Christos A. Damalas

Christos A. Damalas
Democritus University of Thrace | DUTH · Department of Agricultural Development

PhD

About

154
Publications
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Publications

Publications (154)
Article
Background: Herbicides are the major method of weed control in most conventional cropping systems, but what affects farmers' intention to use herbicides has not been studied extensively. This study examined herbicide use among cereal farmers of northern Greece and tested for the first time whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) can explain f...
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White lupine (Lupinus albus L.) is an annual legume that is grown for both seeds and green biomass, but several agronomic aspects of this crop, including response to weed competition, have not been studied extensively. Field experiments over two growing seasons (2012 and 2016) were carried out in Orestiada, Greece, to study the growth and developme...
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Point source pollution by pesticide use poses serious challenges for soil and water quality, especially in developing countries, where heavy pesticide use is often noted. However, data on farmers’ practices of waste disposal and factors affecting actual behavior are scarce. The current study dealt with farmers’ practices and safety behavior in prop...
Article
Field and pot experiments were conducted in Greece to study the occurrence of resistance in silky windgrass to acetolactate synthase (ALS)- and acetyl-CoA synthase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides. Twenty-four populations of silky windgrass were examined in whole-plant response experiments. High levels of field-evolved resistance to chlorsulfuron (0...
Article
In the current review, peer-reviewed publications from the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases concerning the impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on sunflower growth in stressful environments were analyzed. Nine studies reported that SA application improved sunflower growth under salinity stress by enhancing K+ uptake and depress...
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Nickel (Ni) element is strongly phytotoxic at high concentrations for several plants, but due to its dual behavior and complicated chemistry, it has received little attention in plant nutrition and relevant experimental data are limited. The current research was carried out to study the effect of Ni on maize (Zea mays L.) growth and phytoextraction...
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Agroforestry systems have been practiced for hundreds of years with multiple benefits both environmentally and economically in terms of productivity. Olive cultivation is widespread in the countries of the Mediterranean basin, including Greece. Agroforestry practices are common in olive groves, but little research has been conducted on the producti...
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High toxicity of dimethoate requires efficient ways for detoxification and removal of its residues in contaminated environments. Microbial remediation is a process that utilizes the degradation potential of microbes to provide a cost-effective and reliable approach for pesticide abatement. For this purpose, a dimethoate-degrading bacterium Brucella...
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Intention for safe pesticide use plays a crucial role in the mode of pesticide spraying, but several factors are involved in the formation of intention by farmers. This work focused on the levels of farmers’ perception of pesticide risks (i.e., toxicity levels, health, and environmental effects) and utilization of information sources and examined t...
Article
In rainfed cropping systems, crops are typically subjected to terminal stresses, which diminish the assimilation process. Information regarding safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) dry matter dynamics during the seed-filling period and its association with yield-forming components is lacking. Field experiments over two years were conducted to assess...
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Precise knowledge of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) nitrogen (N) dynamics is essential to optimize crop nutrition and minimize environmental impacts of fertilizers. Two-year field experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of N rates (0, 100 and 200 kg ha⁻¹) and genotype (hybrids vs. open pollinated variety) on N uptake, distribution...
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Public acceptance of treated sewage (TS) reuse in agriculture is a key element in successful implementation of TS reuse projects, but relevant research on the topic is limited. This study examined public willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) for agricultural products derived by irrigation with TS in Lorestan province, Iran, apply...
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Numerous studies have examined how farmers are involved and behave in the use of pesticides, but what drives farmers’ intention to diminish pesticide applications is mostly unknown. This study explored farmers’ intention to minimize pesticide use, through the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and an adjusted form of the TPB, with perceived risk of l...
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Farmers’ health and the environment are prime priorities for any agrarian economy. In India, almost 90% of the pesticides are used in rice, cotton, and vegetables. Nevertheless, factors associated with farmers’ behavior in pesticide use are lacking. This study assessed Indian rice farmers’ intention to use pesticides, by applying a modified version...
Article
BACKGROUND Labels are the first source of information for the safe use of pesticides, but farmers rarely read labels before pesticide use. Using data from a sample of 300 orchard farmers in Meshginshar County, Iran, this study examined farmers’ intention and behavior in reading and using risk information displayed on pesticide labels, using the the...
