deliberate organic contamination events on water distribution systems. A bacterial regrowth model and a first parallel chlorine decay model were combined to describe the biochemical water species kinetics during a deliberate contaminant injection consisting of organic (TOC) and bact...
Chapter
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Critical infrastructures of the water sector are currently undergoing a digital transformation of their assets, operations and services. The tight integration of new ICT technologies for monitoring and control with the physical processes of the water sector creates a complex cyber-physical system. Efficiency and automation advantages notwithstandin...
Article
Achieving a water, food, and energy (WFE) nexus balance through policy interventions is challenging in a transboundary river basin because of the dynamic nature and intersectoral complexity that may cross borders. The Nile basin is shared by a number of riparian countries and is currently experiencing rapid population and economic growth. This has...
Article
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The presented study aims at the development of an approach, which will enable selection of optimal measures for mitigation of water stress. The approach is based on two software pillars – Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) and MatLab, which are applied in combination. The approach has three main steps: 1) modeling of the river basin with W...
Article
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The Athens Water in the Circular Economy demo case examines all three of the following as associated with Circular Economy (CE) in wastewater streams: water, energy and materials. The application area is the Athens Urban Tree Nursery, which is located in the center of Athens, in order to address real world problems in water-scarce cities. The Athen...
Article
Achieving a water, food, and energy (WFE) nexus balance through policy interventions is challenging in a transboundary river basin because of the dynamic nature and intersectoral complexity that may cross borders. The Nile basin is shared by a number of riparian countries and is currently experiencing rapid population and economic growth. This has...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a failure quantification methodology to assess the impact of cyber-physical attacks (CPAs) on critical water infrastructures, such as water distribution networks, by mapping simulation-derived data onto metrics. The approach sets out a three-step profiling architecture to interpret the consequences of failures resulting from CPA...
Article
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The concept of Circular Economy, although not entirely new, has in recent years gained traction due to growing concern with regards to the Earth’s natural reserves. In this context, Sewer Mining, a wastewater management method based on extracting wastewater from local sewers for reuse applications, presents an interesting option that lies in the in...
Article
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Stochastic simulation has a prominent position in a variety of scientific domains including those of environmental and water resources sciences. This is due to the numerous applications that can benefit from it, such as risk-related studies. In such domains, stochastic models are typically used to generate synthetic weather data with the desired pr...
Article
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The water sector is facing emerging challenges, as cyber-physical threats target Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems of water utilities. A cyber-physical stress-testing platform is presented in this work, named RISKNOUGHT, which is able to model water distribution networks as cyber-physical systems, simulating the information f...
Conference Paper
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Over the last 30 years, numerous water resources planning and management studies in Greece have been conducted by using state-of-the-art methodologies and associated computational tools that have been developed by the Itia research team at the National Technical University of Athens. The spearhead of Itia’s research toolkit has been the Hydronomeas...
Conference Paper
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Emergent threats in the water sector have the form of cyber-physical attacks that target SCADA systems of water utilities. Examples of attacks include chemical/biological contamination, disruption of communications between network elements and manipulating sensor data. RISKNOUGHT is an innovative cyber-physical stress testing platform, capable of m...
Article
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Integrated urban water management calls for tools that can analyze and simulate the complete cycle including the physical, technical, and social dimensions. Scientific advances created simulation tools able to simulate the urban water cycle as realistically as possible. However, even these tools cannot effectively simulate the social component and...
Article
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Hydroinformatics, as an interdisciplinary domain that blurs boundaries between water science, data science and computer science, is constantly evolving and reinventing itself. At the heart of this evolution, lies a continuous process of critical (self) appraisal of the discipline’s past, present and potential for further evolution, that creates a p...
Article
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Centralized urban water management currently faces multiple challenges, both at the supply side and the demand side. These challenges underpin the need to progress to the decentralization of urban water, where multiple distributed technologies (water-aware appliances, rainwater harvesting, greywater recycling, sustainable urban drainage) are applie...
Article
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The generation of hydrometeorological time series that exhibit a given probabilistic and stochastic behavior across multiple temporal levels, traditionally expressed in terms of specific statistical characteristics of the observed data, is a crucial task for risk-based water resources studies, and simultaneously a puzzle for the community of stocha...
Article
Full-text available
Uncertainty-aware design and management of urban water systems lies on the generation of synthetic series that precisely reproduce the distributional and dependence properties of residential water demand process (i.e., significant deviation from Gaussianity, intermittent behaviour, high spatial and temporal variability and a variety of dependence s...
Article
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The water sector is, currently and for the foreseeable future, challenged by rising levels of uncertainty in demand and availability of water, in a context of aging infrastructure and limited investment. In order to support strategic planning, water companies need a way to assess how their system behaves when faced with a range of changing conditio...
Article
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Hydrometeorological processes are typically characterized by temporal dependence, short- or long-range (e.g., Hurst behavior), as well as by non-Gaussian distributions (especially at fine time scales). The generation of long synthetic time series that resembles the marginal and joint properties of the observed ones is a prerequisite in many uncerta...
Article
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Residential water demand consists one of the most uncertain factors posing extra difficulties in the efficient planning and management of urban water systems. Currently, high resolution data from smart meters provide the means for a better understanding and modelling of this variable at a household level and fine temporal scales. Having this in min...
Article
Increasingly, military installations are becoming part of the ongoing discussion on environmental sustainability. Military installations, and camps in particular, often resemble small towns in terms of inhabitants and demand for resources, but are significantly different from civilian settings in terms of autonomy needs, resource management, popula...