Chapter
Salicylic acid (SA) is a multifaceted plant growth modulator that is reported to engage in plant reaction to stresses. Drought is a common environmental constraint of crop growth, influencing global agricultural productivity. Foliar applications of SA have been recorded to improve growth under drought stress in major crops such as cereals (wheat, b...
Book
Phytohormones are known to affect the growth and development of plant directly as well as indirectly. Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic phytohormone which induces systemic resistance in plants and also regulates defence responses. The derivatives of SA also play an important role in the regulation of various physiological and developmental processe...
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Good knowledge of crop response to biosolids is necessary for optimizing their use as soil amendments. The present 2-yr study evaluated the impact of soil application of municipal sewage sludge on growth, dry matter translocation, achene and oil yield as well as on achene Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn content of field-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) und...
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Bacterial species in the plant-beneficial-environmental branch of Alcaligenes characterize an important part of rhizosphere microbes. The effects of plant growth-promoting Alcaligenes sp. AZ9 (accession #KU494828) on soil status and maize (Zea mays L.) performance were evaluated in single or combined applications with soil amendments, such as bioch...
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The treatment of wastewater and its reuse for crop irrigation is one of the solutions for efficient management of the available water, but the acceptance of this type of recycled water by farmers and their willingness to use and pay for it has not been well documented, especially in Iran. Using the Contingent Valuation Method and a binary probit mo...
Article
Inappropriate handling of pesticides in agriculture poses a major risk to the environment and human health, but factors affecting farmers' behavior are diverse and often unclear. The present study examined farmers' behavior in safe pesticide use (disposal of spray solution leftovers, places for washing sprayers, disposal of rinsates, and use of per...
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Knowledge of weed control practices and farmers’ awareness of herbicide resistance could be a basis for improving weed management programs with respect to herbicide resistance, but research on this topic is limited. This study reports current weed control practices and levels of awareness of herbicide resistance among cereal farmers of northern Gre...
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Indiscriminate harvest of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) from their natural habitats affects availability and endangers existence of these plants. Therefore, approaches for promoting cultivation must be sought for the maintenance of these plants and the improvement of livelihood in local communities. Understanding factors affecting cultivatio...
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A better understanding of crop and soil response to biosolids is necessary for optimizing their use as soil amendments. The present study examined the influence of sewage sludge application on N accumulation, partitioning, translocation, and N use in sunflower and on soil properties compared with mineral fertilizers. Treatments included the applica...
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European borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a cultivated medicinal plant in Iran, but common agronomic practices about profitable cultivation are mostly unknown. A 2-yr field experiment (2013 and 2014) was conducted in Guilan Province of northern Iran to evaluate European borage yield and profitability under irrigation with surface and drip irrigati...
Chapter
Botanical pesticides or biopesticides are considered desirable alternatives to conventional chemical pesticides in agriculture owing to their friendly profile for human health and the environment. Therefore, they soon became a hot topic of scientific research for safe food production through eco‐friendly pest control. Despite their advantages as to...
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Sowing time and cultivar choice have major effects on chickpea yield in the Mediterranean climate, but the effects on nutrient requirements are not well known. Information regarding nutrient requirements and utilization efficiency by crop species is necessary to optimize nutrient management in agricultural systems. Α two-year field study was conduc...
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Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), a perennial crop of the family Asteraceae, is one of the most important sources of non-caloric natural sweeteners, but research on the impact of salinity on root parameters and steviol glycoside content is limited or does not exist. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of exogenous application of...
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The use of plant growth regulator mepiquat chloride (MPC) has been a widespread practice for the control of vegetative growth in cotton production for several decades. As a growth retardant, MPC could potentially provide a means of controlling plant height in field sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), but this possibility has not been studied. Field e...
Article
Organic agriculture has received attention in Iran because of the environmental problems that have resulted from the overuse of chemicals in agriculture, but despite the many benefits, the adoption rate of organic farming is still low. This study used an expert consensus Delphi technique in three rounds to identify drivers and barriers for organic...
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Several agronomic innovations and precision technologies have been developed and disseminated in rice cultivation, but adoption is often lagged, particularly in developing countries. The objective of this work was to collect information on the use of improved rice cultivars and factors affecting adoption through a farmers’ survey in Guilan Province...
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Seed priming has been used to advance germination and stand in several crops, but relevant research on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is scarce. Laboratory and field trials were carried out for two years to study the effect of hydro-priming on faba bean germination and field performance in spring sowing. In laboratory trials, the effects of hydro-primin...
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A common problem with vegetable production in saline areas is poor crop stand, but for black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) germination data are limited and inconsistent. The effects of chemical priming with Urmia lake salt and urea solutions for 16 h at 30 °C on seed germination and seedling growth of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) were studied under...
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Numerous studies have been carried out on pesticide handling practices in agriculture, but drivers of farmers' intentions to use pesticides are not well documented. The main purpose of this study was to explore farmers' intention to use pesticides in agriculture, based on an expanded version of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), with knowledge a...
Article
Integrated crop management (ICM) is a crop production system which conserves or even strengthens natural resources, taking into account potential interactions between biology, environment, and land management systems. However, little is known about what drives adoption of ICM among farmers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intention and...
Article
Field experiments were carried out in Urmia, Iran to study the effect of biofertilizer application [i.e., nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria (Azotobacter) and mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices)] on quantitative and qualitative traits of lentil under rainfed and irrigated conditions. The effects of Azotobacter, mycorrhizal fungi, and mycorrhizal fun...
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Insect physiology is affected by the presence of toxins in the surrounding environment of insects as well as their food sources. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heavy metal exposure to two low concentrations (50 μg/g and 150 μg/g) of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) through artificial diet to the larvae on biological parameters of...
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Women are the main cotton pickers in Pakistan even from their childhood, but due to unawareness of pesticide risks and poor knowledge of personal protection opportunities, they typically do not use personal protective measures. Albeit a major agricultural topic in Pakistan, relevant research is limited. The present study illustrates health problems...
Article
The accumulation of trace elements in wastewater-irrigated soils may introduce them to the food chain and therefore can threaten human health. The present study investigated the accumulation, translocation factor, and health risk potential of cadmium (Cd) in a soil-wheat system irrigated with treated wastewater compared with a reference soil (irrig...
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Integrated pest management (IPM) has been promoted as an environmentally friendly pest control approach, but its adoption by farmers, particularly in developing countries, is low. The main purpose of the current study was to examine factors affecting the intention of farmers to use IPM practices in Iran. The research model was developed using the T...
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Improving soil microbial activity and using microbial synergistic relations, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), are of major importance for plant growth in contaminated soils with heavy metals. In this study, growth of Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L.) inoculated with either AMF or PGPR...
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The main objective of the present study was to explore preferences and eumotion perceptions of people in Rasht and Ardabil (Iran) to some ornamental plants in order to help designing appropriate urban green landscapes. The study surveyed urban park users in the two cities in 2017 to identify and compare the most important factors underpinning the v...
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Farmers’ knowledge of pesticide use as well as their attitudes and perceptions concerning risks and safety play a crucial role in safe spraying operations in farms, but little is known for the inter-relationships among these variables and their impact on safety behavior. This study examined the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of pes...
Article
Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is sensitive to drought stress and, therefore, finding ways to improve plant tolerance to this stress is very useful for sweet basil production. In this study, the role of foliar spray of salicylic acid (SA) at 200 ppm in sweet basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.) growth under water deficit was studied. Water shortage c...
Article
Whole-plant response experiments in pots and field experiments over two years were conducted to study the resistance levels and chemical control options of sterile oat (Avena sterilis L.) in typical wheat production areas of northern Greece. Data revealed high levels of resistance to the ACCase-inhibiting herbicides clodinafop-propargyl and fenoxap...
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Agriculture is a hazardous occupational industry for farmers and farm workers; therefore, decisions to improve safety in the working place require understanding behavior of farmers and farm workers and factors affecting it. This study examined factors influencing perceived importance of personal safety and safe behavior of farmers in terms of perso...
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Rice husk is a major waste of paddy rice cultivation, produced in very high quantities, with no specific applications in the past. However, considering physical and chemical properties of this material, the use of rice husk could be of major economic and environmental significance depending on possible utilization options. Therefore, finding sustai...
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Cadmium (Cd) soil contamination poses a major hazard to safe food production throughout the world, calling upon actions for decontamination using environmentally friendly methods, such as phytoextraction. In this study, the capability of chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.) for phytoextracting Cd from contaminated soils was tested. Growth of chive was s...