Article
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Un-managed surface and groundwater exploitation in coastal areas usually leads to deterioration of such sensitive ecosystems by means of water resources degradation and/or increased salinity. The coastal partof Marathon is a typical Mediterranean hydro-environment that hosts a naturally occurring coastal wetland linked to a typical coastal and toda...
Article
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This paper introduces a methodological approach for identifying the resilience of interconnected EU critical infrastructures to climate change. The proposed approach tries to establish a consequence-based modelling framework for assessing climate-dependent causal relationships between CI operation and response to climate impacts with an aim to mini...
Article
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Advanced metering technologies coupled with informatics creates an opportunity to form digital multi-utility service providers. These providers will be able to concurrently collect a customers’ medium-high resolution water, electricity and gas demand data and provide user-friendly platforms to feed this information back to customers and supply/dist...
Conference Paper
The alarming rate of urbanization poses immediate problems to water resources management, mainly, but not limited to water supply, flood risk management, wastewater treatment and water quality control. Ideally, strategic planning of water systems should be fully aware of the prospects of future urban growth in order to maintain high reliability of...
Article
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Since the prime days of stochastic hydrology back in 1960s, autoregressive (AR) and moving average (MA) models (as well as their extensions) have been widely used to simulate hydrometeorological processes. Initially, AR(1) or Markovian models with Gaussian noise prevailed due to their conceptual and mathematical simplicity. However, the ubiquitous...
Article
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Infrastructure planning for Urban Water Systems (UWSs) is challenged by, inter alia, increasing uncertainty in both demand and availability of water and aging infrastructure, and this is already impacting the climate-proofing of cities. In this context, the idea of resilience has been gradually embraced by the water sector, but the term itself is n...
Article
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Although it is now widely acknowledged that urban water systems (UWSs) are complex socio-technical systems and that a shift towards a socio-technical approach is critical in achieving sustainable urban water management, still, more often than not, UWSs are designed using a segmented modelling approach. As such, either the analysis focuses on the de...
Poster
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In contrast to great advances on stochastic simulation techniques in hydrology and their importance on water management and uncertainty assessment studies, operational software packages for generating synthetic data are limited and hardly accessible. This limits their adoption to a narrow audience, excluding the vast majority of researchers and pra...
Article
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Pressures on water resources, which have increased significantly nowadays mainly due to rapid urbanization, population growth and climate change impacts, necessitate the development of innovative wastewater treatment and reuse technologies. In this context, a mid-scale decentralized technology concerning wastewater reuse is that of sewer mining. It...
Article
A small footprint wastewater treatment plant that consists of a membrane bioreactor coupled with a reverse osmosis unit (MBR-RO) has been placed and set in operation for 24 months in the R&D department of the Athens Water Supply and Sewage Company (EYDAP) in order to evaluate the quality of the treated effluent and to explore the feasibility of reu...
Article
Full-text available
Stochastic models in hydrology traditionally aim at reproducing the empirically-derived statistical characteristics of the observed data rather than any specific distribution model that attempts to describe the usually non-normal, statistical behavior of the associated processes. SPARTA (Stochastic Periodic AutoRegressive To Anything) offers an alt...
Article
Rapid urbanization affecting demand patterns, coupled with potential water shortages due to supply side impacts of climatic changes, has led to the emergence of new technologies for water and wastewater reuse. Sewer mining (SM) is a novel decentralized option that could potentially provide non-potable water for urban uses, including for example the...
Presentation
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Research on natural resource availability has shifted significantly towards more integrated concepts; with natural capital comprising the dominant one, incorporating all forms of utilizable natural resources. In our work we primarily introduce the concept of water capital as a pivotal form of natural capital with multiple benefits to ecosystem serv...
Article
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Storm events lead to sudden and drastic impacts on coastal areas, causing serious damages, flooding and severe coastal erosion. These extreme weather conditions seriously affect the nearshore system by reshaping the shoreline and moving large amounts of sand cross-shore. For the assessment of the consequences of such extreme storm events, an interd...
Conference Paper
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Stochastic simulation of hydrological processes has a key role in water resources planning and management due to its ability to incorporate hydrological uncertainty within decision-making. Due to seasonality, the statistical characteristics of such processes are considered periodic functions, thus implying the use of cyclo-stationary stochastic mod...
Article
Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation....
Article
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Coastal urban areas, shorelines, ports and coastal structures are being increasingly threatened by violent hydro-meteorological phenomena such as storms, especially nowadays due to climate change and the climate variability. An extended analysis of storm events in Rethymno city of Crete Island, is attempted, under the frames of PEARL (Preparing for...
Book
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How do we manage water in cities? Where does our drinking water come from? Where does our waste water go? How much water do we consume? Is our life-style affecting our water? This first overview of Urban Water Management in Europe explains and illustrates water in an unprecedented way, reflecting how water flows through the arteries of our cities....
Article
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A compact membrane bioreactor and reverse osmosis (MBR–RO) system was installed and set in operation in KEREFYT, EYDAP, in order to assess the potential reuse applications of the reclaimed water. Practicing the sewer mining (SM) approach, the feed of the unit was directly drained from the sewage network. Monitoring of system’s performance was perfo...
Article
To reduce the impact of urban effluents on the environment, strict regulatory requirements have been set up for the disposal of wastewater, in most parts of the western world, requiring treatment before disposal. At the same time, the urban environment requires water inflows to satisfy a range of urban water demands, and the corresponding water abs...