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Knowledge of the level of resistance of weed populations and the herbicides to which they survive is important for recommending suitable advice to farmers and allowing the selection of appropriate management strategies. Whole-plant dose response experiments were carried out to assess the resistance status of eight putative resistant Galium spurium...
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Unsafe disposal of pesticide waste at farms has serious consequences on the environment and public health. Investigation of disposal behavior of farmers towards pesticide waste after use helps to identify and improve their behavior. This study aimed to investigate how farmers dispose of pesticide waste and factors influencing their behavior. A samp...
Article
Growth, yield components, and N utilization patterns of spring chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars were investigated for 2 years under Mediterranean conditions, and the associations with seed yield were identified. Three desi-type cultivars (Andros, Kassos, and Serifos) and one kabuli-type cultivar (Zehavit-27) were assessed under March and Apr...
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Optimizing diquat efficacy with the use of adjuvants may broaden the spectrum of weed control, but relevant research towards this direction is limited. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of diquat applied alone and with six commercial adjuvants (surfactants and oil-based adjuvants) on various weed species. Diquat...
Article
A field experiment was conducted in Lahijan, Iran to determine the environmental impact of four corn (Zea mays L.) genotypes production under three nitrogen (N) fertilizer application rates using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Treatments consisted of three N levels (300, 400, and 500 kg ha⁻¹ of urea) and four corn genotypes (KSC 647,...
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Biomonitoring of people exposed to hazardous materials provides opportunities for early identification of several diseases, particularly in those individuals who are constantly exposed to pesticides, such as pesticide operators and workers in pesticide manufacturing industry. However, data on this hot topic are limited in Pakistan. In this study, i...
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Irrigation with raw or diluted wastewater increases in many developing countries, but the increasing availability and use of wastewater generates challenges for public agencies charged with minimizing potential impacts on public health and the environment. In this study, the available (DTPA-extractable) concentration of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni in th...
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The effect of azolla (Azolla filiculoides) compost application on the mitigation of the effect of water deficit stress on rice (Oryza sativa L.; cv. Hashemi) growth and yield was studied for two growing seasons. Azolla compost was applied in the soil at the rates: 0% (control), 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% of soil weight (w/w) and the effect on rice growth...
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Trace elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in root and leaf tissues of the gray mangrove (Avicennia marina) and in corresponding sediment samples were studied. Samples were taken from the inflow/outflow points in two distinct habitats, i.e., the Hara Protected Area and the Azini Bay, of Hormozgan Province in south Iran. Heavy metal concentrations (μg g-1...
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Safety behaviors in pesticide use are considered the most important determinants of the adverse health effects among farmers. In addition, the risk of pesticide exposure is strongly associated with farmers’ behavior when working with pesticides. However, there is limited understanding of farmers’ safety behavior and its determinants, particularly i...
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The impact of land-use change on parameters of the soil was evaluated in soil samples from arable land, orchard land, and grassland in West Azerbaijan, Iran, compared with their adjacent natural forestland, using some biological indices. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC); microbial basal respiration (BR); metabolic quotient (qCO2); substrate induced r...
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Chemical pesticides are an integral part of modern agriculture that may have serious side effects on human health and the environment. Assessing contribution of pesticides to potential environmental problems requires studies on eco-toxicological aspects of the pesticide products as well studies on the behavioural variable of the pesticide applicato...
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While essential to food production, nitrogen (N) fertilizers in agricultural ecosystems are also important sources of environmental pollution nationally and globally. The environmental impact of three N fertilization levels (30, 60, and 90 kg ha⁻¹) plus a non-N control (0 kg ha⁻¹) in growing three rice cultivars (cv. Hashemi, cv. Alikazemi, and cv....
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The phenological stages, dry matter allocation and relative growth rate (RGR) of natural populations of European field pansy (Viola arvensis) were studied under field conditions for 3 years. The species exhibited an annual life cycle of 78–100 calendar days, depending on the growing season. The life cycle was initiated in early spring and ended by...
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Understanding farmers’ decision process on the adoption of biological control (BC) may help in promoting adoption. This study explored for the first time the impact of marketing mix elements (product, price, promotion, and place) on bolstering BC for the management of rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker) among rice farmers in Fuman County in...